170 relations: Alsace-Lorraine, Anif declaration, Annexation, Ansbach, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, Aschaffenburg, Augsburg, Austria-Hungary, Austrian Empire, Austro-Prussian War, Bad Kissingen, Bad Langensalza, Bad Orb, Baden, Baron Karl Ludwig von der Pfordten, Battle of Hohenlinden, Battle of Königgrätz, Battle of Langensalza (1866), Battle of Leipzig, Bavaria, Bavarian Army, Bavarian gulden, Bayreuth, Calvinism, Catholic Church, Centre Party (Germany), Chancellor of Germany, Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria, Coburg, Confederation of the Rhine, Conspiracy theory, Constitutional monarchy, Count Otto von Bray-Steinburg, County of Tyrol, Drowning, Duchy of Berg, Duchy of Jülich, Electoral Palatinate, Electorate of Bavaria, Electorate of Hesse, Electorate of Mainz, Fürth, Female education, First French Empire, Franco-Prussian War, Franconia, Frankfurt Constitution, Frankfurt Parliament, French invasion of Russia, Georg von Hertling, ..., German Confederation, German Empire, German gold mark, German Papiermark, German Reich, German Revolution of 1918–19, Gersfeld, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Grand Duchy of Würzburg, Greek War of Independence, Greeks, Hambach Festival, Hanau, Heidelberg, Hesse-Nassau, History of Bavaria, History of Germany, Holy Roman Empire, House of Palatinate-Birkenfeld, House of Wittelsbach, Ingolstadt, Isarkreis, Jean Victor Marie Moreau, Jews, Joseph Martin Reichard, Karl Philipp von Wrede, King of Bavaria, Kingdom of Hanover, Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Saxony, Kingdom of Württemberg, Kulturkampf, Kurt Eisner, Lake Starnberg, Landshut, Landtag of Bavaria, List of Counts Palatine of the Rhine, List of kings of Greece, List of Ministers-President of Bavaria, List of states of the German Confederation, List of states of the German Empire, Lower Bavaria, Lower Danube Circle, Lower Franconia, Ludwig I of Bavaria, Ludwig II of Bavaria, Ludwig III of Bavaria, Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria, Lutheranism, Main (river), Mainkreis (Bavaria), Mannheim, Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, Maximilian II of Bavaria, Maximilian von Montgelas, Michael von Faulhaber, Middle Franconia, Minister President of Prussia, Monarchism in Bavaria after 1918, Munich, Munich Residenz, Napoleon, Napoleon III, Napoleonic Wars, Neoclassical architecture, Neuschwanstein Castle, North German Confederation, Nuremberg, Oberdonaukreis, Ostheim, Otto of Bavaria, Otto of Greece, Otto Ritter von Dandl, Otto von Bismarck, Palatinate (region), Peace of Pressburg (1805), People's State of Bavaria, Prince Karl Theodor of Bavaria, Prince regent, Prince-elector, Protestantism, Prussia, Punctation of Olmütz, Regenkreis, Regensburg, Regent, Regierungsbezirk, Revolutions of 1830, Revolutions of 1848, Rezatkreis, Richard Wagner, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Munich and Freising, Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria, Salzburg (state), Serbia, Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Social democracy, Speyer, Swabia (Bavaria), Treaty of Lunéville, Treaty of Munich (1816), Treaty of Paris (1814), Treaty of Ried, Uettingen, Ultramontanism, Unification of Germany, Untermainkreis, Upper Bavaria, Upper Franconia, Upper German, Upper Palatinate, Versailles, Yvelines, Vorarlberg, War of the Sixth Coalition, Würzburg, Wilhelm II, German Emperor, William I, German Emperor, World War I, Zollverein, Zweibrücken. Expand index (120 more) » « Shrink index
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen, or Alsace-Moselle) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
The Anif declaration (Anifer Erklärung), issued by the king of Bavaria Ludwig III on 12 November 1918 at Anif Palace, Austria, was a declaration in which the monarch relieved all civil servants and military personnel from their oath of loyalty to him.
Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state.
Ansbach is a city in the German state of Bavaria.
Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia and, from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
Aschaffenburg is a town in northwest Bavaria, Germany.
Augsburg (Augschburg) is a city in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, or the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.
Bad Kissingen is a spa town in the Bavarian region of Lower Franconia and seat of the district Bad Kissingen.
Bad Langensalza (until 1956: Langensalza) is a spa town of 17,500 inhabitants in the district of Unstrut-Hainich, Thuringia, Germany.
Bad Orb ("Thermae on the Orb River") is a spa town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis district of Hesse, Germany.
Baden is a historical German territory.
Ludwig Karl Heinrich Freiherr von der Pfordten (11 September 1811 in Ried (Innkreis) – 18 August 1880 in Munich) was a Saxon and Bavarian attorney and politician.
The Battle of Hohenlinden was fought on 3 December 1800, during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Battle of Königgrätz (Schlacht bei Königgrätz), also known as the Battle of Sadowa, Sadová, or Hradec Králové, was the decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War, in which the Kingdom of Prussia defeated the Austrian Empire.
The Battle of Langensalza was fought on 27 June 1866 near Bad Langensalza in what is now modern Germany, between the Kingdom of Hanover (Hanoverians) and the Prussians.
The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations (Битва народов, Bitva narodov; Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig; Bataille des Nations, Slaget vid Leipzig) was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
The Bavarian Army was the army of the Electorate (1682–1806) and then Kingdom (1806–1919) of Bavaria.
The Gulden was the currency of Bavaria until 1873.
Bayreuth (Bavarian: Bareid) is a medium-sized town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Franconian Jura and the Fichtelgebirge Mountains.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or just Zentrum) is a lay Catholic political party in Germany, primarily influential during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic.
The title Chancellor has designated different offices in the history of Germany.
Charles Theodore (Karl Theodor; 11 December 1724 – 16 February 1799) reigned as Prince-elector and Count Palatine from 1742, as Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1742 and also as prince-elector and Duke of Bavaria from 1777 to his death.
Coburg is a town located on the Itz river in the Upper Franconia region of Bavaria, Germany.
The Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund; French: officially États confédérés du Rhin, but in practice Confédération du Rhin) was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire.
A conspiracy theory is an explanation of an event or situation that invokes an unwarranted conspiracy, generally one involving an illegal or harmful act carried out by government or other powerful actors.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Otto Kamillus Hugo Gabriel Count of Bray-Steinburg (* 17 May 1807 in Berlin – † 9 January 1899 in Munich) was a Bavarian diplomat and politician.
The (Princely) County of Tyrol was an estate of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140.
Drowning is defined as respiratory impairment from being in or under a liquid.
Berg was a state – originally a county, later a duchy – in the Rhineland of Germany.
The Duchy of Jülich (Herzogtum Jülich; Hertogdom Gulik; Duché de Juliers) comprised a state within the Holy Roman Empire from the 11th to the 18th centuries.
The County Palatine of the Rhine (Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein), later the Electorate of the Palatinate (Kurfürstentum von der Pfalz) or simply Electoral Palatinate (Kurpfalz), was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire (specifically, a palatinate) administered by the Count Palatine of the Rhine.
The Electorate of Bavaria (Kurfürstentum Bayern) was an independent hereditary electorate of the Holy Roman Empire from 1623 to 1806, when it was succeeded by the Kingdom of Bavaria.
The Electorate of Hesse (Kurfürstentum Hessen), also known as Hesse-Kassel or Kurhessen) was a state elevated by Napoleon in 1803 from the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel. When the Holy Roman Empire was abolished in 1806, the Prince-Elector of Hesse chose to remain an Elector, even though there was no longer an Emperor to elect. In 1807, with the Treaties of Tilsit the area was annexed to the Kingdom of Westphalia, but in 1814 the Congress of Vienna restored the electorate. The state was the only electorate within the German Confederation, consisting of several detached territories to the north of Frankfurt which survived until it was annexed by Prussia in 1866 following the Austro-Prussian War. It comprised a total land area of, and its population in 1864 was 745,063.
The Electorate of Mainz (Kurfürstentum Mainz or Kurmainz, Electoratus Moguntinus), also known in English by its French name, Mayence, was among most prestigious and the most influential states of the Holy Roman Empire from its creation to the dissolution of the HRE in the early years of the 19th century.
Fürth (East Franconian: Färdd; פיורדא, Fiurda) is a city in northern Bavaria, Germany, in the administrative division (Regierungsbezirk) of Middle Franconia.
Female education is a catch-all term of a complex set of issues and debates surrounding education (primary education, secondary education, tertiary education, and health education in particular) for girls and women.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
Franconia (Franken, also called Frankenland) is a region in Germany, characterised by its culture and language, and may be roughly associated with the areas in which the East Franconian dialect group, locally referred to as fränkisch, is spoken.
The Frankfurt Constitution (Frankfurter Reichsverfassung, FRV) or Constitution of St.
The Frankfurt Parliament (Frankfurter Nationalversammlung, literally Frankfurt National Assembly) was the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany, elected on 1 May 1848 (see German federal election, 1848).
The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
Georg Friedrich, Graf von Hertling (31 August 1843 – 4 January 1919) was a Bavarian politician who served as Minister-President of Bavaria 1912–1917 and then as Minister-President of Prussia and Chancellor of the German Empire from 1917 to 1918.
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Goldmark (officially just Mark, sign: ℳ) was the currency used in the German Empire from 1873 to 1914.
The name Papiermark ("paper mark", officially just Mark, sign: ℳ) is applied to the German currency from 4 August 1914 when the link between the Goldmark and gold was abandoned, due to the outbreak of World War I. In particular, the name is used for the banknotes issued during the hyperinflation in Germany of 1922 and especially 1923.
Deutsches Reich was the official name for the German nation state from 1871 to 1945 in the German language.
The German Revolution or November Revolution (Novemberrevolution) was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic.
Gersfeld is a town in the district of Fulda, in Hesse, Germany.
The Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine (Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein) was a state in western Germany that existed from the German mediatization to the end of the German Empire.
The Grand Duchy of Würzburg (Großherzogtum Würzburg) was a German grand duchy centered on Würzburg existing in the early 19th century.
The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution (Ελληνική Επανάσταση, Elliniki Epanastasi, or also referred to by Greeks in the 19th century as the Αγώνας, Agonas, "Struggle"; Ottoman: يونان عصياني Yunan İsyanı, "Greek Uprising"), was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1830.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
The Hambacher Festival was a German national democratic festival celebrated from 27 May to 30 May 1832 at Hambach Castle near Neustadt an der Haardt in present-day Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Hanau is a town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany.
Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.
The Province of Hesse-Nassau was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1868 to 1918, then a province of the Free State of Prussia until 1944.
The history of Bavaria stretches from its earliest settlement and its formation as a stem duchy in the 6th century through its inclusion in the Holy Roman Empire to its status as an independent kingdom and finally as a large Bundesland (state) of the modern Federal Republic of Germany.
The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from Gaul (France), which he had conquered.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Palatinate-Birkenfeld (German: Pfalz-Birkenfeld), later Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, was the name of a collateral line of the Palatine Wittelsbachs.
The House of Wittelsbach is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria.
Ingolstadt (Austro-Bavarian) is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, in the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Isarkreis (German: Isar District) was one of the 15 administrative districts (German: Bezirke or Regierungsbezirke) of the Kingdom of Bavaria between 1806 and 1837.
Jean Victor Marie Moreau (14 February 1763 – 2 September 1813) was a French general who helped Napoleon Bonaparte to power, but later became a rival and was banished to the United States.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Joseph Martin Reichard (23 September 180314 May 1872) was a German politician and revolutionary.
Karl (or Carl) Philipp Josef, Prince von Wrede (29 April 1767 – 12 December 1838) was a Bavarian field marshal.
King of Bavaria was a title held by the hereditary Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria in the state known as the Kingdom of Bavaria from 1805 until 1918, when the kingdom was abolished.
The Kingdom of Hanover (Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen), lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany.
The Kingdom of Württemberg (Königreich Württemberg) was a German state that existed from 1805 to 1918, located within the area that is now Baden-Württemberg.
Kulturkampf ("culture struggle") is a German term referring to power struggles between emerging constitutional democratic nation states and the Roman Catholic Church over the place and role of religion in modern polity, usually in connection with secularization campaigns.
Kurt Eisner (14 May 186721 February 1919)"Kurt Eisner – Encyclopædia Britannica" (biography), Encyclopædia Britannica, 2006, Britannica.com webpage:.
Lake Starnberg (Starnberger See) — called Lake Würm (German Würmsee) until 1962 — is Germany's fifth largest freshwater lake in terms of area and, due to its great average depth, the second largest in terms of water volume, after Lake Constance.
Landshut (Landsad) is a town in Bavaria in the south-east of Germany.
The Landtag of Bavaria (State Diet of Bavaria) is the unicameral legislature of the state of Bavaria in Germany.
The Elector of the Palatinate (Kurfürst von der Pfalz) ruled the Palatinate of the Rhine in the Kingdom of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire from 915 to 1803.
This is a list of kings of the modern state of Greece.
Below is a list of the men who have served in the capacity of Minister-President or equivalent office in the German state of Bavaria from the 17th century to the present.
The states of the German Confederation were those member states that from 20 June 1815 were part of the German Confederation, which lasted, with some changes in the member states, until 24 August 1866, under the presidency of the Austrian imperial House of Habsburg, which was represented by an Austrian presidential envoy to the Federal diet in Frankfurt.
The German Empire consisted originally of 26, and later (as of 1876) 25 constituent states and an Imperial Territory, the largest of which was Prussia.
Lower Bavaria (Niederbayern) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of the state.
The Lower Danube Circle or Under Danube Circle (Unterdonaukreis) was one of the administrative districts (German: Bezirke or Regierungsbezirke) of the Kingdom of Bavaria between 1806 and 1837.
Lower Franconia (Unterfranken) is one of seven districts of Bavaria, Germany.
Ludwig I (also rendered in English as Louis I; 25 August 1786 – 29 February 1868) was king of Bavaria from 1825 until the 1848 revolutions in the German states.
Ludwig II (Ludwig Otto Friedrich Wilhelm; Louis Otto Frederick William; 25 August 1845 – 13 June 1886) was King of Bavaria from 1864 until his death in 1886.
Ludwig III (Ludwig Luitpold Josef Maria Aloys Alfried; Louis Leopold Joseph Mary Aloysius Alfred; 7 January 1845 – 18 October 1921) was the last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918.
Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria (Prinzregent Luitpold Karl Joseph Wilhelm Ludwig von Bayern) (12 March 1821 – 12 December 1912), was the de facto ruler of Bavaria from 1886 to 1912, due to the incapacity of his nephews, King Ludwig II for three days and King Otto for 26 years.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
The Main (is a river in Germany. With a length of (including its 52 km long source river White Main), it is the longest right tributary of the Rhine. It is also the longest river lying entirely in Germany (if the Weser and the Werra are considered as two separate rivers; together they are longer). The largest cities along the Main are Frankfurt am Main and Würzburg.
The Mainkreis (German: Main District) was one of the 15 administrative districts (German: Regierungsbezirke) of the Kingdom of Bavaria between 1806 and 1837 (after 1817 Obermainkreis) named after its main river Main.
Mannheim (Palatine German: Monnem or Mannem) is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants.
Maximilian I Joseph (27 May 1756 – 13 October 1825) was Duke of Zweibrücken from 1795 to 1799, Prince-Elector of Bavaria (as Maximilian IV Joseph) from 1799 to 1806, then King of Bavaria (as Maximilian I Joseph) from 1806 to 1825.
Maximilian II (28 November 1811 – 10 March 1864) reigned as King of Bavaria between 1848 and 1864.
Maximilian Josef Garnerin, Count von Montgelas (12 September 1759 Munich – 14 June 1838 Munich) was a Bavarian statesman, a member of a noble family from the Duchy of Savoy.
Michael von Faulhaber (5 March 1869 – 12 June 1952) was a Roman Catholic Cardinal who was Archbishop of Munich for 35 years, from 1917 to his death in 1952.
Middle Franconia (Mittelfranken) is one of the three administrative regions of Franconia in Bavaria, Germany.
The office of Minister President (Ministerpräsident), or Prime Minister, of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1702 until the abolition of Prussia in 1947.
Monarchism in Bavaria after 1918 was driven by the belief that a monarchy would be the best form of government for the German state of Bavaria, despite the abolition of the Bavarian monarchy in 1918.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
The Residenz (Residence) in central Munich is the former royal palace of the Wittelsbach monarchs of Bavaria.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
Neuschwanstein Castle (Schloss Neuschwanstein,, "New Swanstone Castle") is a 19th-century Romanesque Revival palace on a rugged hill above the village of Hohenschwangau near Füssen in southwest Bavaria, Germany.
The North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund) was the German federal state which existed from July 1867 to December 1870.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
The Oberdonaukreis (German: Upper Danube District) was one of the 15 administrative districts (German: Bezirke or Regierungsbezirke) of the Kingdom of Bavaria between 1806 and 1837 named after its main river Danube.
Ostheim vor der Rhön is a town in Northern Bavaria in the district of Rhön-Grabfeld in Franconia.
Otto (Otto Wilhelm Luitpold Adalbert Waldemar; 27 April 1848 – 11 October 1916), was King of Bavaria from 1886 to 1913.
Otto (Óthon; 1 June 1815 – 26 July 1867) was a Bavarian prince who became the first modern King of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London.
Otto Ritter von Dandl (13 May 1868 in Straubing – 20 May 1942) was the last Minister-President of the Kingdom of Bavaria.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
The Palatinate (die Pfalz, Pfälzer dialect: Palz), historically also Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz), is a region in southwestern Germany.
The fourth Peace of Pressburg (also known as the Treaty of Pressburg; Preßburger Frieden; Traité de Presbourg) was signed on 26 December 1805 between Napoleon and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II as a consequence of the French victories over the Austrians at Ulm (25 September – 20 October) and Austerlitz (2 December).
The People's State of Bavaria (Volksstaat Bayern) was a short-lived attempt to establish a socialist state in Bavaria during the German Revolution of 1918–19.
Charles, Prince of Bavaria (Karl Theodor Maximilian August; Munich, 7 July 1795 – Tegernsee, 16 August 1875); and grand prior of the order of Malta, was a German soldier.
A prince regent, or prince-regent, is a prince who rules a monarchy as regent instead of a monarch, e.g., as a result of the Sovereign's incapacity (minority or illness) or absence (remoteness, such as exile or long voyage, or simply no incumbent).
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The Punctation of Olmütz (Olmützer Punktation), also called the Agreement of Olmütz, was a treaty between Prussia and Austria, dated 29 November 1850, by which Prussia abandoned the Erfurt Union and accepted the revival of the German Confederation under Austrian leadership.
The Regenkreis, with Straubing and later Regensburg as its capital, existed between 1806 and 1837 as one of the 15 districts of the Kingdom of Bavaria.
Regensburg (Castra-Regina;; Řezno; Ratisbonne; older English: Ratisbon; Bavarian: Rengschburg or Rengschburch) is a city in south-east Germany, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen rivers.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
A German Regierungsbezirk (often abbreviated to Reg.-Bez.; administrative district) is an administrative district of one of the nation's federal states.
The Revolutions of 1830 were a revolutionary wave in Europe which took place in 1830.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
The Rezatkreis, between 1806 and 1837, was one of the 15 districts of the Kingdom of Bavaria.
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
The Archdiocese of Munich and Freising (Erzbistum München und Freising, Archidioecesis Monacensis et Frisingensis) is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Bavaria, Germany.
Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria (Rupprecht Maria Luitpold Ferdinand; 18 May 1869 – 2 August 1955) was the last heir apparent to the Bavarian throne.
Salzburg (literally "Salt Fortress") is a state (Land) of Austria.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
The Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serbian and Bosnian: Срби у Босни и Херцеговини / Srbi u Bosni i Hercegovini) are one of the three constitutive nations (State-forming nations) of the country, predominantly residing in the political-territorial entity of Republika Srpska.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
Speyer (older spelling Speier, known as Spire in French and formerly as Spires in English) is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, with approximately 50,000 inhabitants.
Swabia (Schwaben) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany.
The Treaty of Lunéville was signed in the Treaty House of Lunéville on 9 February 1801.
The Treaty of Munich (German Vertrag von München) of 14 April 1816 normalized relations between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Bavaria through several territorial exchanges.
The Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 May 1814, ended the war between France and the Sixth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars, following an armistice signed on 23 April between Charles, Count of Artois, and the allies.
The Treaty of Ried of 8 October 1813 was a treaty that was signed between Bavaria and Austria.
Uettingen is a municipality in the district of Würzburg in Bavaria, Germany.
Ultramontanism is a clerical political conception within the Catholic Church that places strong emphasis on the prerogatives and powers of the pope.
The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.
The Untermainkreis (German: Lower Main District) was one of the administrative districts (German: Bezirke or Regierungsbezirke) of the Kingdom of Bavaria between 1806 and 1837 named after its main river Main.
Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern) is one of the seven administrative districts of Bavaria, Germany.
Upper Franconia (Oberfranken) is a Regierungsbezirk (administrative region) of the state of Bavaria, southern Germany.
Upper German (German) is a family of High German languages spoken primarily in the southern German-speaking area (Sprachraum).
The Upper Palatinate (Oberpfalz) is one of the seven administrative districts of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of Bavaria.
Versailles is a city in the Yvelines département in Île-de-France region, renowned worldwide for the Château de Versailles and the gardens of Versailles, designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Vorarlberg is the westernmost federal state (Bundesland) of Austria.
In the War of the Sixth Coalition (March 1813 – May 1814), sometimes known in Germany as the War of Liberation, a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain and a number of German states finally defeated France and drove Napoleon into exile on Elba.
Würzburg (Main-Franconian: Wörtzburch) is a city in the region of Franconia, northern Bavaria, Germany.
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
William I, or in German Wilhelm I. (full name: William Frederick Louis of Hohenzollern, Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig von Hohenzollern, 22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888), of the House of Hohenzollern was King of Prussia from 2 January 1861 and the first German Emperor from 18 January 1871 to his death, the first Head of State of a united Germany.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The Zollverein or German Customs Union was a coalition of German states formed to manage tariffs and economic policies within their territories.
Zweibrücken (Deux-Ponts, Palatinate German: Zweebrigge) is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on the Schwarzbach river.