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ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
Abraham Ortelius (also Ortels, Orthellius, Wortels; 14 April 1527 – 28 June 1598) was a Brabantian cartographer and geographer, conventionally recognized as the creator of the first modern atlas, the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theatre of the World).
An academic library is a library that is attached to a higher education institution which serves two complementary purposes to support the school's curriculum, and to support the research of the university faculty and students.
Ukraine is divided into several levels of territorial entities.
An aerodrome (Commonwealth English) or airdrome (American English) is a location from which aircraft flight operations take place, regardless of whether they involve air cargo, passengers, or neither.
Aeros is a Ukrainian aircraft manufacturer founded by a group of ex-Antonov engineers in the early 1990s to build hang gliders.
Aesculus hippocastanum is a species of flowering plant in the soapberry and lychee family Sapindaceae.
Alexander Markowich Ostrowski (Олександр Маркович Островський; Алекса́ндр Ма́ркович Остро́вский; 25 September 1893, in Kiev, Russian Empire – 20 November 1986, in Montagnola, Lugano, Switzerland) was a mathematician.
Alexander Nikolayevich Vertinsky (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Верти́нский, 21 March 1889 in Kiev — 21 May 1957 in Leningrad, Aleksander Wertyński) was a Russian and Soviet artist, poet, singer, composer, cabaret artist and actor of Ukrainian origin who exerted seminal influence on the Russian tradition of artistic singing.
Algirdas (Альгерд, Ольгерд, Olgierd; – May 1377) was a ruler of medieval Lithuania.
Anna Serhiivna Layevska (Ганна Сергіївна Лаєвська) (born January 10, 1982), known as Ana Layevska, is a Ukrainian-Mexican actress and singer.
André Nicolaevitch Grabar (July 26, 1896 – October 3, 1990) was an historian of Romanesque art and the art of the Eastern Roman Empire and the Bulgarian Empire.
Andreas Umland (born 1967 in Jena, Germany) is a German political scientist, historian and Russian interpreter, specializing in contemporary Russian and Ukrainian history.
Andrew the Apostle (Ἀνδρέας; ⲁⲛⲇⲣⲉⲁⲥ, Andreas; from the early 1st century BC – mid to late 1st century AD), also known as Saint Andrew and referred to in the Orthodox tradition as the First-Called (Πρωτόκλητος, Prōtoklētos), was a Christian Apostle and the brother of Saint Peter.
Andrei I Yuryevich, commonly known under his sobriquet Andrei the Pious (Андрей Боголюбский) (c. 1111 – June 28, 1174), was Grand prince of Vladimir-Suzdal from 1157 till his death.
Andriy Yevhenovych Biletsky (Андрій Євгенович Білецький; born 5 August 1979) is a Ukrainian Member of Parliament, Lieutenant Colonel of police, former political prisoner and university instructor.
Andriy Mykolayovych Shevchenko (Андрій Миколайович Шевченко,; born 29 September 1976) is a politician, football manager and retired Ukrainian footballer who played for Dynamo Kyiv, Milan, Chelsea and the Ukraine national team as a striker.
Andriyivskyy Descent (Андріївський узвіз, Andriyivs’kyi uzviz, literally: Andrew's Descent) is a historic descent connecting Kiev's Upper Town neighborhood and the historically commercial Podil neighborhood.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Antonov State Company (Державне підприємство "Антонов"), formerly the Aeronautical Scientific-Technical Complex named Antonov (Antonov ASTC) (Авіаційний науково-технічний комплекс імені Антонова, (АНТК ім. Антонова)), and earlier the Antonov Design Bureau, is a Soviet, and later a Ukrainian aircraft manufacturing and services company.
“Antonov” serial production plant (Серійний завод «Антонов»), formerly AVIANT (АВІАНТ), is an aircraft manufacturing company in Kiev, Ukraine, the serial manufacturing division of the Antonov.
An apartment (American English), flat (British English) or unit (Australian English) is a self-contained housing unit (a type of residential real estate) that occupies only part of a building, generally on a single storey.
The Ar-Rahma Mosque, (Мечеть Ар-Рахма), translated Mercy Mosque, is a mosque in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Askold (Haskuldr in Old East Norse and Höskuldr in Old West Norse) was a prince of Kiev and founder of the first Vikings' state in Dnieper Ukraine.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
Babi Yar (Бабин Яр, Babyn Yar; Бабий Яр, Babiy Yar) is a ravine in the Ukrainian capital Kiev and a site of massacres carried out by German forces and by local Ukrainian collaborators during their campaign against the Soviet Union in World War II.
A bakery (a.k.a. baker's shop or bake shop) is an establishment that produces and sells flour-based food baked in an oven such as bread, cookies, cakes, pastries, and pies.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
Bar (Бар; Bar; Barium; Βάρ; Bar; Бар) is a town located on the Riv River in the Vinnytsia Oblast (province) of central Ukraine.
The Battle of Blue Waters (Mūšis prie Mėlynųjų Vandenų, Бітва на Сініх Водах, Битва на Синіх Водах) was a battle fought at some time in autumn 1362 or 1363 on the shores of the Synjucha River, left tributary of the Southern Bug, between the armies of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Golden Horde.
The First Battle of Kiev was the German name for the operation that resulted in a very large encirclement of Soviet troops in the vicinity of Kiev during World War II.
The Second Battle of Kiev was part of much wider Soviet offensive in Ukraine known as the Battle of the Dnieper involved three strategic operations by the Soviet Red Army, and one operational counterattack by the Wehrmacht which took place between 3 October and 22 December 1943.
The Battle on the Irpin River is a semi-legendary battle between the armies of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Principality of Kiev.
Batu Khan (Бат хаан, Bat haan, Бату хан, Bá dū, хан Баты́й, Μπατού; c. 1207–1255), also known as Sain Khan (Good Khan, Сайн хаан, Sayn hân) and Tsar Batu, was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde, a division of the Mongol Empire.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BC Budivelnyk Kyiv (in Ukrainian: Будівельник Київ) is a Ukrainian professional basketball club based in Kyiv.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
The Besarabsky Market (Бесарабський ринок, Besarabs'kyi rynok), also referred to as the Besarabka (Бесарабка), is an indoor market located in the center of Kiev on the Bessarabska Square at the southwest end of the city's main thoroughfare, the Khreshchatyk.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bogomolets National Medical University (NMU) is a medical school founded in 1841 in Kyiv, Ukraine.
Zynoviy Bohdan Khmelnytsky (Ruthenian language: Ѕѣнові Богдан Хмелнiцкiи; modern Bohdan Zynoviy Mykhailovych Khmelnytsky; Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; 6 August 1657) was a Polish–Lithuanian-born Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (now part of Ukraine).
The Bohdan Khmelnytsky Monument (Пам'ятник Богданові Хмельницькому) is a monument in Kiev dedicated to the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host Bohdan Khmelnytsky built in 1888.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Boryslav Yukhymovych Bereza (Борислав Юхимович Береза, born 13 June 1974) is a Ukrainian member of parliament and a former spokesperson for Right Sector (2014).
Boryspil International Airport (Міжнародний аеропорт "Бориспіль") is an international airport in Boryspil, east of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.
Kiev, historically situated on the right bank of the Dnieper River, now covers both banks of the river whose width, as it flows through the city, reaches several hundred metres.
The Brodsky Choral Synagogue is the largest synagogue in Kyiv, Ukraine.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
In the medieval history of Europe, Bulgaria's status as the Bulgarian Empire (Българско царство, Balgarsko tsarstvo), wherein it acted as a key regional power (particularly rivaling Byzantium in Southeastern Europe) occurred in two distinct periods: between the seventh and eleventh centuries, and again between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries.
A bus (archaically also omnibus, multibus, motorbus, autobus) is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers.
The Buteyko method or Buteyko Breathing Technique is a form of complementary or alternative physical therapy that proposes the use of breathing exercises primarily as a treatment for asthma and other respiratory conditions.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Caviar (less often, caviare) is a delicacy consisting of salt-cured roe of the Acipenseridae family.
The Central Election Commission of Ukraine (Центральна виборча комісія України, commonly abbreviated in Ukrainian as ЦВК (Tse-Ve-Ka); sometimes referred to as the Central Electoral Commission of Ukraine) is a permanent and independent collegiate body of the Ukrainian government.
Centre for Eastern Studies (OSW, Ośrodek Studiów Wschodnich) is a Warsaw-based think tank that undertakes independent research on the political, economic and social situation in Central and Eastern Europe, Balkans, Caucasus and Central Asia.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
In Ukraine, the title Head (Chief) of Local State Administration (Ukrainian: Голова місцевої державної адміністрації) refers to the chief executive of each of the administrative divisions of Ukraine: oblast (region/province), raion (district) or city, in case of Kiev and Sevastopol.
Chișinău, also known as Kishinev (r), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Moldova.
The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages.
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality, or local government area.
City with special status (місто зі спеціальним статусом) (formerly, "city of republican subordinance") refers to two of Ukraine's 27 administrative regions, which are the cities of Kiev and Sevastopol.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group.
The term commercial property (also called commercial real estate, investment or income property) refers to buildings or land intended to generate a profit, either from capital gain or rental income.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Constantin Zuckerman (born 1957) is a French historian and Professor of Byzantine studies at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes in Paris.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
The Cossack Hetmanate (Гетьманщина), officially known as Zaporizhian Host (Військо Запорозьке), was a Cossack state in Central Ukraine between 1649 and 1764 (some sources claim until 1782).
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.
The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), commonly known as the Polish Crown or simply the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland proper.
The Cucuteni–Trypillia culture (and), also known as the Tripolye culture, is a Neolithic–Eneolithic archaeological culture (5200 to 3500 BC) in Eastern Europe.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
The culture of ancient Rus can be divided into different historical periods of the Middle Ages.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
The Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI; Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut) is the official Danish meteorological institute, administrated by the Ministry of Energy, Utilities and Climate.
Darnytsia District (Дарницький район, Darnyts'kyi raion), is a raion (administrative district) of the Ukrainian capital Kiev.
Darnytsia railway station (Станція "Дарниця", Stancija Darnytsia) is the largest Ukrainian Railways station (and the main freight station) of the Ukrainian capital Kiev, located in the city's Left-bank Darnytsia area.
Davidoff is a Swiss premium brand of cigars and smoker’s accessories.
The Act of Declaration of Independence of Ukraine (Акт проголошення незалежності України, translit. Akt proholoshennya nezalezhnosti Ukrayiny) was adopted by the Ukrainian parliament on 24 August 1991.
Deities of Slavic religion, arranged in cosmological and functional groups, are inherited through mythology and folklore.
Desna (Десна́; Десна) is a river in Russia and Ukraine, a major left tributary of the Dnieper river.
Desnianskyi District (translit. Desnians’kyi raion) is an administrative raion (district or borough) of the city of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
Dictionary.com is an online dictionary whose domain was first registered on May 14, 1995.
A digital ticket is a virtual instance of a ticket which represents the digitization of rights to claim goods or services.
A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state.
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
Dnieper Lowland is a major geographic feature of the Central Ukraine region and the East European Plain.
The Dnieper Upland or Cisdnieper Upland (Придніпровська височина) is a southeastern European plain occupying the territory between the Dnieper and the Southern Bug.
The Dniprovskyi District (Дніпровський район, Dniprovs’kyi raion) is an urban district of the city of Kiev (Kyiv), the capital of Ukraine.
The Dovzhenko Film Studios (Національна кіностудія художніх фільмів імені О. Довженка, translit. Natsional'na kinostudiya khudozhnikh filmiv imeni O. Dovzhenka) is a former Soviet film production studio in Ukraine that was named after the Ukrainian film producer, Alexander Dovzhenko, in 1957.
Duchy of Kiev or Kyiv principality was the central principality in Kievan Rus'.
Duchy of Ruthenia (Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Руське, Polish: Księstwo Ruskie) was the project of the state as a member of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the territory of Kiev Voivodeship, Bracław Voivodeship and Chernihiv Voivodeship.
Dzerkalo Tyzhnia (Дзеркало тижня; Зеркало недели, Zerkalo Nedeli), usually referred to in English as the Mirror Weekly, is one of Ukraine’s most influential analytical newspapers published weekly in Kiev, the nation's capital.
The East Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking the East Slavic languages.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The economy of Ukraine is an emerging free market.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
Elections in Ukraine are held to choose the President (head of state), Verkhovna Rada (legislature body), and local governments.
Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
An eternal flame is a flame, lamp or torch that burns continuously for an indefinite period.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Eugeniusz Horbaczewski (28 September 1917 – 18 August 1944) was a Polish fighter pilot, a flying ace of World War II, also known as "Dziubek" (the diminutive of 'the beak' in Polish).
Eugeniusz Mikołaj Romer (3 February 1871 in Lwów (Lviv, Lemberg) – 28 January 1954) was a distinguished Polish geographer, cartographer and geopolitician, whose maps and atlases are still highly valued by experts.
Euromaidan (Євромайдан, Евромайдан,, literally "Euro Square") was a wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Ukraine, which began on the night of 21 November 2013 with public protests in Maidan Nezalezhnosti ("Independence Square") in Kiev.
European Square (Європейська Площа, Yevropeys’ka Ploshcha) is a square located in what is known as the Old Town (Stare Misto) or the Upper Town, in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
The Eurovision Song Contest (Concours Eurovision de la chanson), often simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held primarily among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2004 was the 49th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2005 was the 50th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2006 was the 51st edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2016 was the 61st edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2017 was the 62nd edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
Fastiv (Фа́стів) is a city in the Kyiv Oblast (province) in central Ukraine.
Football Club Arsenal Kyiv is a Ukrainian football club based in Kyiv.
Football Club Dynamo Kyiv is a Ukrainian professional football club based in Kiev.
FC Obolon-Brovar Kyiv (Оболонь-Бровар) is a Ukrainian professional football club based in Kiev (Obolon Raion).
Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) are publicly announced standards developed by the United States federal government for use in computer systems by non-military government agencies and government contractors.
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
A flat fee, also referred to as a flat rate or a linear rate, refers to a pricing structure that charges a single fixed fee for a service, regardless of usage.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
A forest steppe is a temperate-climate ecotone and habitat type composed of grassland interspersed with areas of woodland or forest.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
Gediminas (– December 1341) was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1315 or 1316 until his death.
General aviation (GA) is all civil aviation operations other than scheduled air services and non-scheduled air transport operations for remuneration or hire.
This article details the geographical distribution of Russian speakers.
Geometric abstraction is a form of abstract art based on the use of geometric forms sometimes, though not always, placed in non-illusionistic space and combined into non-objective (non-representational) compositions.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Golda Meir (גּוֹלְדָּה מֵאִיר;, born Golda Mabovitch, May 3, 1898 – December 8, 1978) was an Israeli teacher, kibbutznik, stateswoman, politician and the fourth Prime Minister of Israel.
The Golden Gates of Kyiv (Золоті ворота, Zoloti vorota) was the main gate in the 11th century fortifications of Kyiv, the capital of Kievan Rus'.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
Antonov Airport (аеропорт „Антонов”), also known as Gostomel Airport or Hostomel Airport (аеропорт „Гостомель”) is an international cargo airport and testing facility in Ukraine, located near Hostomel, which is the northwestern suburb of Kiev.
The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine (Кабінет Міністрів України, Kabinet ministriv Ukrayiny; shortened to CabMin), commonly referred to as the Government of Ukraine (Уряд України, Uryad Ukrayiny), is the highest body of state executive power in Ukraine.
A governorate, or a guberniya (p; also romanized gubernia, guberniia, gubernya), was a major and principal administrative subdivision of the Russian Empire and the early Russian SFSR and Ukrainian SSR.
Grade separation is the name given to a method of aligning a junction of two or more surface transport axes at different heights (grades) so that they will not disrupt the traffic flow on other transit routes when they cross each other.
Graham Land is the portion of the Antarctic Peninsula that lies north of a line joining Cape Jeremy and Cape Agassiz.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Great Choral Synagogue of Kyiv, also known as the Podil Synagogue or the Rozenberg Synagogue, is the oldest synagogue in Kyiv, Ukraine.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gross regional product (GRP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a region or subdivision of a country in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Guillaume Levasseur de Beauplan (c. 1600 – 6 December 1673) or William le Vasseur de Beauplan was a French-Polish cartographer, engineer and architect.
The Multifunctional Complex Gulliver (italic) is a 35-story mixed-use building in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
High technology, often abbreviated to high tech (adjective forms high-technology, high-tech or hi-tech) is technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology available.
The history of Kiev, the largest city and the capital of Ukraine, is documented as going back at least 1,400 years.
The history of the Soviet Union between 1927 and 1953 covers the period in Soviet history from establishment of Stalinism through victory in the Second World War and down to the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953.
The history of the Soviet Union from 1982 through 1991 spans the period from Leonid Brezhnev's death and funeral until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Prehistoric Ukraine, as part of the Pontic steppe, has played an important role in Eurasian cultural contacts, including the spread of the Chalcolithic, the Bronze Age, Indo-European expansion and the domestication of the horse.
The Holodomor (Голодомо́р); (derived from морити голодом, "to kill by starvation"), also known as the Terror-Famine and Famine-Genocide in Ukraine, and—before the widespread use of the term "Holodomor", and sometimes currently—also referred to as the Great Famine, and The Ukrainian Genocide of 1932–33—was a man-made famine in Soviet Ukraine in 1932 and 1933 that killed millions of Ukrainians that was part of the wider Soviet famine of 1932–33, which affected the major grain-producing areas of the country.
Holosiivskyi District (Голосіївський район, translit.: Holosiivs’kyi raion) is an urban district of the city of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
House with Chimaeras or Horodecki House (Будинок з химерами, Budynok z khymeramy) is an Art Nouveau building located in the historic Lypky neighborhood of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
Housing, or more generally living spaces, refers to the construction and assigned usage of houses or buildings collectively, for the purpose of sheltering people —the planning or provision delivered by an authority, with related meanings.
Hrebinka is a city in Poltava Oblast, Ukraine.
Mykhailo Hrushevskyi Street or simply Hrushevskyi Street (вулиця Михайла Грушевського, vulytsia Mykhaila Hrushevskoho) is a street in central Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
The M. M. Hryshko National Botanical Garden (Національний ботанічний сад ім., Natsionalnyi botanichnyi sad im. M.M.Hryshka; Национальный ботанический сад им., Natsionalnyi botanicheskiy sad im. N.N.Grishko) is located in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Hydropark, or Hidropark (from) is a landscape-recreational park on the Dnieper River in Kiev, Ukraine.
Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky (a, tr. Ígor' Ivánovič Sikórskij; May 25, 1889 – October 26, 1972),Fortier, Rénald.
The National Technical University of Ukraine "Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute" (NTUU "KPI") (Національний технічний університет України «Київський політехнічний інститут імені Ігоря Сікорського») is a major university in Kiev, Ukraine.
Ilya Grigoryevich Ehrenburg (Илья́ Григо́рьевич Эренбу́рг,; – 31 August 1967) was a Jewish Soviet writer, Bolshevik revolutionary, journalist and historian.
Independence Monument is a victory column located on Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square) in Kiev and is commemorated to the Independence of Ukraine.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
An information centre is a "center designed specifically for storing, processing, and retrieving information for dissemination at regular intervals, on demand or selectively, according to express needs of users.".
The Institute of Oil Transportation (IOT) is a design and engineering company in Ukraine.
The intelligentsia (/ɪnˌtelɪˈdʒentsiə/) (intelligentia, inteligencja, p) is a status class of educated people engaged in the complex mental labours that critique, guide, and lead in shaping the culture and politics of their society.
The Interfax-Ukraine News Agency (Інтерфакс-Україна) is a Kiev-based Ukrainian news agency founded in 1992.
The international E-road network is a numbering system for roads in Europe developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
The International Republican Institute (IRI) describes itself as "a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization committed to advancing freedom and democracy worldwide by helping political parties to become more issue-based and responsive, assisting citizens to participate in government planning, and working to increase the role of marginalized groups in the political process – including women and youth.", loaded on October 10, 2015.
The Internet in Ukraine is well developed and steadily growing, mostly uninfluenced by the global financial crisis; in April 2012 rapid growth was forecast for at least two more years.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Islam is the fourth-largest religion in Ukraine, representing 0.6%–0.9% of the population.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Ivan Franko National Academic Drama Theater is a Ukrainian theater in Kiev.
Ivanna Klympush-Tsintsadze (born 5 July 1972) – Ukrainian politician and journalist, Vice-Prime-Minister for European and Euro-Atlantic Integration of Ukraine.
Jan Koum (Ян Кум, Ян Кум; born February 24, 1976) is a Ukrainian American entrepreneur and computer programmer.
Jewish music is the music and melodies of the Jewish people.
John Cary (c. 1754 – 1835) was an English cartographer.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
The Kaniv Reservoir (Канівське водосховище, Kanivs'ke vodoskhovyshche) is a water reservoir located on the Dnieper River in Ukraine.
Kastoria (Καστοριά, Kastoriá) is a city in northern Greece in the region of West Macedonia.
Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (// ЦГИАК Украины, ф. 1268, оп. 1, д. 26, л. 13об—14.–May 15, 1935) was a Russian avant-garde artist and art theorist, whose pioneering work and writing had a profound influence on the development of non-objective, or abstract art, in the 20th century.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.
Kharkivskyi neighborhood, often referred to as Kharkivskyi masyv (Харківський масив) is located in the Darnytsia region of Kiev, Ukraine.
The Khazars (خزر, Xəzərlər; Hazarlar; Хазарлар; Хәзәрләр, Xäzärlär; כוזרים, Kuzarim;, Xazar; Хоза́ри, Chozáry; Хаза́ры, Hazáry; Kazárok; Xazar; Χάζαροι, Cházaroi; p./Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate.
Khreshchatyk (Хрещатик, Khreshchatyk) is the main street of Kyiv, Ukraine.
Civil Aviation Plant 410 (410 завод цивільній авіації) is an Ukrainian aircraft services company, based in Kiev adjacent to the Kyiv Zhuliany International Airport.
State enterprise of a special instrumentation Arsenal (translit), also known as Arsenal Factory, is one of the oldest and most famous factories in Kiev.
Kiev City Council (Київська міська рада – Kyivs'ka mis'ka rada), also known as Kyivrada (Київрада), is the city council of Kiev municipality, the highest representative body of the city community.
Kiev City State Administration (Київська міська державна адміністрація) is the national-level branch of the Government of Ukraine that administers Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
The Kiev Fortress (Kyivs'ka fortetsia; Киевская крепость; Kievskaya krepost') is a complex of Russian fortifications in Kiev, Ukraine built over the span of the 17th through 19th centuries, soon after the 1654 Council in Pereyaslav, based on already existing fortified monastery of Kiev Pechersk Lavra.
The Kiev Funicular (Київський фунікулер) serves the city of Kiev, connecting the historic Uppertown, and the lower commercial neighborhood of Podil through the steep Volodymyrska Hill overseeing the Dnieper River.
Kiev International Institute of Sociology, KIIS (Київський міжнародний інститут соціології, КМІС) is a Ukrainian organization conducting sociological research in the following fields.
The Kiev Light Rail or Kiev Express Tram (Київський швидкісний трамвай, translit.: Kyivs’kyi shvydkisnyi tramvai) is a light rail rapid transit service that serves the Ukrainian capital Kiev.
Local elections in Kiev for the post of Mayor and members of Kiev City Council took place on 25 May 2014 as part of the 2014 Ukrainian local elections.
The Kyiv Metro (Kyjivskyj metropoliten) is a metro system that is the mainstay of Kiev's public transport.
The Kiev (Kyiv) metropolitan area (Київська агломерація, Kyyivs’ka ahlomeratsia) is an unofficially-designated urban agglomeration in Ukraine within the Kiev Oblast, consisting of the country's capital city of Kiev, its satellite settlements and nearest rural areas closely bound to the city by employment and commerce.
Kiev Mountains or Kiev Hills (Київські гори, Київські пагорби) is a term used in journalism and literature for hills and highlands around the city of Kiev that range from approximately 150 to almost 200 meters.
Kiev Oblast or Kyiv Oblast (Київська область, translit. Kyivs’ka oblast’; also referred to as Kyivshchyna – Київщина) is an oblast (province) in central Ukraine.
Kiev Pechersk Lavra or Kyiv Pechersk Lavra(Києво-Печерська лавра: Kyievo-Pechers'ka lavra, Киeво-Печерская лавра: Kievo-Pecherskaya lavra), also known as the Kiev Monastery of the Caves, is a historic Orthodox Christian monastery which gave its name to one of the city districts where it is located in Kiev.
Kiev Peninsula (полуостров Киев, ‘Poluostrov Kiev’ \po-lu-'os-trov 'ki-ev\; півострів Київ, ‘Pivostriv Kyiv’ \piv-'os-triv 'ki-yiv\) is the predominantly ice-covered, oval shaped peninsula projecting 35 km in northwest direction from the west side of Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula.
The Kiev Reservoir (translit), locally the Kiev Sea, is a large water reservoir located on the Dnieper River in Ukraine.
Kiev Roshen Factory (Київська фабрика ROSHEN), formerly known as the Karl Marx Kiev Confectionery Factory (Київська кондитерська фабрика імені Карла Маркса) is the largest confectionery company in Kiev, Ukraine, and the most important subdivision of the Roshen Confectionery Corporation.
Kiev Urban Electric Train (translit) is a pioneering intracity passenger railway service in Kiev, Ukraine, provided by the Ukrzaliznytsia national railway company but sponsored by the Kyivpastrans municipal organization.
The Kiev Voivodeship (Województwo kijowskie, Київське воєводство, Kyivske voyevodstvo) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1471 until 1569 and of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland from 1569 until 1793, as part of Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown.
The Kiev Zoo (Київський Зоопарк, Kyivskyi Zoopark) is one of the largest zoos in the former Soviet Union and the only zoo in Kiev, Ukraine.
Kyiv-Pasazhyrskyi (Київ-Пасажирський) is a railway station in the capital of Ukraine, Kyiv.
Kiev-Sviatoshyn Raion is a raion (district) in Kiev Oblast of Ukraine, adjacent to the city of Kiev which serves as the administrative center for the raion.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
The Kievian Letter is an early 10th-century (ca. 930) letter thought to be written by representatives of the Jewish community in Kiev.
Kindergarten (from German, literally meaning 'garden for the children') is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.
The Kipchaks were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe.
The Komi Republic (r; Komi Respublika) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
Konstantin Pavlovich Buteyko (Константи́н Па́влович Буте́йко; January 27, 1923 – May 2, 2003) was the creator of the Buteyko method for the treatment of asthma and other breathing disorders.
Korosten (Ко́ростень, historically also Iskorosten') is a historic city and a large railway node in the Zhytomyr Oblast (province) of northern Ukraine.
Korrespondent (Корреспондент; Кореспондент; literally: Correspondent) is a weekly printed magazine published in Ukraine in the Russian and Ukrainian languages.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Kuznya na Rybalskomu ("Кузня на Рибальському") is a ship building and armament company in Kiev, Ukraine.
Kyi, Shchek and Khoryv (Кий, Щек, Хорив) are three legendary brothers often mentioned along with their sister Lybid (Либідь), who, according to the Primary Chronicle, were the founders of the medieval city of Kiev, now the capital of Ukraine.
Igor Sikorsky Kyiv International Airport (Zhuliany) (Міжнародний аеропорт "Київ" імені Ігоря Сікорського (Жуляни)) is one of the two passenger airports of the Ukrainian capital Kiev, the other being Boryspil International Airport.
The Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics (KNUTE, Київський національний торговельно-економічний університет) is a university in Ukraine.
The Kyiv Post is Ukraine's oldest English language newspaper.
Kyivpastrans (Київпастранс; portmanteau for Kiev passenger transport) is the municipal company that operates most of the public transport in the Ukrainian capital Kiev.
Kyivstar (Київстар) is a Ukrainian telecommunications company, provides communication services and data transmission based on a broad range of fixed and mobile technologies, including 3G and 4G (LTE).
, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.
Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.
Legal deposit is a legal requirement that a person or group submit copies of their publications to a repository, usually a library.
The City of Kiev has a unique legal status compared to the other administrative subdivisions of Ukraine.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Leonid Sergeyevich Bronevoy (Леони́д Серге́евич Бронево́й; December 17, 1928 – December 9, 2017) was a Russian actor.
Leonid Mykhaylovych Chernovetskyi (Леонід Михайлович Черновецький; born November 25, 1951 in Kharkiv, Ukrainian SSR) is a former Mayor of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine, from 2006 until the summer of 2012.
Lesya Ukrainka National Academic Theater of Russian Drama (also referred to as Lesya Ukrainka Theater) is a theater in Kiev, Ukraine.
Lev Isaakovich Shestov (Лев Исаа́кович Шесто́в, 1866 – 1938), born Yeguda Leib Shvartsman (Иегуда Лейб Шварцман), was a Russian existentialist philosopher, known for his "Philosophy of Despair".
Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
This is a list of the largest cities in Europe ranked according to population within their city limits.
This is a list of victims of the Babi Yar massacre. During September 29—30, 1941, a special team of German SS aided by Ukrainian police killed 33,771 Jews.
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.
Lypky (Липки) is a historic neighborhood of the Ukrainian capital Kyiv located in the administrative Pecherskyi District.
Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Майдан Незалежності, literally: Independence Square) is the central square of Kiev, the capital city of Ukraine.
Makhachkala (p; Анжи-кала; Lak: Гьанжи; Avar: МахӀачхъала; Lezgian: Магьачкъала; Rutul: МахаӀчкала) is the capital city of the Republic of Dagestan, Russia.
Mariyinsky Palace (Маріїнський палац, Mariyins'kyi palats) is the official ceremonial residence of the President of Ukraine in Kiev and adjoins the neo-classical building of the Verkhovna Rada (parliament) of Ukraine.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Marshrutka (Russian: маршру́тка), from marshrutne taksi routed taxicab, is a form of public transportation such as a share taxi for the countries of CIS, the Baltic states, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Armenia, and Georgia.
Mayor of Kiev (Київський міський голова, Kyivskyi miskyi holova; literally Head of the Kiev City) is an elected by popular vote head of the Kiev city (the capital of Ukraine) and chairperson the Kiev City Council.
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, physics, engineering mathematics, and materials science principles to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems.
UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme is an international initiative launched to safeguard the documentary heritage of humanity against collective amnesia, neglect, the ravages of time and climatic conditions, and willful and deliberate destruction.
Michael (translit; translit; Michahel;ⲙⲓⲭⲁⲏⲗ, translit) is an archangel in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov (p; – 10 March 1940) was a Russian writer, medical doctor and playwright active in the first half of the 20th century.
Mikhail Osipovich Mikeshin (1835 — 1896) was a Russian artist who regularly worked for the Romanov family and designed a number of outdoor statues in the major cities of the Russian Empire.
Milica Bogdanovna Jovovich (born December 17, 1975), known professionally as Milla Jovovich, is an American actress, model and musician.
Milton Horn (September 1, 1906 – March 29, 1995) is a Russian American sculptor and artist known for work that, according to a 1957 citation of honor from the American Institute of Architects, demonstrated "the truth that architecture and sculpture are not two separate arts but, in the hands of sympathetic collaborators, one and the same".
The Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine (Міністерство освіти і науки України) is the main body in the system of central bodies of the executive power.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine (Міністерство закордонних справ України) is the Ukrainian government authority that oversees the foreign relations of Ukraine.
Moldovans or Moldavians (in Moldovan/Romanian moldoveni; Moldovan Cyrillic: Молдовень) are the largest population group of the Republic of Moldova (75.1% of the population, as of 2014), and a significant minority in Ukraine and Russia.
As part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Moses of Kiev was a Jewish Talmudist who lived in the first half of the 12th century.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
Museum of Western and Oriental Art in Kiev, also known as the Bogdan and Varvara Khanenko Museum of Art (Музей Мистецтв ім.) is the largest collection of foreign art in Ukraine.
Mykhailo Serhiyovych Hrushevsky (Михайло Сергійович Грушевський, Mychajło Hruszewski | Chełm, – Kislovodsk, 24 November 1934) was a Ukrainian and Soviet academician, politician, historian, and statesman, one of the most important figures of the Ukrainian national revival of the early 20th century.
Mykola Riabchuk (Рябчук Микола Юрійович; born September 27, 1953 in Lutsk) - Ukrainian public intellectual, journalist, political analyst, literary critic, translator and writer.
Myronivka is a city of district significance located in southeastern portion of Kiev Oblast, Ukraine.
Naftogaz of Ukraine (НАК "Нафтогаз України", Naftogaz Ukrayiny; literally "Petro-Gas of Ukraine") is the national oil and gas company of Ukraine.
Originally, the name Rus' (Русь) referred to the people, regions, and medieval states (9th to 12th centuries) of the Kievan Rus'.
The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU; Національна академія наук України, Natsional’na akademiya nauk Ukrayiny, abbr: NAN Ukraine) is a self-governing state-funded organization in Ukraine that coordinates a system of research institutes in the country.
The National Art Museum of Ukraine (Національний Художній Музей України) is a museum dedicated to Ukrainian art in Kiev, Ukraine.
National Bank of Ukraine (Національний банк України) or NBU (НБУ) is the central bank of Ukraine – a government body responsible for unified state policy in the field of country's monetary circulation, including strengthening of national currency unit – hryvnia.
A national library is a library specifically established by the government of a country to serve as the preeminent repository of information for that country.
The National Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War (Музей історії України у Другій світовій війні) is a memorial complex commemorating the German-Soviet War located in the southern outskirts of the Pechersk district of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine, on the picturesque hills on the right-bank of the Dnieper River.
The Kyiv Opera group was formally established in the summer of 1867, and is the third oldest in Ukraine, after Odessa Opera and Lviv Opera.
The National Philharmonic of Ukraine (Національна Філармонія України), often referred to as Kiev Philharmonic and National Philharmonic, is a complex of two adjacent concert halls in the Khrestchaty Park in Kiev, Ukraine.
National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (NaUKMA) (Національний університет «Києво-Могилянська академія» (НаУКМА), Natsional'nyi universytet "Kyyevo-Mohylians'ka akademiya") is a national, coeducational research university located in Kiev, Ukraine.
A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nicholas I (r; –) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855.
A nightclub, music club or club, is an entertainment venue and bar that usually operates late into the night.
Nikolai Mikhailovich Amosov, Doctor of Science, Professor (December 6, 1913, Olkhovo, Novgorod Governorate, Russian Empire – December 12, 2002, Kiev, Ukraine) was a Soviet and Ukrainian doctor, heart surgeon, inventor, best-selling author, and exercise enthusiast, known for his inventions of several surgical procedures for treating heart defects.
Nikolai Alexandrovich Berdyaev (Никола́й Алекса́ндрович Бердя́ев; – March 24, 1948) was a Russian political and also Christian religious philosopher who emphasized the existential spiritual significance of human freedom and the human person.
Nikolay Ivanovich Kostomarov (Никола́й Ива́нович Костома́ров, Nikolai Ivanovich Kostomarov, Ukrainified: Микола Іванович Костомарiв, Mykola Ivanovych Kostomariv; May 16, 1817, vil. Yurasovka, Voronezh Governorate, Russian Empire – April 19, 1885, Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire) was one of the most distinguished Russian historians, a Professor of History at the St. Vladimir University of Kiev and later at the St. Petersburg University, an Active State Councillor of Russia, an author of many books, including his famous biography of the seventeenth century Hetman of Zaporozhian Cossacks Bohdan Khmelnytsky, and his fundamental 3-volume Russian History in Biographies of its main figures (Russkaya istoriya v zhizneopisaniyakh yeyo glavneyshikh deyateley).
Nížyn (Ні́жин,, Не́жин, Nezhin, Nieżyn) is a city located in Chernihiv Oblast (province) of northern Ukraine, along the Oster River, north-east of the nation's capital, Kiev.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
Obolon Joint Stock Company (ПАТ "Оболонь") is a major Ukrainian producer of beverages: beer, low alcohol drinks (cocktails), soda drinks and locally extracted natural mineral water, as well as a major malt producer.
Obolonskyi District (Оболонський район, Obolons'kyi raion) is an urban district of the Ukrainian capital Kiev.
Ocean Plaza or Ocean Plaza Mall (Ukrainian: Океан Плаза) is the second largest shopping mall and entertainment complex of Kiev, Ukraine.
The October Palace is a performing arts center in Kiev, Ukraine.
Odense is the third-largest city in Denmark.
Odense Municipality (Odense Kommune) is a Danish municipality (kommune) in Region of Southern Denmark on the island of Funen in central Denmark.
An office is generally a room or other area where administrative work is done by an organization's users in order to support and realize objects and goals of the organization.
Old East Slavic or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'.
Old Kiev (Старий Київ) is a historical neighborhood of Kiev.
Oleg of Novgorod (Old East Slavic: Олег, Old Norse: Helgi) was a Varangian prince (or konung) who ruled all or part of the Rus' people during the late 9th and early 10th centuries.
Oleh Volodymyrovych Blokhin (Оле́г Володи́мирович Блохі́н, Оле́г Влади́мирович Блохи́н; born 5 November 1952 in Kiev) is a former Ukrainian football player and manager.
Oleksandr Ivanovych Bilash (also spelt Olexandr Bilash, Alexander Bilash, Олександр Іванович Білаш) (March 6, 1931 – May 6, 2003) was a Ukrainian composer and the author of popular lyric songs, ballads, operas, operettas, oratorios and music for films.
Oleksandr Oleksandrovych Omelchenko (Олександр Олександрович Омельченко Oleksandr Oleksandrovyč Omel'čenko) became the mayor of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine, in 1999.
Oleksandr Tretyakov (Ukrainian: Oleksandr Yuriyovych Tretyakov, born March 20, 1970, Kyiv) is a politician and statesman, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine deputy of the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 8th convocations.
Olga Olehivna Fridman (Ольга Олегівна Фрідман; Hebrew: אולגה פרידמן; born 30 September 1998) is a Ukrainian-Israeli tennis player and the 2015 female Israeli tennis champion.
The Olympic National Sports Complex (also known as Olympic Stadium; Національний спортивний комплекс "Олімпійський") is a multi-use sports and recreation facility in Kiev, Ukraine, located on the slopes of the city's central Cherepanova Hora (Cherepanov Hill), Pechersk Raion.
Omeljan Pritsak (Омеля́н Пріца́к; 7 April 1919, Luka, Sambir County, West Ukrainian People's Republic – 29 May 2006, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.) was the first Mykhailo Hrushevsky Professor of Ukrainian History at Harvard University and the founder and first director (1973–1989) of the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute.
An open-air museum (or open air museum) is a museum that exhibits collections of buildings and artifacts out-of-doors.
The Orange Revolution (Помаранчева революція, Pomarancheva revolyutsiya) was a series of protests and political events that took place in Ukraine from late November 2004 to January 2005, in the immediate aftermath of the run-off vote of the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election, which was claimed to be marred by massive corruption, voter intimidation and direct electoral fraud.
Orlando Guy Figes (born Islington, 20 November 1959) is a British historian and writer known for his works on Russian history.
Output in economics is the "quantity of goods or services produced in a given time period, by a firm, industry, or country", whether consumed or used for further production.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
The Palace of Sports (Палац Спорту, Palats Sportu) is a sport-concert complex situated in the center of Kiev, Ukraine.
A panorama (formed from Greek πᾶν "all" + ὅραμα "sight") is any wide-angle view or representation of a physical space, whether in painting, drawing, photography, film, seismic images or a three-dimensional model.
The Parus Business Centre (Бізнес Центр «Парус») is a 34-story class-A office building in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
Patrick Moreau (born 3 November 1973) is a French former footballer who played as a defender.
The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Oghuz branch of Turkic language family.
Pechersk (Печерськ) is a historical neighborhood in the city center of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
Pecherskyi District (Печерський район) is an urban district of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
A People's Deputy of Ukraine (Ukrainian: народний депутат України, narodnyi deputat Ukrayiny) is a member of parliament, legislator elected by a popular vote to the Verkhovna Rada (the parliament of Ukraine).
People's Front (Народний фронт; also translated as National Front or Popular Front) is a political party in Ukraine founded by Arseniy Yatsenyuk and Oleksandr Turchynov in 2014.
This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region.
A percentage point or percent point (pp) is the unit for the arithmetic difference of two percentages.
The Pereyaslav Council (Переяславская рада), was an official meeting that convened for ceremonial pledge of allegiance by Cossacks to the Tsar of Muscovy in the town of Pereyaslav (now Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi in central Ukraine) in January 1654.
Peter Lang is an academic publisher specializing in the humanities and social sciences.
The Petro Poroshenko Bloc "Solidarity" (Блок Петра Порошенка «Солідарність», Blok Petra Poroshenka «Solidarnist'»), is a political party in Ukraine, formed on 27 August 2014.
Phonograph cylinders are the earliest commercial medium for recording and reproducing sound.
A pilgrim (from the Latin peregrinus) is a traveler (literally one who has come from afar) who is on a journey to a holy place.
PinchukArtCentre — the centre of contemporary art, located in Kiev.
Podil (Поділ, Подол, Padół) is a historic neighborhood in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
The Podilskyi District (Подільський район) is an urban district of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
Podlachia or Podlasie, (Podlasie, Падляшша Padliašša, Palenkė) is a historical region in the eastern part of Poland.
Podolia or Podilia (Подíлля, Podillja, Подо́лье, Podolʹje., Podolya, Podole, Podolien, Podolė) is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine and in northeastern Moldova (i.e. northern Transnistria).
The Polans (Polyany), also Polianians, were an East Slavic tribe between the 6th and the 9th century, which inhabited both sides of the Dnieper river from Liubech to Rodnia and also down the lower streams of the rivers Ros', Sula, Stuhna, Teteriv, Irpin', Desna and Pripyat.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Polesia, Polesie or Polesye (Палессе Paliessie, Полісся Polissia or Polisia, Polesie, Поле́сье Poles'e) is a natural and historical region starting from the farthest edges of Central Europe and into Eastern Europe, stretching from parts of Eastern Poland, touching similarly named Podlasie, straddling the Belarus–Ukraine border and into western Russia.
The Polesian Lowland is a lowland in the southwestern portion of the East European Plain in the drainage basins of several rivers including the Dnieper, Prypiat and Desna.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth (Rzeczpospolita Trojga Narodów, Commonwealth of Three Nations) was a proposed (but never actually formed) European state in the 17th century that would have replaced the existing Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.
This article presents the historical development and role of political parties in Ukrainian politics, and outlines more extensively the significant modern political parties since Ukraine gained independence in 1991.
Population ageing is an increasing median age in the population of a region due to declining fertility rates and/or rising life expectancy.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
The President of Ukraine (Президент України, Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the Ukrainian head of state.
The Tale of Past Years (Повѣсть времѧньныхъ лѣтъ, Pověstĭ Vremęnĭnyhŭ Lětŭ) or Primary Chronicle is a history of Kievan Rus' from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled in Kiev about 1113.
The Pritzker family is an American family engaged in entrepreneurship and philanthropy, and one of the wealthiest families in the United States of America, being near the top of Forbes magazine's "America's Richest Families" list since the magazine began listings in 1982.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
A public utility (usually just utility) is an organization that maintains the infrastructure for a public service (often also providing a service using that infrastructure).
A puppet is an object, often resembling a human, animal or mythical figure, that is animated or manipulated by a person called a puppeteer.
Pyrohiv (Пирогі́в), also known as Pirogov (Пирого́в), originally a village south of Kiev, is a neighborhood in the southern outskirts of the Ukrainian capital city.
A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast).
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Red University Building (Червоний корпус Київського університету; translit.: Chervonyi Korpus Universytetu) is the principal and oldest 4-story building of the Kyiv University located at 60 Volodymyrska Street, in Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A research institute or research center is an establishment founded for doing research.
A resident register is a government database which contains information on the current residence of persons.
Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
A ring road (also known as beltline, beltway, circumferential (high)way, loop or orbital) is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romanesque art is the art of Europe from approximately 1000 AD to the rise of the Gothic style in the 12th century, or later, depending on region.
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
The romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin letters.
Rurik Rostislavich (Russian and Ukrainian: Рюрик Ростиславич) (?–1215), Prince of Novgorod (1170–1171), Belgorod Kievsky, presently Bilohorodka (1173–1194), Grand Prince of Kiev (1173, 1180–1182, 1194–1202, 1203–1205, 1206, 1207–1210), Prince of Chernigov (1210–1214).
A rush hour (American English, British English) is a part of the day during which traffic congestion on roads and crowding on public transport is at its highest.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the military service of the Russian Federation, established after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
Russian culture has a long history.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia and its émigrés and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Rus', the Russian Empire or the Soviet Union.
In February 2014, Russia made several military incursions into Ukrainian territory.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev is an outstanding architectural monument of Kievan Rus'.
Volodymyrska Hill or Saint Volodymyr Hill (Володимирська гірка, "Volodymyrska hirka", Влади́мирская горка, Vladimirskaya gorka) is a large park located on the steep right-bank of the Dnipro River in central Kiev (Kyiv), the capital of Ukraine.
The Saint Vladimir Monument is a monument in Kiev, dedicated to the Great Prince of Kiev Vladimir the Great, built in 1853.
Saints Cyril and Methodius (826–869, 815–885; Κύριλλος καὶ Μεθόδιος; Old Church Slavonic) were two brothers who were Byzantine Christian theologians and Christian missionaries.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
The "Schechter Letter" (also called the "Cambridge Document") was discovered in the Cairo Geniza by Solomon Schechter.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
Serge Lifar (Сергій Михайлович Лифар, Serhіy Mуkhailovуch Lуfar; Серге́й Миха́йлович Лифа́рь, Sergey Mikhaylovich Lifar) (Kiev, Russian Empire)15 December 1986, Lausanne, Switzerland) was a French ballet dancer and choreographer of Ukrainian origin, famous as one of the greatest male ballet dancers of the 20th century. Not only a dancer, Lifar was also a choreographer, director, writer, theoretician about dance, and collector. As ballet master of the Paris Opera from 1930 to 1944, and from 1947 to 1958, he devoted himself to the restoration of the technical level of the Paris Opera Ballet, returning it to its place as one of the best companies in the world.
The Seven Wonders of Ukraine (Сім чудес України) are the seven historical and cultural monuments of Ukraine, which were chosen in the Seven Wonders of Ukraine contest held in July, 2007.
Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll (born 2 February 1977) is a Colombian singer, songwriter, and dancer.
The Shevchenkivskyi District (Шевченківський район) is an urban district of the city of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
The Siege of Kiev by the Mongols took place between November 28 and December 6, 1240, and resulted in a Mongol victory.
The Siege of Kiev by the Pechenegs in 968 is documented in the Primary Chronicle, an account that freely mixes historical details with folklore.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Slav (שְׂלָו, lit. Quail) was a Jewish village and an Israeli settlement in the Gush Katif settlement bloc, located in the south-west edge of the Gaza Strip until 2005.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
Hockey Club Sokil Kiev (ХК Сокіл Київ; ХК Сокол Ки́ев, HC Sokol Kiev; Falcon Hockey Club), commonly known as Sokil Kiev or HC Sokil, was a Ukrainian Professional Hockey League team based in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
Solomianka District (Солом'янський район, translit. Solom’ians’kyi raion) is an administrative raion (district) of the city of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
The Soviet Cup, or USSR Cup (Кубок СССР), was the premier football cup competition in the Soviet Union conducted by the Football Federation of the Soviet Union.
The USSR Super Cup, or Season's Cup (Кубок сезона) was an exhibition game (or game series) that featured the winners of the previous season's Soviet Top League and USSR Cup in a one- or two-legged playoff for the trophy.
The Soviet Top League, known after 1970 as the Higher League (Высшая лига) served as the top division of Soviet Union football from 1936 until 1991.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Saint Andrew's Church (Андріївська церква, Andriyivs'ka tserkva; Андреевская церковь, Andreyevskaya tserkov) is a major Baroque church located in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
St Volodymyr's Cathedral (Патріарший кафедральний собор св., Patriarshyi kafedralnyi sobor sv. Volodymyra) is a cathedral in the centre of Kiev.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
Subdivisions of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine, include the formal administrative subdivision into raions and the more detailed informal subdivision into historical neighborhoods.
Suprematism (Супремати́зм) is an art movement, focused on basic geometric forms, such as circles, squares, lines, and rectangles, painted in a limited range of colors.
Sviatoshyn Raion (Святошинський район, Sviatoshynskyi Raion) is a raion in the city of Kiev located at the western part of city.
The All-Ukrainian Union "Svoboda" (Всеукраїнське об’єднання «Свобода», Vseukrayinske obyednannia "Svoboda"), translated as Freedom, is a Ukrainian nationalist political party.
Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko (–) was a Ukrainian poet, writer, artist, public and political figure, as well as folklorist and ethnographer.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
A taxicab, also known as a taxi or a cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Holocaust in Ukraine took place in Reichskommissariat Ukraine during the occupation of the Soviet Ukraine by Nazi Germany in World War II.
The Motherland Monument (Батьківщина-Мати, Родина-мать) is a monumental statue in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Ukrainian Week (Український Тиждень, Тиждень.ua) is an illustrated weekly magazine covering politics, economics and the arts and aimed at the socially engaged Ukrainian-language reader.
The Theotokos of Vladimir (Θεοτόκος του Βλαντίμιρ), also known as Our Lady of Vladimir, Vladimir Mother of God, or Virgin of Vladimir (Владимирская Икона Божией Матери, Вишгородська ікона Божої Матері) is a medieval Byzantine icon of the Virgin and Child.
The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier refers to a monument dedicated to the services of an unknown soldier and to the common memories of all soldiers killed in any war.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
The trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks (Vägen från varjagerna till grekerna, Shlyakh' z varahaw u hreki, Shlyakh iz varyahiv u hreky, Put' iz varjag v greki, Εμπορική οδός Βαράγγων–Ελλήνων) was a medieval trade route that connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus' and the Eastern Roman Empire.
Traffic congestion is a condition on transport networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing.
A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.
The Berlin tramway (Straßenbahn Berlin) is the main tram system in Berlin, Germany.
The Kiev Tram (Київський трамвай) is a tram network which serves the Ukrainian capital Kiev.
The Treaty of Hadiach (ugoda hadziacka; гадяцький договір) was a treaty signed on 16 September 1658 in Hadiach (Hadziacz, Hadiacz, Гадяч) between representatives of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (represented by S. Bieniewski and K. Jewłaszewski) and Ukrainian Cossacks (represented by Hetman Ivan Vyhovsky and starshina (sztarszyna, the elders) Yuri Nemyrych, architect of the treaty, and Pavlo Teteria).
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake.
A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing.. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.
The Truce of Andrusovo (Rozejm w Andruszowie, Андрусовское перемирие, Andrusovskoye Pieriemiriye, also sometimes known as Treaty of Andrusovo) established a thirteen-and-a-half year truce, signed in 1667 between Tsardom of Russia and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, which had fought the Russo-Polish War since 1654 over the territories of modern-day Ukraine and Belarus.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA; Union des Associations Européennes de Football; Vereinigung Europäischer Fußballverbände) is the administrative body for association football in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia.
The 2012 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2012 or simply Euro 2012, was the 14th European Championship for men's national football teams organised by UEFA.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ukrainian territory was fought over by various factions after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the First World War, which added the collapse of Austria-Hungary to that of the Russian Empire.
The Ukraine national football team (збірна України з футболу) is the national football team of Ukraine and is controlled by the Football Federation of Ukraine.
Relations between the European Union (EU) and Ukraine are shaped through the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement and the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA).
The first Ukrainian census was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on 5 December 2001, twelve years after the last Soviet Union census in 1989 and was so far the only census held in independent Ukraine.
Ukrainian culture and customs of Ukraine and ethnic Ukrainians.
The Ukrainian National Chornobyl Museum (Український національний музей "Чорнобиль", Ukrayins'kyy natsional'nyy muzey "Chornobyl'") is a history museum in Kiev, Ukraine, dedicated to the 1986 Chernobyl disaster and its consequences.
The Ukrainian News Agency (Інформаційне агентство "Українські Новини"; Informatsiyne ahentstvo "Ukrayins'ki Novyny") is a Kiev-based Ukrainian news agency.
The Ukrainian People's Republic, or Ukrainian National Republic (abbreviated to УНР), was a predecessor of modern Ukraine declared on 10 June 1917 following the Russian Revolution.
The Ukrainian Premier League ("Прем'єр-ліга") or UPL is the highest division of Ukrainian annual football championship.
Ukrainian Railways (Укрзалізниця, Ukrzaliznytsia) is a state owned enterprise of rail transport in Ukraine, a monopoly that controls vast majority of the railroad transportation in the country with a combined total tracks length of over 23,000 km, making it the 14th largest in the world.
Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia (Українська радянська енциклопедія) was a multi-purpose Encyclopedia of Ukraine, issued in the USSR.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Ukrainization (also spelled Ukrainisation or Ukrainianization) is a policy of increasing the usage and facilitating the development of the Ukrainian language and promoting other elements of Ukrainian culture, in various spheres of public life such as education, publishing, government and religion.
Ukrayinska Pravda (Українська правда, literally Ukrainian Truth) is a popular Ukrainian Internet newspaper, founded by Georgiy R. Gongadze in April, 2000 (the day of the Ukrainian constitutional referendum).
Ulan-Ude (p; Улаан Үдэ, Ulaan Üde) is the capital city of the Republic of Buryatia, Russia; it is located about southeast of Lake Baikal on the Uda River at its confluence with the Selenga.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Union of Lublin (unia lubelska; Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) is the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
Uwe Backes (* 2 February 1960 in Greimerath) is a German political scientist and specialist in political extremism.
Valeriy Vasylyovych Lobanovskyi (Вале́рій Васи́льович Лобано́вський, Valerij Vasyl’ovyč Lobanovs’kyj; Вале́рий Васи́льевич Лобано́вский, Valeriy Vasilyevich Lobanovskiy; 6 January 1939 – 13 May 2002) was a Soviet-Ukrainian football manager.
Dynamo Stadium named after Valeriy Lobanovskyi is a multi-functional stadium in Kiev, Ukraine that is modified for football use only.
Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (V&R) is a scholarly publishing house based in Göttingen, Germany.
The Varangians (Væringjar; Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people and Ruthenians to Vikings,"," Online Etymology Dictionary who between the 9th and 11th centuries, ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
A vehicle registration plate, also known as a number plate (British English) or a license plate (American English), is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes.
Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.
The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (Верхо́вна Ра́да Украї́ни, Ukrainian abbreviation ВРУ; literally Supreme Council of Ukraine), often simply Verkhovna Rada or just Rada, is the unicameral parliament of Ukraine.
The Verkhovna Rada building (Будинок Верховної Ради) is located in the center of Kiev, the Pecherskyi District.
Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine, VNLU (Національна бібліотека України імені В.І. Вернадського) is the main academic library and main scientific information centre in Ukraine, one of the world's largest(''top twenty'') national libraries.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vikentiy Viacheslavovych Khvoyka (Вікентій В'ячеславович Хвойка; Викентий Вячеславович Хвойка; Vincenc Častoslav Chvojka; born Čeněk Chvojka; 1850–1914) was a Czech-born Russian (Ukrainian) archaeologist, who discovered the Neolithic Trypillia culture in Ukraine.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (Ві́ктор Фе́дорович Януко́вич,; born 9 July 1950) is a Ukrainian politician who was elected as the fourth President of Ukraine on 7 February 2010.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vitali Volodymyrovych Klitschko (Віта́лій Володи́мирович Кличко́,; born 19 July 1971) is a Ukrainian politician and former professional boxer.
Vladimir Samoylovich Horowitz (r; r; November 5, 1989)Schonberg, 1992 was a Russian-born American classical pianist and composer.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Vladimir the Great (also (Saint) Vladimir of Kiev; Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь, Volodiměrъ Svętoslavičь, Old Norse Valdamarr gamli; c. 958 – 15 July 1015, Berestove) was a prince of Novgorod, grand prince of Kiev, and ruler of Kievan Rus' from 980 to 1015.
Vladimir-Suzdal (Владимирско-Су́здальская, Vladimirsko-Suzdal'skaya), formally known as the Grand Duchy of Vladimir (1157–1331) (Владимиро-Су́здальское кня́жество, Vladimiro-Suzdal'skoye knyazhestvo), was one of the major principalities that succeeded Kievan Rus' in the late 12th century, centered in Vladimir-on-Klyazma.
Volgograd (p), formerly Tsaritsyn, 1589–1925, and Stalingrad, 1925–1961, is an important industrial city and the administrative centre of Volgograd Oblast, Russia, on the western bank of the Volga River.
Volhynia, also Volynia or Volyn (Wołyń, Volýn) is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe straddling between south-eastern Poland, parts of south-western Belarus, and western Ukraine.
Volodymyr Ariev is a Ukrainian journalist, film director, author of the project "Restricted Area".
Vyshhorod or Vyshgorod (Ви́шгород; Вы́шгород) is a city in Kiev Oblast (region) in central Ukraine, the immediate northern suburb to the national capital Kiev, located upstream along the Dnieper River.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The Western Russian fortresses are a system of fortifications built by the Russian Empire in Eastern Europe in the early 19th century.
WhatsApp Messenger is a freeware and cross-platform messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP) service owned by Facebook.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
The workforce or labour force (labor force in American English; see spelling differences) is the labour pool in employment.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yak tebe ne lyubyty, Kyieve miy! (Як тебе не любити, Києве мій!) is a lyrical song of Kyiv composer Ihor Shamo and lyrics by poet Dmytro Lutsenko.
Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Rus, known as Yaroslav the Wise or Iaroslav the Wise (tr; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jarizleifr Valdamarsson;; Iaroslaus Sapiens; c. 978 – 20 February 1054) was thrice grand prince of Veliky Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
The Zarubintsy or Zarubinets culture was a culture that from the 3rd century BC until 1st century AD flourished in the area north of the Black Sea along the upper and middle Dnieper and Pripyat Rivers, stretching west towards the Southern Bug river.
1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.
The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad (r), was an international multi-sport event held in Moscow, Soviet Union, in present-day Russia.
Ukraine was hit heavily by the late-2000s recession, the World Bank expects Ukraine's economy to shrink 15% in 2009 with inflation being 16.4%.
The 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference, commonly known as the Copenhagen Summit, was held at the Bella Center in Copenhagen, Denmark, between 7 and 18 December.
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