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Kindergarten (from German, literally meaning 'garden for the children') is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. [1]

161 relations: Addition, Adelaide Manning, Afghanistan, Andrea O'Reilly, Australian Capital Territory, Bad Blankenburg, Bangladesh, Barangay, Barber, Baroda High School, Alkapuri, Basketball, Bavaria, Bengali language, Budapest, Bulgaria, Cafeteria, Calendar, Calque, Catholic Church, Charlottetown, Chicago Tribune, Circle time, Classroom, Clock, Congress of the Union, Conrad Poppenhusen, Continent, Cooperative, Crayon, Demographics of Ukraine, Denmark, Detmold, Early childhood education, Economy of Ukraine, Education in Chile, Educational institution, Elizabeth Harrison (educator), Elizabeth Peabody, Emilia-Romagna, First grade, First Kindergarten, Forest kindergarten, Foundation Stage, Friedrich Fröbel, German language, Head start (positioning), Head Start (program), Henriette Schrader-Breymann, Homework, Hong Kong, ..., Hospital, Hungary, India, Infant school, Italy, J. F. Oberlin, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, K–12, Kingdom of Hungary, Kitchener, Ontario, Kosovo, Kuwait, Kyiv Post, Language arts, Learning space, Local education authority, Lunch, Lunchbox, Lutheranism, Malaysia, Mathematics, Mexico, Millennium Development Goals, Ministry of National Education (France), Mongolia, Montessori education, Month, Morning, Morocco, Multiplication, National Center for Education Statistics, National Louis University, Nepal, Netherlands, New Lanark, North Rhine-Westphalia, Northern Ireland, Northern Territory, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Park, Pedagogy, Peru, Pestalozzi-Fröbel Haus, Philippines, Physician, Picture book, Play (activity), Play-Doh, Playground, Playground slide, Pledge of Allegiance (United States), Poppenhusen Institute, Pre-kindergarten, Pre-math skills, Pre-school playgroup, Preschool, Primary school, Prince Edward Island, Princess Pauline of Anhalt-Bernburg, Principality, Quebec, Reception (school), Recess (break), Reggio Emilia approach, Republic of Macedonia, Rhyme, Robert Owen, Romania, Rosaura Zapata, Russia, SAGE Publications, Samuel Wilderspin, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Season, Sight word, Skip counting, Social studies, South Africa, South Korea, Southern Germany, St. Louis, State school, States of Germany, Strasbourg, Subsidiarity, Subtraction, Suddaby Public School, Surgery, Susan Blow, Sweden, Swing (seat), Taekwondo, Taiwan, Tasmania, Teacher, Teréz Brunszvik, Tic-tac-toe, Toronto Normal School, Toy, U.S. state, Umbrella term, Universal preschool, Victoria (Australia), Waldorf education, Wales, Watertown, Wisconsin, Weather, Welsh language, Wesleyan Church. Expand index (111 more) »


Addition (often signified by the plus symbol "+") is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic; the others are subtraction, multiplication and division.

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Adelaide Manning

Elizabeth Adelaide Manning (1828 – 10 August 1905) was a British writer and editor.

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Andrea O'Reilly

Andrea O'Reilly Ph.D. (born 1961) is a writer on women's issues and currently a Professor in the School of Women's Studies at York University in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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Australian Capital Territory

The Australian Capital Territory (ACT; known as the Federal Capital Territory until 1938) is Australia's federal district, located in the south-east of the country and enclaved within the state of New South Wales.

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Bad Blankenburg

Bad Blankenburg is a spa town in the district of Saalfeld-Rudolstadt, in Thuringia, Germany.

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Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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A barangay ((abbreviated as Brgy. or Bgy.), formerly referred to as barrio, is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward. In metropolitan areas, the term often refers to an inner city neighbourhood, a suburb or a suburban neighborhood. The word barangay originated from balangay, a kind of boat used by a group of Austronesian peoples when they migrated to the Philippines. Municipalities and cities in the Philippines are subdivided into barangays, with the exception of the municipalities of Adams in Ilocos Norte and Kalayaan, Palawan which each contain only one barangay. The barangay itself is sometimes informally subdivided into smaller areas called purok (English: "zone"), barangay zones consisting of a cluster of houses, and sitios, which are territorial enclaves—usually rural—far from the barangay center., there were 42,029 barangays throughout the Philippines.

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A barber (from the Latin barba, "beard") is a person whose occupation is mainly to cut, dress, groom, style and shave men’s and boys' hair.

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Baroda High School, Alkapuri

Baroda High School, Alkapuri, abbreviated as Baroda High School, is a coeducational English medium private school serving grades Lower Kindergarten to 12.

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Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.

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Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.

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Bengali language

Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.

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Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.

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Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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A cafeteria is a type of food service location in which there is little or no waiting staff table service, whether a restaurant or within an institution such as a large office building or school; a school dining location is also referred to as a dining hall or canteen (in British English).

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A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes.

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In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Charlottetown (Baile Sheàrlot) is the capital and largest city of the Canadian province of Prince Edward Island, and the county seat of Queens County.

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Chicago Tribune

The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.

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Circle time

Circle time, also called group time, refers to any time that a group of people are sitting together for an activity involving everyone.

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A classroom is a learning space, a room in which both children and adults learn.

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A clock is an instrument to measure, keep, and indicate time.

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Congress of the Union

The Congress of the Union (Congreso de la Unión), formally known as the General Congress of the United Mexican States (Congreso General de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of Mexico consisting of two chambers: the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies.

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Conrad Poppenhusen

Conrad Poppenhusen (April 1, 1818 – December 12, 1883) was a German American businessman.

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A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.

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A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise".

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A crayon (or wax pastel) is a stick of colored wax, charcoal, chalk or other material used for writing or drawing.

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Demographics of Ukraine

The demographics of Ukraine include statistics on population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population of Ukraine.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Detmold is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, with a population of about 73,400 (2013).

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Early childhood education

Early childhood education (ECE; also nursery education) is a branch of education theory which relates to the teaching of older children (formally and informally) up until the age of about eighteen (birth to Grade 2).

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Economy of Ukraine

The economy of Ukraine is an emerging free market.

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Education in Chile

Education in Chile is divided in preschool, primary school, secondary school, and technical or higher education (university).The levels of education in Chile are.

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Educational institution

An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education.

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Elizabeth Harrison (educator)

Elizabeth Harrison (September 1, 1849 – October 31, 1927) was an American educator.

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Elizabeth Peabody

Elizabeth Palmer Peabody (May 16, 1804 – January 3, 1894) was an American educator who opened the first English-language kindergarten in the United States.

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Emilia-Romagna (Emilian and Emélia-Rumâgna) is an administrative Region of Northeast Italy comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna.

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First grade

First grade (called Year 2 in the UK) is the first grade in elementary school.

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First Kindergarten

The First Kindergarten in Watertown, Wisconsin is the building that housed the first kindergarten in the United States, opened in 1856.

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Forest kindergarten

A forest kindergarten is a type of preschool education for children between the ages of three and six that is held almost exclusively outdoors.

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Foundation Stage

Foundation Stage is the British government label for education of pupils aged 2 to 5 in England.

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Friedrich Fröbel

Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel or Froebel (21 April 1782 – 21 June 1852) was a German pedagogue, a student of Pestalozzi who laid the foundation for modern education based on the recognition that children have unique needs and capabilities.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Head start (positioning)

In positioning, a 'head start" is a start in advance of the starting position of others in competition, or simply toward the finish line or desired outcome.

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Head Start (program)

Head Start is a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive early childhood education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families.

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Henriette Schrader-Breymann

Henriette Schrader-Breymann (1827–1899) was a German woman who was influential in early childhood education.

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Homework, or a homework assignment, is a set of tasks assigned to students by their teachers to be completed outside the class.

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Hong Kong

Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.

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A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.

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Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Infant school

An Infant school is a term used primarily in England and Wales.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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J. F. Oberlin


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Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (January 12, 1746 – February 17, 1827) was a Swiss pedagogue and educational reformer who exemplified Romanticism in his approach.

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K–12 (spoken as "k twelve", "k through twelve", or "k to twelve"), for kindergarten to 12th grade, indicates the sum of primary and secondary education in several nations, including India, the United States, Canada, Ecuador, South Korea, Turkey, Philippines, Egypt, Australia, Afghanistan, and Iran for publicly supported school grades prior to college.

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Kingdom of Hungary

The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).

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Kitchener, Ontario

The City of Kitchener is a city in Southern Ontario, Canada.

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Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).

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Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.

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Kyiv Post

The Kyiv Post is Ukraine's oldest English language newspaper.

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Language arts

Language arts (also known as English language arts) is the study and improvement of the arts of language.

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Learning space

Learning space or learning setting refers to a physical setting for a learning environment, a place in which teaching and learning occur.

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Local education authority

Local education authorities (LEAs) are the local councils in England and Wales that are responsible for education within their jurisdiction.

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Lunch, the abbreviation for luncheon, is a meal typically eaten at midday.

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A lunch box, spelled lunchbox in almost all UK and US dictionaries, also referred to as a lunch pail or lunch kit, is used to store food to be taken anywhere.

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Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.

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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Millennium Development Goals

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.

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Ministry of National Education (France)

The Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research (Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche), or simply "Ministry of National Education", as the title has changed no small number of times in the course of the Fifth Republic is the French government cabinet member charged with running France's public educational system and with the supervision of agreements and authorizations for private teaching organizations.

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Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.

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Montessori education

The Montessori Method of education, developed by Maria Montessori, is a child-centered educational approach based on scientific observations of children from birth to adulthood.

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A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, which is approximately as long as a natural period related to the motion of the Moon; month and Moon are cognates.

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Morning is the interval between sunrise and noon.

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Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "⋅", by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division.

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National Center for Education Statistics

The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) is the part of the United States Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences (IES) that collects, analyzes, and publishes statistics on education and public school district finance information in the United States.

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National Louis University

National Louis University (NLU) is a private non-profit American university.

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Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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New Lanark

New Lanark is a village on the River Clyde, approximately 1.4 miles (2.2 kilometres) from Lanark, in Lanarkshire, and some southeast of Glasgow, Scotland.

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North Rhine-Westphalia

North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

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Northern Territory

The Northern Territory (abbreviated as NT) is a federal Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia.

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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.

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Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.

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A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats.

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Pedagogy is the discipline that deals with the theory and practice of teaching and how these influence student learning.

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Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Pestalozzi-Fröbel Haus

The Pestalozzi-Fröbel-Haus was founded in 1882.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.

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Picture book

A picture book combines visual and verbal narratives in a book format, most often aimed at young children.

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Play (activity)

In psychology and ethology, play is a range of voluntary, intrinsically motivated activities normally associated with recreational pleasure and enjoyment.

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Play-Doh (similar to "dough") is a modeling compound used by young children for arts and crafts projects at home.

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A playground, playpark, or play area is a place specifically designed to enable children to play there.

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Playground slide

Playground slides are found in parks, schools, playgrounds and backyards.

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Pledge of Allegiance (United States)

The Pledge of Allegiance of the United States is an expression of allegiance to the Flag of the United States and the republic of the United States of America.

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Poppenhusen Institute

Poppenhusen Institute is a historic building at 114—04 14th Road in College Point, Queens that housed the first free kindergarten in America.

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Pre-kindergarten (also called Pre-K or PK) is a classroom-based preschool program for children below the age of five in the United States, Canada and Turkey (when kindergarten starts).

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Pre-math skills

"Pre-math skills" (referred to in British English as pre-maths skills) is a term used in some countries to refer to math skills learned by preschoolers and kindergarten students, including learning to count numbers (usually from 1 to 10 but occasionally including 0), learning the proper sequencing of numbers, learning to determine which shapes are bigger or smaller, and learning to count objects on a screen or book.

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Pre-school playgroup

A pre-school playgroup, or in everyday usage just a playgroup, is an organised group providing care and socialisation for children under five.

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A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, playschool or kindergarten, is an educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education at primary school.

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Primary school

A primary school (or elementary school in American English and often in Canadian English) is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about seven to twelve, coming after preschool, infant school and before secondary school.

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Prince Edward Island

Prince Edward Island (PEI or P.E.I.; Île-du-Prince-Édouard) is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, and several much smaller islands.

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Princess Pauline of Anhalt-Bernburg

Pauline Christine Wilhelmine of Anhalt-Bernburg (also: Princess Pauline of Lippe; 23 February 1769, Ballenstedt – 29 December 1820, Detmold) was a princess consort of Lippe, married in 1796 to Leopold I, Prince of Lippe.

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A principality (or princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince.

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Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.

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Reception (school)

Reception, Year 0, Primary 1, or FS2 (foundation second year) is the first year of primary school in the United Kingdom (except Northern Ireland and Scotland).

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Recess (break)

Recess is a general term for a period in which a group of people are temporarily dismissed from their duties.

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Reggio Emilia approach

The Reggio Emilia approach is an educational philosophy focused on preschool and primary education.

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Republic of Macedonia

Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds (or the same sound) in two or more words, most often in the final syllables of lines in poems and songs.

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Robert Owen

Robert Owen (14 May 1771 – 17 November 1858) was a Welsh textile manufacturer, philanthropic social reformer, and one of the founders of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement.

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Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Rosaura Zapata

Rosaura Zapata (1876? – July 23, 1963) was a Mexican educator who helped to found the national system of education.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Samuel Wilderspin

Samuel Wilderspin (23 March 1791, London – 1866) was an English educator known for his pioneering work on infant schools.

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Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small historic state in present-day Thuringia, Germany, with its capital at Rudolstadt.

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A season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and amount of daylight.

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Sight word

Sight words, often also called high frequency sight words, are commonly used words that young children are encouraged to memorize as a whole by sight, so that they can automatically recognize these words in print without having to use any strategies to decode.

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Skip counting

Skip counting is a mathematics technique taught as a kind of multiplication in reform mathematics textbooks such as TERC.

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Social studies

In the United States education system, social studies is the integrated study of multiple fields of social science and the humanities, including history, geography, and political science.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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Southern Germany

Southern Germany as a region has no exact boundary but is generally taken to include the areas in which Upper German dialects are spoken.

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St. Louis


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State school

State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.

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States of Germany

Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (Land, plural Länder; informally and very commonly Bundesland, plural Bundesländer).

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Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.

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Subsidiarity is a principle of social organization that holds that social and political issues should be dealt with at the most immediate (or local) level that is consistent with their resolution.

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Subtraction is an arithmetic operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a collection.

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Suddaby Public School

Suddaby Public School, originally known as Central School, is a public elementary school in Kitchener, Ontario (formerly known as Berlin).

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Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

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Susan Blow

Susan Elizabeth Blow (June 7, 1843 – March 27, 1916) was an American educator who opened the first successful public Kindergarten in the United States.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Swing (seat)

A swing is a hanging seat, often found at playgrounds for children, at a circus for acrobats, or on a porch for relaxing, although they may also be items of indoor furniture, such as Latin American hammock or the Indian oonjal.

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Taekwondo (from Korean 태권도, 跆拳道) is a Korean martial art, characterised by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques.

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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.

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A teacher (also called a school teacher or, in some contexts, an educator) is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values.

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Teréz Brunszvik

Countess Teréz Brunszvik de Korompa (Therese Countess von Brunsvik or Brunswick) (July 27, 1775, Pozsony, Kingdom of Hungary – September 23, 1861, Pest, Kingdom of Hungary) was a member of the Hungarian nobility, pedagoge and a follower of the Swiss Pestalozzi.

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Tic-tac-toe (also known as noughts and crosses or Xs and Os) is a paper-and-pencil game for two players, X and O, who take turns marking the spaces in a 3×3 grid.

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Toronto Normal School

The Toronto Normal School was a teachers college in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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A toy is an item that is used in play, especially one designed for such use.

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U.S. state

A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.

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Umbrella term

An umbrella term is a word or phrase that covers a wide range of concepts belonging to a common category.

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Universal preschool

Universal preschool is an international movement to use public funding to ensure high quality preschool (pre-k) is available to all families.

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Victoria (Australia)

Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a state in south-eastern Australia.

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Waldorf education

Waldorf education, also known as Steiner education, is based on the educational philosophy of Rudolf Steiner, the founder of Anthroposophy.

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Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.

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Watertown, Wisconsin

Watertown is a city in Dodge and Jefferson counties in the U.S. state of Wisconsin.

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Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.

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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.

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Wesleyan Church

The Wesleyan Church is a holiness Protestant Christian denomination in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, South Africa, Namibia, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Indonesia, Asia, and Australia.

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Redirects here:

0th grade, All-day kindergarten, Children's garden, Grade 0, Grade primary, Grade zero, Junior Kindergarten, Junior kindergarten, Kdgn., Kiddengarden, Kindegarden, Kindergarden, Kindergartener, Kindergarteners, Kindergartens, Kindergartin, Kindergartner, Kindy, Play center, Playcenter, Pre-Primary, Pre-primary, Prepatory grade, Zeroth grade.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kindergarten

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