259 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Achaemenid Empire, Adiabene, Ahura Mazda, Akhurian River, Akkadian language, Alexander the Great, Amphitheatre, Anahit, Anahita, Anatolia, Ancient Carthage, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Aphrodite, Apollo, Ara the Beautiful, Arabs, Aramaic alphabet, Aramaic language, Aramazd, Aras (river), Archery, Ardahan, Armavir (ancient city), Armavir, Armenia, Armenian alphabet, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Highlands, Armenian language, Armenian Mesopotamia, Armenian mythology, Armenian nobility, Arsacid dynasty of Armenia, Arsamosata, Artavasdes II of Armenia, Artaxata, Artaxiad dynasty, Artaxias I, Artaxias IV, Artemis, Artsakh (historic province), Arzanene, Assyria, Astghik, Atropatene, Augustus, Axidares of Armenia, Ayrarat, İspir, ..., Baalshamin, Bactria, Baghaberd, Bagratid Armenia, Bagratuni dynasty, Barda, Azerbaijan, Barsamin, Bartholomew the Apostle, Battle of Gaugamela, Battle of Magnesia, Battle of Tigranocerta, Bible translations, Black Sea, Book of Judith, Book of Proverbs, Buffer state, Byzantine Armenia, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine–Sasanian wars, Caligula, Cappadocia, Caspiane, Cataphract, Caucasian Albania, Caucasus, Christianity, Cilicia, Classical antiquity, Claudius, Client state, Constantine the Great, Corduene, Derik, Turkey, Diyadin, Dvin (ancient city), Dying-and-rising deity, Eastern Armenia, Edessa, Edict of Milan, Elamite language, Empire, Erato of Armenia, Erzurum, Etchmiadzin Cathedral, Fertile Crescent, Final War of the Roman Republic, Gagik Sargsyan, Gavar, George Bournoutian, Georgia (country), Georgians, Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, Governor, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Gregory the Illuminator, Gugark, Hannibal, Hasmonean dynasty, Hayk, Hegemony, Hellenistic period, Hercules, History of Armenia (book), Inanna, India, Interpretatio graeca, Iran, Iranian languages, Iranian peoples, Isaac of Armenia, Josephus, Jude the Apostle, Judea, Karin, Armenia, Khor Virap, Khosrov I of Armenia, Khosrov III the Small, Khoy, King of Kings, Kingdom of Iberia, Kingdom of Pontus, Kozan, Adana, Kura (Caspian Sea), Lake Van, Lebanon, Legatus, Legio III Gallica, Legio V Macedonica, Legio X Fretensis, Legio XV Apollinaris, Legio XXII Deiotariana, Lesser Armenia, List of Armenian kings, Lucius Verus, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedonians (Greeks), Magi, Malazgirt, Mark Antony, Medes, Menon IV of Pharsalus, Mesopotamia, Mesrop Mashtots, Middle Ages, Middle East, Middle Persian, Mihr (Armenian deity), Mithra, Mithridates of Armenia, Mithridates VI of Pontus, Monarch, Monarchy, Mount Ararat, Mountains of Ararat, Mounted archery, Movses Kaghankatvatsi, Movses Khorenatsi, Moxoene, Muslim conquest of Persia, Nabataeans, Nakharar, Nanaya, Nane (goddess), Neoptolemus (general), Nero, Nicopolis (Armenia), Nobility, Nor Shirakan, Old Persian, Oltu, Orontes III, Orontes IV, Orontid Dynasty, Osroene, Oxford University Press, Pannonia, Parthia, Parthian Empire, Parthian language, Paytakaran, Paytakaran (city), Pinik, Plutarch, Procopius, Rhadamistus, Roman army, Roman Empire, Roman legion, Roman province, Roman Republic, Roman Syria, Roman–Parthian War of 58–63, Roman–Parthian Wars, Royal family, Royal family of Emesa, Sanatruk, Sasanian Armenia, Sasanian Empire, Satala, Satrap, Satrapy of Armenia, Seleucid Empire, Semiramis, Shapur II, Shusha, Silk Road, Sophene, Sphere of influence, Stepan Malkhasyants, Strabo, Syria, Syunik (historic province), Tayk, Temple, Thessaly, Tigranes the Great, Tigranes V of Armenia, Tigranes VI of Armenia, Tigranocerta, Tir (god), Tiridates I of Armenia, Tiridates III of Armenia, Titan (mythology), Trajan, Tsovinar (goddess), Turkey, Turuberan, Umayyad Caliphate, Upper Armenia, Urartian language, Urartu, Urartu–Assyria War, Usurper, Utik, Vagharshapat, Vahagn, Vahan Kurkjian, Van, Turkey, Vardavar, Vaspurakan, Verethragna, Vologases I of Parthia, Vologases III of Parthia, Vologases IV, Yervandashat (ancient city), Zabdicene, Zariadres, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (209 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Adiabene (from the Ancient Greek Ἀδιαβηνή, Adiabene, itself derived from ܚܕܝܐܒ, or, Middle Persian: Nodshēragān, Armenian: Նոր Շիրական, Nor Shirakan) was an ancient kingdom in Assyria, with its capital at Arbela (modern-day Erbil, Iraq).
Ahura Mazda (also known as Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, Harzoo and Hurmuz) is the Avestan name for the creator and sole God of Zoroastrianism, the old Iranian religion that spread across the Middle East, before ultimately being relegated to small minorities after the Muslim conquest of Iran.
The Akhurian, Akhuriyan, Akhuryan or Akhouryan (Ախուրյան Axuryan; Ախուրեան Axurean; Arpaçay; Арпачай or Ахурян) is a river in the South Caucasus.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
An amphitheatre or amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports.
Anahit (Անահիտ) was the goddess of fertility and healing, wisdom and water in Armenian mythology.
Anahita is the Old Persian form of the name of an Iranian goddess and appears in complete and earlier form as Aredvi Sura Anahita (Arədvī Sūrā Anāhitā), the Avestan name of an Indo-Iranian cosmological figure venerated as the divinity of "the Waters" (Aban) and hence associated with fertility, healing and wisdom.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician state, including, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence, known as the Carthaginian Empire.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
Ara the Beautiful (also Ara the Handsome; Արա Գեղեցիկ Ara Geghetsik) is a legendary Armenian hero.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct from it by the 8th century BCE.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Aramazd was the chief and creator god in pre-Christian Armenian mythology.
The Aras or Araxes is a river flowing through Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran.
Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.
Ardahan (არტაანი, Art’aani; Արդահան, Ardahan) is a city in northeastern Turkey, near the Georgian border.
Armavir (Արմավիր) was a large commercial city and the capital of ancient Armenia during the reign of the Orontid Dynasty.
Armavir (Արմավիր), is a town and urban municipal community located in the west of Armenia serving as the administrative centre of Armavir Province.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.
The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.
The Armenian Highlands (Haykakan leṙnašxarh; also known as the Armenian Upland, Armenian plateau, Armenian tableland,Hewsen, Robert H. "The Geography of Armenia" in The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century. Richard G. Hovannisian (ed.) New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997, pp. 1-17 or simply Armenia) is the central-most and highest of three land-locked plateaus that together form the northern sector of the Middle East.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Armenian Mesopotamia was a region in Northern Mesopotamia that was inhabited partly by Armenians, Tigranes the Great seized Northern Mesopotamia, and from 401 BC, to 387 AD was part of Kingdom of Armenia.
Armenian mythology began with ancient Indo-European and Urartian origins, gradually incorporating Mesopotamian, Iranian, and Greek ideas and deities.
The Armenian nobility (Հայ ազնվականություն) was a class of persons which enjoyed certain privileges relative to other members of society under the laws and customs of various regimes of Armenia.
The Arsacid dynasty, known natively as the Arshakuni dynasty (Արշակունի Aršakuni), ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 to 428.
Arsamosata (Ἀρσαμόσατα) was a city in Armenian Sophene near the Euphrates.
Artavasdes II (ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΡΤΑΥΑΖΔΟΥ Basileos Artavazdou, Արտավազդ Երկրորդ Artavazd Yerkrord) was a King of the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 BC until 34 BC and a member of the Artaxiad Dynasty.
Artashat (Արտաշատ); Hellenized as Artaxata (Ἀρτάξατα), was a large commercial city and the capital of ancient Armenia during the reign of king Artaxias I; the founder of the Artaxiad Dynasty of the ancient Kingdom of Armenia.
The Artaxiad dynasty or Ardaxiad dynasty (Artashesian Dynasty, Armenian: Արտաշեսյան արքայատոհմ) ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 189 BC until their overthrow by the Romans in AD 12.
Artaxias I (Άρταξίας, Artashes Արտաշես; reigned 190/189 BC160/159 BC) was the founder of the Artaxiad Dynasty whose members ruled the Kingdom of Armenia for nearly two centuries.
Artaxias IV or Artashir IV who is also known as Artaxias, Artashes, Artashes IV, Artashir, Ardases, Ardasir and Artases (Արտաշես, flourished 5th century) was a prince who served as a Sassanid client king of eastern Armenia from 422 until 428.
Artemis (Ἄρτεμις Artemis) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities.
Artsakh (Արցախ) was the tenth province (nahang) of the Kingdom of Armenia from 189 BC until 387 AD and afterwards a region of the Caucasian Albanian satrapy of Sasanid Persia from 387 to the 7th century.
Arzanene (Ἀρζανηνή), in Armenian Aghdznik or Altzniq (Ałjnikʿ), was a historical region in southwestern Greater Armenia.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
In the earliest prehistoric period Astghik, or Astɫik, (Աստղիկ) had been worshipped as the Armenian deity of fertility and love, later the skylight had been considered her personification, and she had been the consort of Vahagn.
Atropatene (in Ἀτροπατηνή; in Middle Iranian: Atropatkan and Atorpatkan) was an ancient kingdom established and ruled under local ethnic Iranian dynasties, first with Darius III of Persia and later Alexander the Great of Macedonia starting in the 4th century BC and includes the territory of modern-day Iranian Azerbaijan, Iranian Kurdistan, and a small part of the contemporary Azerbaijan Republic.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Axidares or Ashkhadar also known as Exedares or Exedates (flourished second half of the 1st century & first half of the 2nd century, died 113) was a Parthian Prince who served as a Roman Client King of Armenia.
Ayrarat was a province of old Armenia (c. 300–800).
İspir (სპერი, Speri) is a town and district of Erzurum Province in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey, on the Çoruh River.
Baalshamin or Ba'al Šamem (Aramaic: ܒܥܠ ܫܡܝܢ), lit.
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
Baghaberd (Բաղաբերդ; also David Bek's Castle) is a 4th to 12th century Armenian fortress located along a ridge overlooking the Voghji River, northwest of the village of Kapan in the Syunik Province of Armenia.
The Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia, also known as Bagratid Armenia (Բագրատունյաց Հայաստան Bagratunyats Hayastan or Բագրատունիների թագավորություն, Bagratunineri t’agavorut’yun, "kingdom of the Bagratunis"), was an independent state established by Ashot I Bagratuni in the early 880s following nearly two centuries of foreign domination of Greater Armenia under Arab Umayyad and Abbasid rule.
The Bagratuni or Bagratid (Բագրատունի) royal dynasty was a royal family of Armenia that ruled many regional polities of the medieval Kingdom of Armenia, such as Syunik, Lori, Vaspurakan, Vanand, Taron, and Tayk.
Barda (Bərdə) is the capital city of the Barda Rayon in Azerbaijan, located south of Yevlax and on the left bank of the Tartar river.
Barsamin (Barshamin) was a weather or sky god among the pre-Christian Armenians.
Bartholomew (translit; Bartholomew Israelite origin Bartholomaeus; ⲃⲁⲣⲑⲟⲗⲟⲙⲉⲟⲥ) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus from ancient Jewish Israel.
The Battle of Gaugamela (Γαυγάμηλα), also called the Battle of Arbela (Ἄρβηλα), was the decisive battle of Alexander the Great's invasion of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
The Battle of Magnesia was the concluding battle of the Roman–Seleucid War, fought in 190 BC near Magnesia ad Sipylum on the plains of Lydia between Romans, led by the consul Lucius Cornelius Scipio and the Roman ally Eumenes II of Pergamum, and the army of Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid Empire.
The Battle of Tigranocerta (Tigranakerti tchakatamart) was fought on 6 October 69 BC between the forces of the Roman Republic and the army of the Kingdom of Armenia led by King Tigranes the Great.
The Bible has been translated into many languages from the biblical languages of Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Book of Judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the Septuagint and the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christian Old Testament of the Bible, but excluded from Jewish texts and assigned by Protestants to the Apocrypha.
The Book of Proverbs (Hebrew: מִשְלֵי, Míshlê (Shlomoh), "Proverbs (of Solomon)") is the second book of the third section (called Writings) of the Hebrew Bible and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers.
Byzantine Armenia, sometimes Western Armenia, is the name given to the parts of Kingdom of Armenia that became part of the Byzantine Empire.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine–Sassanid wars, also known as the Irano-Byzantine wars refers to a series of conflicts between the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and the Sassanian Empire of Persia.
Caligula (Latin: Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 31 August 12 – 24 January 41 AD) was Roman emperor from AD 37 to AD 41.
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
Caspiane, or Kaspiane (Կասպք Kaspkʿ) was the land populated by the tribe of Caspians, after whom it received its name.
A cataphract was a form of armored heavy cavalry used in ancient warfare by a number of peoples in Europe, East Asia, Middle East and North africa.
Albania, usually referred to as Caucasian Albania for disambiguation with the modern state of Albania (the endonym is unknownRobert H. Hewsen. "Ethno-History and the Armenian Influence upon the Caucasian Albanians", in: Samuelian, Thomas J. (Ed.), Classical Armenian Culture. Influences and Creativity. Chicago: 1982, pp. 27-40.Bosworth, Clifford E.. Encyclopædia Iranica.), is a name for the historical region of the eastern Caucasus, that existed on the territory of present-day republic of Azerbaijan (where both of its capitals were located) and partially southern Dagestan.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
In antiquity, Cilicia(Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Corduene (also known as Gorduene, Cordyene, Cardyene, Carduene, Gordyene, Gordyaea, Korduene, Gordian; Kardox; Karduya; Կորճայք Korchayk;; Hebrew: קרטיגיני) was an ancient region located in northern Mesopotamia, present-day eastern Turkey.
Derik (ܖܪܝܟܐ Dêrike, Dêrika Çiyayê Mazî) is a district of the Mardin Province in the southeastern Anatolia region of Turkey.
Diyadin (Armenian: Տատէոն (Latin transliteration: Tatēon); Giyadîn) is a district of Ağrı Province of Turkey, at the foot of Mount Tendürek, a high peak in the Aladağlar range that stands between Ağrı and the north shore of Lake Van.
Dvin (label, reformed; Δούβιος, or Τίβιον,;; also Duin or Dwin in ancient sources) was a large commercial city and the capital of early medieval Armenia.
A dying-and-rising, death-rebirth, or resurrection deity is a religious motif in which a god or goddess dies and is resurrected.
Eastern Armenia (Արևելյան Հայաստան Arevelyan Hayastan) is a term used by Armenians to refer to the eastern parts of the Armenian Highlands, the traditional homeland of the Armenian people.
Edessa (Ἔδεσσα; الرها ar-Ruhā; Şanlıurfa; Riha) was a city in Upper Mesopotamia, founded on an earlier site by Seleucus I Nicator ca.
The Edict of Milan (Edictum Mediolanense) was the February 313 AD agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire.
Elamite is an extinct language that was spoken by the ancient Elamites.
An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, Spanish Empire, Portuguese Empire, French Empire, Persian Empire, Russian Empire, German Empire, Abbasid Empire, Umayyad Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, or Roman Empire".
Erato also known as Queen Erato (flourished second half of 1st century BC & first half of 1st century, died sometime after 12) was a princess of the Kingdom of Armenia and member of the Artaxiad Dynasty.
Erzurum (Կարին) is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey).
Etchmiadzin Cathedral (Էջմիածնի մայր տաճար, Ēǰmiatsni mayr tačar) is the mother church of the Armenian Apostolic Church, located in the city of Vagharshapat (Etchmiadzin), Armenia.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
The Final War of the Roman Republic, also known as Antony's Civil War or The War between Antony and Octavian, was the last of the Roman civil wars of the Roman Republic, fought between Mark Antony (assisted by Cleopatra) and Octavian.
Gagik Sargsyan (Գագիկ Խորենի Սարգսյան, April 6, 1926 in Yerevan – August 25, 1998 in Yerevan) was an Armenian Historian, Academic, Vice-president of the Armenian Academy of Sciences.
Gavar (Գավառ), is a town and urban municipal community in Armenia serving as the administrative centre of Gegharkunik Province.
George A. Bournoutian (جورج بورنوتیان., 25 September 1943, Isfahan, Iran) is an Iranian-American professor, historian, and author of Armenian descent.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo (Peltuinum c. 7 – 67 AD) was a Roman general, brother-in-law of the emperor Caligula and father-in-law of Domitian.
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Saint Gregory the Illuminator (classical reformed: Գրիգոր Լուսավորիչ; Grigor Lusavorich) (&ndash) is the patron saint and first official head of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
Gugark (Գուգարք, wikt:Gogarene, Gogarene) was the 13th province of Greater Armenia.
Hannibal Barca (𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋 𐤁𐤓𐤒 ḥnb‘l brq; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general, considered one of the greatest military commanders in history.
The Hasmonean dynasty (חַשְׁמוֹנַּאִים, Ḥašmōna'īm) was a ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity.
Hayk the Great (Հայկ),, or The Great Hayk, also known as Hayk Nahapet (Հայկ Նահապետ,, Hayk the "head of family" or patriarch), is the legendary patriarch and founder of the Armenian nation.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Hercules is a Roman hero and god.
The History of Armenia (Պատմություն Հայոց, Patmut'yun Hayots) attributed to Movses Khorenatsi is an early account of Armenia, covering the origins of the Armenian people as well as Armenia's interaction with Sassanid, Byzantine and Arsacid empires down to the 5th century.
Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Interpretatio graeca (Latin, "Greek translation" or "interpretation by means of Greek ") is a discourse in which ancient Greek religious concepts and practices, deities, and myths are used to interpret or attempt to understand the mythology and religion of other cultures.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
Isaac or Sahak of Armenia (354–439) was Catholicos (or Patriarch) of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Jude, also known as Judas Thaddaeus (Θαδδαῖος; ⲑⲁⲇⲇⲉⲟⲥ), was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
Karin (Կարին), is a village in the Aragatsotn Province of Armenia.
The Khor Virap (Խոր Վիրապ, meaning "deep dungeon") is an Armenian monastery located in the Ararat plain in Armenia, near the closed border with Turkey, about south of Artashat, Ararat Province, within the territory of ancient Artaxata.
Khosrov I (Խոսրով Ա, flourished second half of the 2nd century and first half of the 3rd century, died 217) was a Parthian Prince who served as a Roman Client King of Armenia.
Khosrov III the Small (Խոսրով Գ Կոտակ, Khosrov III Kotak; Kotak means small, flourished second half of the 3rd century & first half of the 4th century, ruled 330–339) was a Prince who served as a Roman Client King of Arsacid Armenia.
Khoy (خوی; خوی; also Romanized as Khoy and Khoi), is a city and capital of Khoy County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
The genitive phrase King of Kings (Assyrian šar šarrāni, Hebrew מֶלֶךְ מְלָכִים melek mĕlakîm, Persian شاهنشاه) is a superlative expression for "great king" or high king; it is probably originally of Semitic origins (compare the superlatives Lord of Lords, Song of Songs or Holy of Holies), but from there was also adopted in Persian (Shahanshah), Hellenistic and Christian traditions.
In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Ancient Greek: Ἰβηρία; Hiberia) was an exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.
The Kingdom of Pontus or Pontic Empire was a state founded by the Persian Mithridatic dynasty,http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/pontus which may have been directly related to Darius the Great and the Achaemenid dynasty.
Kozan (formerly Sis Սիս) is a city in Adana Province, Turkey, northeast of Adana, in the northern section of the Çukurova plain.
The Kura (Kura; Kür; მტკვარი, Mt’k’vari; Կուր, Kur; Κῦρος, Cyrus; کوروش, Kuruš) is an east-flowing river south of the Greater Caucasus Mountains which drains the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus east into the Caspian Sea.
Lake Van (Van Gölü, Վանա լիճ, Vana lič̣, Gola Wanê), the largest lake in Turkey, lies in the far east of that country in the provinces of Van and Bitlis.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
A legatus (anglicized as legate) was a high ranking Roman military officer in the Roman Army, equivalent to a modern high ranking general officer.
Legio tertia Gallica ("Gallic Third Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded around 49 BC by Gaius Julius Caesar for his civil war against The Republicans led by Pompey.
Legio quinta Macedonica (the Fifth Macedonian Legion) was a Roman legion.
Legio X Fretensis ("Tenth legion of the Strait") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army.
Legio quinta decima Apollinaris ("Apollo's Fifteenth Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was recruited by Octavian in 41/40 BC. The emblem of this legion was probably a picture of Apollo, or of one of his holy animals. XV Apollinaris is sometimes confused with two other legions with the same number: An earlier unit which was commanded by Julius Caesar and met its end in North Africa in 49 BC, and a later unit that was present at the Battle of Philippi on the side of the Second Triumvirate and then sent east.
Legio vigesima secunda Deiotariana ("Deiotarus' Twenty-Second Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army, founded ca.
Lesser Armenia (Փոքր Հայք, Pokr Hayk; Armenia Minor), also known as Armenia Minor and Armenia Inferior, comprised the Armenian–populated regions primarily to the west and northwest of the ancient Kingdom of Armenia (also known as Kingdom of Greater Armenia).
This is a list of the kings and queens of Armenia, for more information on ancient Armenia and Armenians, please see History of Armenia.
Lucius Verus (Lucius Aurelius Verus Augustus; 15 December 130 – 23 January 169 AD) was the co-emperor of Rome with his adoptive brother Marcus Aurelius from 161 until his own death in 169.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
The Macedonians (Μακεδόνες, Makedónes) are a regional and historical population group of ethnic Greeks, inhabiting or originating mainly from the Greek region of Macedonia, in Northern Greece, which incorporates most of the territories (and the two capitals) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia.
Magi (singular magus; from Latin magus) denotes followers of Zoroastrianism or Zoroaster.
Malazgirt (also Malâzgird; Մանազկերտ Manazkert; Ματζιέρτη Matzierte; historically Manzikert, Μαντζικέρτ) is a town in Muş Province in eastern Turkey, with a population of 23,697 (year 2000).
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
Menon (in Greek Mενων; died 321 BC) was a citizen of Pharsalus in Thessaly, and a man of great influence and reputation, took a prominent part in the Lamian war, and commanded the Thessalian cavalry in the battle with the Macedonians, in which Leonnatus was slain.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Mesrop Mashtots (Մեսրոպ Մաշտոց Mesrop Maštoc'; Mesrobes Mastosius; 362February 17, 440 AD), was an early medieval Armenian linguist, theologian, statesman and hymnologist.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.
Mihr is the deity of the light of heaven and the god of Truth in ancient Armenian mythology.
Mithra (𐬀𐬭𐬚𐬌𐬨 Miθra, 𐎷𐎰𐎼 Miça, New Persian: Mehr) is the Zoroastrian angelic divinity (yazata) of Covenant, Light, and Oath.
Mithridates of Armenia (Միհրդատ Իբերացի, მითრიდატე; fl. 1st century) was an Iberian prince who served as a King of Armenia under the protection of the Roman Empire.
Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI (Μιθραδάτης, Μιθριδάτης), from Old Persian Miθradāta, "gift of Mithra"; 135–63 BC, also known as Mithradates the Great (Megas) and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia (now Turkey) from about 120–63 BC.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı; Մասիս, Masis and Արարատ, Ararat) is a snow-capped and dormant compound volcano in the extreme east of Turkey.
In the Book of Genesis, the mountains of Ararat (Biblical Hebrew, Tiberian hārēy Ǎrārāṭ, Septuagint: ὄρη τὰ Ἀραράτ) is the term used to designate the region in which Noah's Ark comes to rest after the Great Flood.
A horse archer is a cavalryman armed with a bow, able to shoot while riding from horseback.
Movses Kaghankatvatsi (Մովսէս Կաղանկատուացի Movses Kaġankatvac’i), or Movses Daskhurantsi (Մովսէս Դասխուրանցի Movses Dasxuranc’i) is the reputed author (or authors) of a tenth-century Classical Armenian historiographical work on Caucasian Albania and eastern provinces of Armenia, known as The History of the Country of Albania (Պատմութիւն Աղուանից, Patmutʿiwn Ałuanicʿ).
Movses Khorenatsi (ca. 410–490s AD; Խորենացի,, also written as Movsēs Xorenac‘i and Moses of Khoren, Moses of Chorene, and Moses Chorenensis in Latin sources) was a prominent Armenian historian from the period of Late Antiquity and the author of the History of Armenia.
Moxoene (Մոկք, Mokkʿ) was a province of old Armenia, today in Van province, Turkey, as well as a feudal familial name c. 400–800, also known by the name Moghk or Mox, Moxq, Moxus, Moxos, Moks, Mukus, Miks, Mikus, sometimes Mekes, as Muksî or Muskî in Kurdish, today Bahçesaray in Turkish.
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).
The Nabataeans, also Nabateans (الأنباط  , compare Ναβαταῖος, Nabataeus), were an Arab people who inhabited northern Arabia and the Southern Levant.
Nakharar (նախարար naxarar, from Parthian naxvadār "holder of the primacy") was a hereditary title of the highest order given to houses of the ancient and medieval Armenian nobility.
Nanaya (Sumerian, DNA.NA.A; also transcribed as "Nanâ", "Nanãy", "Nanaja", "Nanãja", or '"Nanãya"; in Greek: Ναναια or Νανα; Aramaic: ננױננאױ) is the canonical name for a goddess worshipped by the Sumerians and Akkadians, a deity who personified voluptuousness and sexuality,Westenholz, 1997 and warfare.
Nane (Նանե, Nanė) was an Armenian mother goddess, as well as the goddess of war and wisdom.
Neoptolemus (in Greek Νεoπτόλεμος; died 321 BC) was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great.
Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Nicopolis (Νικόπολις, "city of victory") was a Roman colony in Lesser Armenia founded by Pompey in 63 BC after conquering the Kingdom of Pontus in the third Mithridatic War.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
Nor Shirakan (Նոր Շիրական), Parskahayk (Պարսկահայք) or Persarmenia, was the seventh province of Greater Armenia, situated on the western shore of Lake Urmia, bordered on Adiabene and Atropatene, now in northwestern Iran.
Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).
Oltu (Oltisi); is a town and district of Erzurum Province in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.
Orontes III (Armenian: Երուանդ Գ, Yervand III) was King of Armenia.
Orontes IV (Armenian: Երվանդ Դ, Yervand IV) was the son of King Arsames and is recorded as ruling Armenia from inscriptions found at the historic capital of the Orontid dynasty, Armavir.
The Orontid dynasty, also known by their native name Eruandid or Yervanduni (Երվանդունի), was a hereditary Armenian dynasty and the rulers of the successor state to the Iron Age kingdom of Urartu (Ararat).
Osroene, also spelled Osroëne and Osrhoene (مملكة الرها; ܡܠܟܘܬܐ ܕܒܝܬ ܐܘܪܗܝ "Kingdom of Urhay"; Ὀσροηνή) and sometimes known by the name of its capital city, Edessa (now Şanlıurfa, Turkey), was a historical kingdom in Upper Mesopotamia, which was ruled by a dynasty of Arab origin.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
The Parthian language, also known as Arsacid Pahlavi and Pahlawānīg, is a now-extinct ancient Northwestern Iranian language spoken in Parthia, a region of northeastern ancient Iran.
Paytakaran (Փայտակարան Pʿaytakaran) was the easternmost province of the Kingdom of Armenia.
Paytakaran city was Greater Armenia's easternmost province's Paytakaran's main city.
Pinik was the main city of Korduq province in Greater Armenia.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Procopius of Caesarea (Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς Prokopios ho Kaisareus, Procopius Caesariensis; 500 – 554 AD) was a prominent late antique Greek scholar from Palaestina Prima.
Rhadamistus (რადამისტი, radamist'i, Հռադամիզդ, Hřadamizd) (died 58) was a royal prince of the Pharnavazid dynasty of the Kingdom of Iberia who reigned over the Kingdom of Armenia from 51 to 53 and 54 to 55.
The Roman army (Latin: exercitus Romanus) is a term that can in general be applied to the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC) to the Roman Republic (500–31 BC) and the Roman Empire (31 BC – 395), and its medieval continuation the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.
The Roman–Parthian War of 58–63 or the War of the Armenian Succession was fought between the Roman Empire and the Parthian Empire over control of Armenia, a vital buffer state between the two realms.
The Roman–Parthian Wars (66 BC – 217 AD) were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.
A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family.
The Emesani dynasty or the Sempsigerami of Emesa, sometimes known as the Sampsiceramids (Arabic: آل شميس غرام) were a ruling Roman client dynasty of priest-kings in Emesa, Syria Province (modern Homs, Syria).
Sanatruk (Սանատրուկ, Latinized as Sanatruces) was a member of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia who succeeded Tiridates I of Armenia as King of Armenia at the end of the 1st century.
Sasanian Armenia, also known as Persian Armenia and Persarmenia (Պարսկահայաստան – Parskahayastan), may either refer to the periods where Armenia (𐭠𐭫𐭬𐭭𐭩 – Armin) was under the suzerainty of the Sasanian Empire, or specifically to the parts of Armenia under its control such as after the partition of 387 AD when parts of western Armenia were incorporated into the Byzantine Empire while the rest of Armenia came under Sasanian suzerainty whilst maintaining its existing kingdom until 428.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Located in Turkey, the settlement of Satala (Սատաղ Satał), according to the ancient geographers, was situated in a valley surrounded by mountains, a little north of the Euphrates, where the road from Trapezus to Samosata crossed the boundary of the Roman Empire, when it was a bishopric, which remains a Latin Catholic titular see.
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
The Satrapy of Armenia (Սատրապական Հայաստան Satrapakan Hayastan; Old Persian: Armina or Arminiya), a region controlled by the Orontid Dynasty (Երվանդունիներ Yervanduniner; 570–201 BC) was one of the satrapies of the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC, which later became an independent kingdom.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Semiramis (Assyrian;ܫܲܡܝܼܪܵܡ Shamiram,; Σεμίραμις, Շամիրամ Shamiram) was the legendary Lydian-Babylonian wife of Onnes and Ninus, succeeding the latter to the throne of Assyria.
Shapur II (𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩 Šāpuhr), also known as Shapur II the Great, was the tenth Shahanshah of the Sasanian Empire.
Shusha (Şuşa; Шуша), or Shushi (Շուշի), is a city in the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh in the South Caucasus.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Sophene (Ծոփք Tsopkh, translit or Չորրորդ Հայք, Fourth Armenia) was a province of the Armenian Kingdom and of the Roman Empire, located in the south-west of the kingdom.
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
Stepanos Sargsi Malkhasyants (Ստեփան Սարգսի Մալխասյանց; – July 21, 1947) was an Armenian academician, philologist, linguist, and lexicographer.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Syunik (Սյունիք) was the ninth province (nahang) of the Kingdom of Armenia from 189 BC until 428 AD.
Tayk (tajkʰ Taykʿ), was a historical province of the Greater Armenia, one of its 15 ashkars (worlds).
A temple (from the Latin word templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice.
Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.
Tigranes II, more commonly known as Tigranes the Great (Տիգրան Մեծ, Tigran Mets; Τιγράνης ὁ Μέγας Tigránes ho Mégas; Tigranes Magnus) (140 – 55 BC) was King of Armenia under whom the country became, for a short time, the strongest state to Rome's east.
Tigranes V, also known as Tigran V (Τιγράνης, Armenian: Տիգրան, 16 BC–36) was a Herodian Prince who served as a Roman Client King of Armenia from the years 6 to 12.
Tigranes VI, also known as Tigran VI or by his Roman name Gaius Julius Tigranes (Γαίος Ιούλιος Τιγράνης., Armenian:Տիգրան, before 25 – after 68) was a Herodian Prince and served as a Roman Client King of Armenia in the 1st century.
Tigranocerta (Τιγρανόκερτα, Tigranόkerta; Tigranakert (Տիգրանակերտ)) was the capital of the Armenian Kingdom.
Tir or Tiur (Տիր) was the god of written language, schooling, rhetoric, wisdom, and the arts worshiped in ancient Armenia.
Tiridates I (Տրդատ Ա, Trdat A; 𐭕𐭉𐭓𐭉𐭃𐭕, Tīridāt; Τιριδάτης, Tiridátes) was King of Armenia beginning in 53 AD and the founder of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia.
Tiridates III (spelled Trdat; Armenian: Տրդատ Գ; 250–330) was the king of Arsacid Armenia (287–330), and is also known as Tiridates the Great Տրդատ Մեծ; some scholars incorrectly refer to him as Tiridates IV as a result of the fact that Tiridates I of Armenia reigned twice.
In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν, Titán, Τiτᾶνες, Titânes) and Titanesses (or Titanides; Greek: Τιτανίς, Titanís, Τιτανίδες, Titanídes) were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians.
Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.
Tsovinar or Nar was the Armenian goddess of water, sea, and rain.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turuberan (Տուրուբերան) was the fourth Armenian region that was part of the ancient Kingdom of Armenia from 189 BC to 387 AD.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
Upper Armenia (Բարձր Հայք Bardzr Hayq) was the first province of Greater Armenia, located in present-day Turkey, roughly corresponding to the modern province of Erzincan, to the west of the Kura River.
The Urartian or Vannic language was spoken by the inhabitants of the ancient kingdom of Urartu, located in the region of Lake Van, with its capital near the site of the modern town of Van, in the Armenian Highland, modern-day Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.
Urartu, which corresponds to the biblical mountains of Ararat, is the name of a geographical region commonly used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands.
The Urartu–Assyria War was a conflict between the Kingdom of Urartu and the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
A usurper is an illegitimate or controversial claimant to power, often but not always in a monarchy.
Utik (Ուտիք, also known as Uti, Utiq, or Outi) was a historic province of the Kingdom of Armenia and a region of Caucasian Albania after the splitting of Armenia in 387 AD by Sassanid Persia.
Vagharshapat (Վաղարշապատ), is the 4th-largest city in Armenia and the most populous municipal community of Armavir Province, by about west of the capital Yerevan, and north of the closed Turkish-Armenian border.
Vahagn Vishapakagh (Vahagn the Dragon Reaper) or Vahakn (Վահագն) was a god of fire and war worshiped anciently and historically in Armenia.
Vahan M. Kurkjian (Վահան Մ. Քուրքջյան; 1863–1961) was an Armenian author, historian, teacher, and community leader.
Van (Van; Վան; Wan; فان; Εύα, Eua) is a city in eastern Turkey's Van Province, located on the eastern shore of Lake Van.
Vardavar or Vartavar (Վարդավառ) is an Armenian festival in Armenia where people of social groups drench each other with water.
Vaspurakan (also transliterated as Vasbouragan in Western Armenian;, (Vaspourakan) meaning the "noble land" or "land of princes") was the eighth province of Greater Armenia, which later became an independent kingdom during the Middle Ages, centered on Lake Van.
Verethragna (vərəθraγna) is an Avestan language neuter noun literally meaning "smiting of resistance" Representing this concept is the divinity Verethragna, who is the hypostasis of "victory", and "as a giver of victory Verethragna plainly enjoyed the greatest popularity of old" The neuter noun verethragna is related to Avestan verethra, 'obstacle' and verethragnan, 'victorious'.
Vologases I of Parthia (ولاش يکم) sometimes called Vologaeses or Vologeses or following Parthian usage, Walagash (بلاش Balāsh) was king of the Parthian Empire from about 51 until his death in 78.
Vologases III (Parthian: Walagash, بلاش, Balāsh, Վաղարշ, Vāghārsh) was a Parthian Prince who claimed the throne of the Parthian Empire about 105, in the last days of Pacorus II of Parthia (80–105) and reigned over the eastern portion of the kingdom to 147.
Vologases IV of Parthia (Parthian: Walagash, بلاش, Balāsh) was the ruler of the Parthian Empire from 147 to 191.
Yervandashat (Երվանդաշատ), was an Armenian city and one of the 13 historic capitals of Armenia, serving as a capital city between 210 and 176 BC during the Orontid rule over Armenia and the beginning of their successors; the Artaxiad dynasty.
Zabdicene or Bezabde (translit; translit; Zabdiccena; translit) was a Carduchian principality in southeastern Anatolia, in today's south east Turkey.
Zariadres (Զարեհ Zareh) was a King of Sophene. Strabo cites Sophene being taken over by a "general" of king Antiochus III by 200 BC, called Zariadres.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Armenia Maior, Armenia Major, Armenian Empire, Armenian Kingdom, Armenian empire, Arsacid Armenia, Arsacid Kingdom of Armenia, Artaxiad Armenia, Artaxiad Kingdom of Armenia, Golden Age of Armenia, Golden age of armenia, Great Armenia, Greater Armenia (antiquity), Kingdom of Armenia (Antiquity).