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# Killing form

In mathematics, the Killing form, named after Wilhelm Killing, is a symmetric bilinear form that plays a basic role in the theories of Lie groups and Lie algebras. 

In mathematics, the adjoint representation (or adjoint action) of a Lie group G is a way of representing the elements of the group as linear transformations of the group's Lie algebra, considered as a vector space.

## Antisymmetric tensor

In mathematics and theoretical physics, a tensor is antisymmetric on (or with respect to) an index subset if it alternates sign (+/−) when any two indices of the subset are interchanged.

## Armand Borel

Armand Borel (21 May 1923 &ndash; 11 August 2003) was a Swiss mathematician, born in La Chaux-de-Fonds, and was a permanent professor at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, United States from 1957 to 1993.

## Automorphism

In mathematics, an automorphism is an isomorphism from a mathematical object to itself.

## Cartan's criterion

In mathematics, Cartan's criterion gives conditions for a Lie algebra in characteristic 0 to be solvable, which implies a related criterion for the Lie algebra to be semisimple.

## Casimir element

In mathematics, a Casimir element (also known as a Casimir invariant or Casimir operator) is a distinguished element of the center of the universal enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra.

## Compact group

In mathematics, a compact (topological) group is a topological group whose topology is compact.

## Compact Lie algebra

In the mathematical field of Lie theory, there are two definitions of a compact Lie algebra.

## Complexification

In mathematics, the complexification of a vector space V over the field of real numbers (a "real vector space") yields a vector space VC over the complex number field, obtained by formally extending the scaling of vectors by real numbers to include their scaling ("multiplication") by complex numbers.

## Daniel Bump

Daniel Willis Bump (born 1952) is a mathematician who is a professor at Stanford University.

In mathematics, a definite quadratic form is a quadratic form over some real vector space that has the same sign (always positive or always negative) for every nonzero vector of.

## Degenerate bilinear form

In mathematics, specifically linear algebra, a degenerate bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear form such that the map from V to V∗ (the dual space of V) given by is not an isomorphism.

## Dynkin index

In mathematics, the Dynkin index of a representation with highest weight |\lambda| of a compact simple Lie algebra \mathfrak g that has a highest weight \lambda is defined by evaluated in the representation |\lambda|.

## Einstein notation

In mathematics, especially in applications of linear algebra to physics, the Einstein notation or Einstein summation convention is a notational convention that implies summation over a set of indexed terms in a formula, thus achieving notational brevity.

## Field (mathematics)

In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers.

## Lie algebra

In mathematics, a Lie algebra (pronounced "Lee") is a vector space \mathfrak g together with a non-associative, alternating bilinear map \mathfrak g \times \mathfrak g \rightarrow \mathfrak g; (x, y) \mapsto, called the Lie bracket, satisfying the Jacobi identity.

## Lie group

In mathematics, a Lie group (pronounced "Lee") is a group that is also a differentiable manifold, with the property that the group operations are compatible with the smooth structure.

## Lie group–Lie algebra correspondence

In mathematics, Lie group–Lie algebra correspondence allows one to study Lie groups, which are geometric objects, in terms of Lie algebras, which are linear objects.

## Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

## Metric tensor

In the mathematical field of differential geometry, a metric tensor is a type of function which takes as input a pair of tangent vectors and at a point of a surface (or higher dimensional differentiable manifold) and produces a real number scalar in a way that generalizes many of the familiar properties of the dot product of vectors in Euclidean space.

## Nilpotent Lie algebra

In mathematics, a Lie algebra is nilpotent if its lower central series eventually becomes zero.

## Orthogonality

In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the notion of perpendicularity to the linear algebra of bilinear forms.

## Semisimple Lie algebra

In mathematics, a Lie algebra is semisimple if it is a direct sum of simple Lie algebras, i.e., non-abelian Lie algebras \mathfrak g whose only ideals are and \mathfrak g itself.

## Simple Lie group

In group theory, a simple Lie group is a connected non-abelian Lie group G which does not have nontrivial connected normal subgroups.

## Special linear group

In mathematics, the special linear group of degree n over a field F is the set of matrices with determinant 1, with the group operations of ordinary matrix multiplication and matrix inversion.

## Special unitary group

In mathematics, the special unitary group of degree, denoted, is the Lie group of unitary matrices with determinant 1.

## Structure constants

In mathematics, the structure constants or structure coefficients of an algebra over a field are used to explicitly specify the product of two basis vectors in the algebra as a linear combination.

## Sylvester's law of inertia

Sylvester's law of inertia is a theorem in matrix algebra about certain properties of the coefficient matrix of a real quadratic form that remain invariant under a change of basis.

## Symmetric bilinear form

A symmetric bilinear form on a vector space is a bilinear map from two copies of the vector space to the field of scalars such that the order of the two vectors does not affect the value of the map.

## Tensor

In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.

## Trace (linear algebra)

In linear algebra, the trace of an n-by-n square matrix A is defined to be the sum of the elements on the main diagonal (the diagonal from the upper left to the lower right) of A, i.e., where aii denotes the entry on the ith row and ith column of A. The trace of a matrix is the sum of the (complex) eigenvalues, and it is invariant with respect to a change of basis.

## Wilhelm Killing

Wilhelm Karl Joseph Killing (10 May 1847 &ndash; 11 February 1923) was a German mathematician who made important contributions to the theories of Lie algebras, Lie groups, and non-Euclidean geometry.

## References

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