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Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Academic art, or academicism or academism, is a style of painting, sculpture, and architecture produced under the influence of European academies of art.
The Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS).
The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
The Academy of Athens (Ακαδημία Αθηνών, Akadimía Athinón) is Greece's national academy, and the highest research establishment in the country.
The Academy of Fine Arts, Munich (Akademie der Bildenden Künste München, also known as Munich Academy) is one of the oldest and most significant art academies in Germany.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Agios Efstratios or Saint Eustratius (Άγιος Ευστράτιος), colloquially Ai Stratis (Άη Στράτης) is a small Greek island in the northern Aegean Sea about southwest of Lemnos and northwest of Lesbos.
Aimilios Veakis (Αιμίλιος Βεάκης; December 13, 1884 – June 29, 1951) was a Greek actor.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Alekos Sakellarios (Αλέκος Σακελλάριος, 7 November 1913 in Athens – 28 August 1991 in Athens) was a Greek writer and a director.
Alexander (Αλέξανδρος, Aléxandros; 1 August 189325 October 1920) was King of Greece from 11 June 1917 until his death three years later, at the age of 27, from the effects of a monkey bite.
Alexandros Papagos (Αλέξανδρος Παπάγος; 9 December 1883 – 4 October 1955) was a Greek Army officer who led the Hellenic Army in World War II and the later stages of the Greek Civil War.
Alexandros Papanastasiou (Αλέξανδρος Παπαναστασίου; 8 July 1876 – 17 November 1936) was a Greek politician, lawyer and sociologist, who served twice as Prime Minister of Greece in the interwar period.
Alexandros Schinas (Αλέξανδρος Σχινάς) (1870 in Volos – May 6, 1913 in Thessaloniki), was a GreekKing of Greece Murdered at Salonika; Slayer Mad; Political Results Feared By Marconi Transatlantic Wireless Telegraph New York Times March 19, 1913; pg.
Alexis Minotis (born Alexandros Minotakis (Αλέξανδρος Μινωτάκης); 8 August 1900 – 11 November 1990) was a Greek actor and director.
Alfred (Alfred Ernest Albert; 6 August 184430 July 1900) reigned as Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha from 1893 to 1900.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
Amalia of Oldenburg (Αμαλία; 21 December 1818 – 20 May 1875) was queen consort of Greece from 1836 to 1862 as the spouse of King Otto (1815–1867).
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Andritsaina (Ανδρίτσαινα) is a town and a former municipality in Elis, West Greece, Greece.
An Anglophile is a person who admires England, its people, and its culture.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
Anti-Americanism, anti-American sentiment, or sometimes Americanophobia, is dislike of or opposition to the governmental policies of the United States, especially regarding the foreign policy, or the American people in general.
Aristeidis Moraitinis DSO (Αριστείδης Μωραϊτίνης, 1891–1918) was a pioneer Greek military aviator of the early 20th century.
Aristotle Socrates Onassis (Αριστοτέλης Ωνάσης, Aristotelis Onasis; 20 January 1906 – 15 March 1975), commonly called Ari or Aristo Onassis, was a Greek shipping magnate who amassed the world's largest privately owned shipping fleet and was one of the world's richest and most famous men.
An armed merchantman is a merchant ship equipped with guns, usually for defensive purposes, either by design or after the fact.
Arta (Περιφερειακή ενότητα Άρτας) is one of the regional units of Greece.
Athanasios Tsakalov (Αθανάσιος Τσακάλωφ) was a member of the Filiki Eteria ("Society of Friends"), a Greek patriotic organization against Ottoman rule.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Autocephaly (from αὐτοκεφαλία, meaning "property of being self-headed") is the status of a hierarchical Christian Church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop (used especially in Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Independent Catholic churches).
The occupation of Greece by the Axis Powers (Η Κατοχή, I Katochi, meaning "The Occupation") began in April 1941 after Nazi Germany invaded Greece to assist its ally, Fascist Italy, which had been at war with Greece since October 1940.
Ayvalık is a seaside town on the northwestern Aegean coast of Turkey.
The Balkan League was an alliance formed by a series of bilateral treaties concluded in 1912 between the Balkan kingdoms of Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro, and directed against the Ottoman Empire, which at the time still controlled much of the Balkan peninsula.
The Balkan Wars (Balkan Savaşları, literally "the Balkan Wars" or Balkan Faciası, meaning "the Balkan Tragedy") consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913.
Banditry is the life and practice of bandits.
The Battle of Bizani (Turkish:Bizani Muharebesi) took place in Epirus on.
The Battle of Crete (Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta, also Unternehmen Merkur, "Operation Mercury," Μάχη της Κρήτης) was fought during the Second World War on the Greek island of Crete.
The Battle of Elli (Ναυμαχία της Έλλης, İmroz Deniz Muharebesi) or the Battle of the Dardanelles took place near the mouth of the Dardanelles on as part of the First Balkan War between the fleets of the Kingdom of Greece and the Ottoman Empire. It was the largest sea battle of the Balkan Wars.
The Battle of Greece (also known as Operation Marita, Unternehmen Marita) is the common name for the invasion of Allied Greece by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany in April 1941 during World War II.
The Battle of Kosovo took place on 15 June 1389 between an army led by the Serbian Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović and an invading army of the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Murad Hüdavendigâr.
The Battle of Lemnos (Ναυμαχία της Λήμνου, Mondros Deniz Muharebesi), fought on, was a naval battle during the First Balkan War, which defeated the second and last attempt of the Ottoman Empire to break the Greek naval blockade of the Dardanelles and reclaim supremacy over the Aegean Sea from Greece.
The Battle of Sarantaporo, variously also transliterated as Sarantaporon or Sarandaporon (Μάχη του Σαρανταπόρου) took place on October 9–10 (O.S.), 1912.
The Battle of Sorovich (Μάχη του Σόροβιτς, Soroviç Muharebesi) took place between 22–24 October 1912 (O.S.), during the First Balkan War.
The Battle of Yenidje or Yenice or Battle of Giannitsa, was a battle between the Greek Army and the Ottoman Army on October 19–20 1912, during the First Balkan War.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
While the Old Testament portion of the Bible was written in Hebrew, the New Testament was originally written in Koine Greek.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Bitola (Битола known also by several alternative names) is a city in the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia.
Bizani (Μπιζάνι) is a village and a former municipality in the Ioannina regional unit, Epirus, Greece.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830.
A broadside is the side of a ship, the battery of cannon on one side of a warship; or their coordinated fire in naval warfare.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Cephalonia or Kefalonia (Κεφαλονιά or Κεφαλλονιά), formerly also known as Kefallinia or Kephallenia (Κεφαλληνία), is the largest of the Ionian Islands in western Greece and the 6th larger island in Greece after Crete, Evoia, Lesvos, Rhodes and Chios.
The Cham issue refers to a controversy which has been raised by Albania since the 1990s over the repatriation of the Cham Albanians, who were expelled from the Greek region of Epirus between 1944 and 1945, at the end of World War II, citing the collaboration of the majority of them with the occupying forces of the Axis powers.
Charilaos Trikoupis (Χαρίλαος Τρικούπης; July 11, 1832 – March 30, 1896) was a Greek politician who served as a Prime Minister of Greece seven times from 1875 until 1895.
Chios (Χίος, Khíos) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast.
Christian IX (8 April 181829 January 1906) was King of Denmark from 1863 to 1906.
The coat of arms of Greece displays a white cross on a blue escutcheon, which is surrounded by two laurel branches.
Collaborationism is cooperation with the enemy against one's country in wartime.
The Communist Party of Greece (Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας; Kommounistikó Kómma Elládas, KKE) is a Marxist–Leninist political party in Greece.
In a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster system, confidence and supply are required for a minority government to retain power in the lower house.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
Constantine I (Κωνσταντίνος Αʹ, Konstantínos I; – 11 January 1923) was King of Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922.
Constantine II (Κωνσταντίνος Βʹ, Konstantínos II,; born 2 June 1940) reigned as the King of Greece, from 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy in 1973.
Constantine Kanaris or Canaris (Κωνσταντίνος Κανάρης; 1793 or 1795September 2, 1877) was a Greek Prime Minister, admiral and politician who in his youth was a freedom fighter in the Greek War of Independence.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
In the modern history of Greece, starting from the Greek War of Independence, the Constitution of 1975/1986/2001 is the last in a series of democratically adopted Constitutions (with the exception of the Constitutions of 1968 and 1973 imposed by a dictatorship).
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The Corinth Canal (Διώρυγα της Κορίνθου, Dhioryga tis Korinthou) is a canal that connects the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf in the Aegean Sea.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The Cretan Revolt of 1866–1869 (Κρητική Επανάσταση του 1866) or Great Cretan Revolution (Μεγάλη Κρητική Επανάσταση) was a three-year uprising in Crete against Ottoman rule, the third and largest in a series of Cretan revolts between the end of the Greek War of Independence in 1830 and the establishment of the independent Cretan State in 1898.
The Cretan State (Κρητική Πολιτεία, Kritiki Politia; كريد دولتى, Girit Devleti), was established in 1898, following the intervention by the Great Powers (Britain, France, Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Russia) on the island of Crete.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
Crossing the T or capping the T is a classic naval warfare tactic used from the late 19th to mid 20th centuries, in which a line of warships crosses in front of a line of enemy ships, allowing the crossing line to bring all their guns to bear while receiving fire from only the forward guns of the enemy.
A crowned republic is a form of constitutional monarchy where the monarch's role is commonly seen as largely ceremonial and where all the royal prerogatives are prescribed by custom and law in such a way that the monarch has limited discretion over governmental and constitutional issues.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Cybele (Κυβέλη) (13 July 1888 – 26 May 1978) was the stage name of the famous Greek actress Cybele Andrianou (Κυβέλη Ανδριανού).
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Danubian Principalities (Principatele Dunărene, translit) was a conventional name given to the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, which emerged in the early 14th century.
The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.
The Dekemvriana (Δεκεμβριανά, "December events") refers to a series of clashes fought during World War II in Athens from 3 December 1944 to 11 January 1945 between the communist insurgents, the EAM, some parts of its military wing, the ELAS stationed in Athens, the KKE and the OPLA from oneside and from the otherside, the, some parts of the Hellenic Royal Army, the Hellenic Gendarmerie, the Cities Police, the far-right Organization X, among others and also the British Army.
The Democratic Army of Greece (Δημοκρατικός Στρατός Ελλάδας, DSE (ΔΣΕ)), was the army founded by the Communist Party of Greece during the Greek Civil War, 1946–1949.
Demotic Greek (δημοτική γλώσσα, "language of the people") or dimotiki is the modern vernacular form of the Greek language.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Dimitrios Rallis (Greek: Δημήτριος Ράλλης; 1844–1921) was a Greek politician.
Dimitris Horn (9 March 1921 – 16 January 1998) was a Greek theatrical and film performer of modern times.
Dimitris Rontiris (Δημήτρης Ροντήρης; 1899 – December 20, 1981) was a Greek actor and director.
The Dodecanese (Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa, literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor (Turkey), of which 26 are inhabited.
Doiran Lake (Dojransko Ezero;, Límni Doïráni), also spelled Dojran Lake is a lake with an area of shared between the Republic of Macedonia and Greece.
Durrës (Durazzo,, historically known as Epidamnos and Dyrrachium, is the second most populous city of the Republic of Albania. The city is the capital of the surrounding Durrës County, one of 12 constituent counties of the country. By air, it is northwest of Sarandë, west of Tirana, south of Shkodër and east of Rome. Located on the Adriatic Sea, it is the country's most ancient and economic and historic center. Founded by Greek colonists from Corinth and Corfu under the name of Epidamnos (Επίδαμνος) around the 7th century BC, the city essentially developed to become significant as it became an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. The Via Egnatia, the continuation of the Via Appia, started in the city and led across the interior of the Balkan Peninsula to Constantinople in the east. In the Middle Ages, it was contested between Bulgarian, Venetian and Ottoman dominions. Following the declaration of independence of Albania, the city served as the capital of the Principality of Albania for a short period of time. Subsequently, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany in the interwar period. Moreover, the city experienced a strong expansion in its demography and economic activity during the Communism in Albania. Durrës is served by the Port of Durrës, one of the largest on the Adriatic Sea, which connects the city to Italy and other neighbouring countries. Its most considerable attraction is the Amphitheatre of Durrës that is included on the tentative list of Albania for designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once having a capacity for 20,000 people, it is the largest amphitheatre in the Balkan Peninsula.
East Thrace, or Eastern Thrace (Doğu Trakya or simply Trakya; Ανατολική Θράκη, Anatoliki Thraki; Източна Тракия, Iztochna Trakiya), also known as Turkish Thrace or European Turkey, is the part of the modern Republic of Turkey that is geographically part of Southeast Europe.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Eleftheria i thanatos (Ελευθερία ή θάνατος, pronounced, "freedom or death") is the motto of Greece.
Eleftherios Kyriakou Venizelos (full name Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos, Ελευθέριος Κυριάκου Βενιζέλος,; 23 August 1864 – 18 March 1936) was an eminent Greek leader of the Greek national liberation movement and a charismatic statesman of the early 20th century remembered for his promotion of liberal-democratic policies.
Ellie Loukou (Έλλη Λούκου; 13 April 1926 – 3 September 1983), known professionally as Ellie Lambeti (Έλλη Λαμπέτη), was a Greek actress.
Emmanuil Xanthos (Εμμανουήλ Ξάνθος; 1772 – November 28, 1852) was a Greek merchant.
Enosis (Ένωσις,, "union") is the movement of various Greek communities that live outside Greece, for incorporation of the regions they inhabit into the Greek state.
Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania.
Epirus (Ήπειρος, Ípeiros), is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region in northwestern Greece.
The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.
The Maurice Farman MF.7 Longhorn is a French biplane developed before World War I which was used for reconnaissance by both the French and British air services in the early stages of the war before being relegated to service as a trainer.
The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
Finos Film (Greek: Φίνος Φιλμ) is a film production company that dominated the Greek film industry from 1943 to 1977.
The First Hellenic Republic (Αʹ Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) is a historiographical term for the provisional Greek state during the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire.
For Whom the Bell Tolls is a 1943 American war film produced and directed by Sam Wood and starring Gary Cooper, Ingrid Bergman, Akim Tamiroff, and Joseph Calleia.
The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.
George I (Γεώργιος Αʹ, Geórgios I; born Prince William of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg; Prins Vilhelm; 24 December 1845 – 18 March 1913) was King of Greece from 1863 until his assassination in 1913.
George II (Γεώργιος Βʹ, Geórgios II; 19 July 1890 (NS) – 1 April 1947) reigned as King of Greece from 1922 to 1924 and from 1935 to 1947.
George Tzavellas, also rendered Giorgos Tzavellas, Yiorgos Tzavellas, or Yorgos Javellas (Γιώργος Τζαβέλλας, 1916, Athens – October 18, 1976), was a Greek film director, screenwriter, and playwright.
Georgios Bonanos (Γεώργιος Μπονάνος; 1863–1940) was a Greek sculptor.
Georgios Kondylis (August 14, 1878 – February 1, 1936) was a general of the Greek army and Prime Minister of Greece.
Georgios Papadopoulos (Γεώργιος Παπαδόπουλος; 5 May 1919 – 27 June 1999) was the head of the military coup d'état that took place in Greece on 21 April 1967, and leader of the junta that ruled the country from 1967 to 1974.
Georgios Papandreou (Geórgios Papandréou; 13 February 1888 – 1 November 1968) was a Greek politician, the founder of the Papandreou political dynasty.
Georgios Tsolakoglou (Γεώργιος Τσολάκογλου; April 1886 – 22 May 1948) was a Greek military officer who became the first Prime Minister of the Greek collaborationist government during the Axis occupation in 1941–1942.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Goudi coup (κίνημα στο Γουδί) was a military coup d'état that took place in Greece on the night of, starting at the barracks in Goudi, a neighbourhood on the eastern outskirts of Athens.
The Great Famine (Μεγάλος Λιμός) was a period of mass starvation during the Axis occupation of Greece, during World War II (1941–44).
The Great fire of Smyrna or the Catastrophe of Smyrna (Καταστροφή της Σμύρνης, "Smyrna Catastrophe"; 1922 İzmir Yangını, "1922 Izmir Fire"; Զմիւռնիոյ Մեծ Հրդեհ, Zmyuṙno Mets Hrdeh) destroyed much of the port city of Smyrna (modern İzmir, Turkey) in September 1922.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
The Greco-Italian War (Italo-Greek War, Italian Campaign in Greece; in Greece: War of '40 and Epic of '40) took place between the kingdoms of Italy and Greece from 28 October 1940 to 23 April 1941.
The Greco-Turkish War of 1897, also called the Thirty Days' War and known in Greece as the Black '97 (Mauro '97) or the Unfortunate War (Ατυχής πόλεμος, Atychis polemos) (Turkish: 1897 Osmanlı-Yunan Savaşı or 1897 Türk-Yunan Savaşı), was a war fought between the Kingdom of Greece and the Ottoman Empire.
The Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922 was fought between Greece and the Turkish National Movement during the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after World War I between May 1919 and October 1922.
The most important artistic movement of Greek art in the 19th century was academic realism, often called in Greece "the Munich School" (Σχολή του Μονάχου) because of the strong influence from the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of Munich (Münchner Akademie der Bildenden Künste), where many Greek artists trained.
The first constitution of the Kingdom of Greece was the Greek Constitution of 1844.
The Second National Assembly of the Hellenes took place in Athens (1863 - 1864) and dealt both with the election of a new sovereign as well as with the drafting of a new Constitution, thereby implementing the transition from constitutional monarchy to a crowned republic.
The Greek Constitution of 1911 was a major step forward in the constitutional history of Greece.
Elli (Κ/Δ Έλλη) was a 2,600 ton Greek protected cruiser (Εύδρομο Καταδρομικό) named for a naval battle of the First Balkan War in which Greece was victorious.
Drachma (δραχμή,; pl. drachmae or drachmas) was the currency used in Greece during several periods in its history.
The Greek government-in-exile was the government in exile of Greece formed in the aftermath of the Battle of Greece, and the subsequent occupation of Greece by Nazi Germany and the Fascist Italy.
From 19 November 1862 (1 December New Style), a plebiscite in Greece was held in support of adopting Prince Alfred of the United Kingdom, later Duke of Edinburgh, as king.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Parliamentary elections were held in Greece on 1 November 1920.
Parliamentary elections were held in Greece on 16 December 1923.
Parliamentary elections were held in Greece on 26 January 1936.
Parliamentary elections were held in Greece on 31 March 1946.
Parliamentary elections were held in Greece on.
The Greek military junta of 1967–1974, commonly known as the Regime of the Colonels (καθεστώς των Συνταγματαρχών), or in Greece simply The Junta (or; Χούντα), The Dictatorship (Η Δικτατορία) and The Seven Years (Η Επταετία), was a series of far-right military juntas that ruled Greece following the 1967 Greek coup d'état led by a group of colonels on 21 April 1967.
A referendum on restoring the monarchy was held in Greece on 3 November 1935.
A referendum on the return of King Constantine I was held in Greece on 22 November 1920.
Greek refugees is a collective term used to refer to the nearly one million Greek Orthodox natives of Asia Minor, Thrace and the Black Sea areas who fled during the Greek genocide (1914-1922) and Greece's later defeat in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922), as well as remaining Greek Orthodox inhabitants of Turkey who were required to leave their homes for Greece shortly thereafter as part of the population exchange between Greece and Turkey, which formalized the population transfer and barred the return of the refugees.
A referendum on becoming a republic was held in Greece on 13 April 1924.
A constitutional referendum was held in Greece on 29 July 1973.
A referendum on retaining the republic was held in Greece on 8 December 1974.
The Greek Resistance (italic, i.e., "National Resistance") is the blanket term for a number of armed and unarmed groups from across the political spectrum that resisted the Axis occupation of Greece in the period 1941–1944, during World War II.
The Greek royal family (Greek: Ελληνική Βασιλική Οικογένεια) is a branch of the House of Glücksburg that reigned in Greece from 1863 to 1924 and again from 1935 to 1973.
The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution (Ελληνική Επανάσταση, Elliniki Epanastasi, or also referred to by Greeks in the 19th century as the Αγώνας, Agonas, "Struggle"; Ottoman: يونان عصياني Yunan İsyanı, "Greek Uprising"), was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1830.
Gregorios Xenopoulos (Γρηγόριος Ξενόπουλος; December 9, 1867 – 14 January 1951) was a novelist, journalist and writer of plays from Zakynthos.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Hasan Tahsin Pasha (1845–1918) was a senior Ottoman military officer, who served in Yemen and in the First Balkan War.
The Hellenic Navy (HN; Πολεμικό Ναυτικό, Polemikó Naftikó, abbreviated ΠΝ) is the naval force of Greece, part of the Hellenic Armed Forces.
The Hellenic State (Ελληνική Πολιτεία, Elliniki Politeia, also translated as Greek State) was the collaborationist government of Greece during the country's occupation by the Axis powers in the Second World War.
Himara or Himarë (from Χειμάρρα, Himarra) is a bilingual region and municipality in southern Albania, part of Vlorë County.
The Himara revolt (Εξέγερση της Χειμάρρας), was a Greek uprising during the First Balkan War that took place in the region of Himara (Himarë, today southern Albania), on.
The history of modern Greece covers the history of Greece from the recognition of its autonomy from the Ottoman Empire by the Great Powers (Great Britain, France, and Russia) in 1828, after the Greek War of Independence, to the present day.
HMS Madagascar was a 46-gun fifth-rate ''Seringapatam''-class frigate, built at Bombay and launched on 15 November 1822.
The House of Glücksburg (also spelled Glücksborg), shortened from House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, is a Dano-German branch of the House of Oldenburg, members of which have reigned at various times in Denmark, Norway, Greece and several northern German states.
A hung parliament is a term used in legislatures under the Westminster system to describe a situation in which no particular political party or pre-existing coalition (also known as an alliance or bloc) has an absolute majority of legislators (commonly known as members or seats) in a parliament or other legislature.
The "Hymn to Liberty" or "Hymn to Freedom" (Ύμνος εις την Ελευθερίαν,, also Υμνος προς την Ελευθερίαν) is a poem written by Dionysios Solomos in 1823 that consists of 158 stanzas, which is used as the national anthem of Greece and Cyprus.
In economics, hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating inflation.
Iakovos Kambanellis (Greek: Ιάκωβος Καμπανέλλης; December 2, 1921 – March 29, 2011) was a Greek poet, playwright, screenwriter, lyricist, and novelist.
Icaria, also spelled Ikaria (Ικαρία), is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea, 10 nautical miles (19 km) southwest of Samos.
Imbros or İmroz, officially changed to Gökçeada since 29 July 1970,Alexis Alexandris, "The Identity Issue of The Minorities In Greece An Turkey", in Hirschon, Renée (ed.), Crossing the Aegean: An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange Between Greece and Turkey, Berghahn Books, 2003, (older name in Turkish: İmroz; Greek: Ίμβρος Imvros), is the largest island of Turkey and the seat of Gökçeada District of Çanakkale Province.
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
Ioannina (Ιωάννινα), often called Yannena (Γιάννενα) within Greece, is the capital and largest city of the Ioannina regional unit and of Epirus, an administrative region in north-western Greece.
Count Ioannis Antonios Kapodistrias (10 or 11 February 1776 – 9 October 1831), sometimes anglicized as John Capodistrias (Κόμης Ιωάννης Αντώνιος Καποδίστριας Komis Ioannis Antonios Kapodistrias; граф Иоанн Каподистрия Graf Ioann Kapodistriya; Giovanni Antonio Capodistria Conte Capo d'Istria), was a Greek statesman who served as the Foreign Minister of the Russian Empire and was one of the most distinguished politicians and diplomats of Europe.
Ioannis Kossos (Ιωάννης Κόσσος; 1822–1875) was a Greek sculptor of the 19th century.
Ioannis Metaxas (Ιωάννης Μεταξάς; 12 April 1871 – 29 January 1941) was a Greek military officer and politician, serving as Prime Minister of Greece from 1936 until his death in 1941.
Ioannis Rallis (Ιωάννης Δ. Ράλλης; 1878 – 26 October 1946) was the third and last collaborationist prime minister of Greece during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II, holding office from 7 April 1943 to 12 October 1944, succeeding Konstantinos Logothetopoulos in the Nazi-controlled Greek puppet government in Athens.
The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek, Katharevousa: Ἰόνιοι Νῆσοι, Ionioi Nēsoi; Isole Ionie) are a group of islands in Greece.
The Ionian Sea (Ιόνιο Πέλαγος,, Mar Ionio,, Deti Jon) is an elongated bay of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea.
Irene Papas or Irene Pappas (Ειρήνη Παππά; born 3 September 1926) is a retired Greek actress and occasional singer, who has starred in over 70 films in a career spanning more than 50 years.
The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7–12, 1939) was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Albanian Kingdom.
The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (Trablusgarp Savaşı, "Tripolitanian War"; also known in Italy as Guerra di Libia, "Libyan War") was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Ottoman Empire from September 29, 1911, to October 18, 1912.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
The July Monarchy (Monarchie de Juillet) was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848.
Karolos Koun (Κάρολος Κουν; September 13, 1908, Bursa – February 14, 1987, Athens) was an Ottoman-born Greek theater director, widely known for his lively staging of ancient Greek plays.
Katharevousa (Καθαρεύουσα,, literally "purifying ") is a conservative form of the Modern Greek language conceived in the early 19th century as a compromise between Ancient Greek and the Demotic Greek of the time.
Katina Paxinou (Κατίνα Παξινού; 17 December 1899or c.1900 – 22 February 1973) was a Greek film and stage actress.
Kavala (Καβάλα) is a city in northern Greece, the principal seaport of eastern Macedonia and the capital of Kavala regional unit.
The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
Klephts (Greek κλέφτης, kléftis, pl. κλέφτες, kléftes, which means "thief" and perhaps originally meant just "brigand": "Other Greeks, taking to the mountains, became unofficial, self-appointed armatoles and were known as klephts (from the Greek kleptes, "brigand").") were highwaymen turned self-appointed armatoloi, anti-Ottoman insurgents, and warlike mountain-folk who lived in the countryside when Greece was a part of the Ottoman Empire.
Konstantinos Demertzis (Κωνσταντίνος Δεμερτζής; January 12, 1876, Athens – April 13, 1936, Athens) was a Greek politician.
Konstantinos Logothetopoulos (Κωνσταντίνος Ι. Λογοθετόπουλος; 1 August 1878 – 6 July 1961) was a distinguished Greek medical doctor who became Prime Minister of Greece, directing the Greek collaborationist government during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II.
Korçë ((Korça), other names see below) is a city and municipality in southeastern Albania, and the seat of Korçë County.
Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership.
Lazaros Sochos (Λάζαρος Σώχος; 1862-1911) was a Greek sculptor.
Lefkada (Λευκάδα, Lefkáda), also known as Lefkas or Leukas (Ancient Greek and Katharevousa: Λευκάς, Leukás, modern pronunciation Lefkás) and Leucadia, is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea on the west coast of Greece, connected to the mainland by a long causeway and floating bridge.
Lemnos (Λήμνος) is a Greek island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea.
The Leonardopoulos–Gargalidis coup attempt (Κίνημα Λεοναρδόπουλου-Γαργαλίδη) was a failed military coup launched on 22 October 1923 in Greece by pro-royalist military officers under the Lieutenant Generals Georgios Leonardopoulos and Panagiotis Gargalidis, and the Colonel Georgios Ziras.
Leonidas Drosis (Λεωνίδας Δρόσης; died in 1882) was a Greek Neoclassical sculptor of the 19th century.
Leopold I (Léopold Ier; German and Leopold I; 16 December 1790 – 10 December 1865) was a German prince who became the first King of the Belgians following the country's independence in 1830.
Lesbos (Λέσβος), or Lezbolar in Turkish sometimes referred to as Mytilene after its capital, is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea.
The Liberal Party (literally "Party of Liberals"), also the National Progressive Centre Union since 1952, was a major political party in Greece during the early-to-mid 20th century.
A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical.
This is a list of the heads of state of the modern Greek state, from its establishment during the Greek Revolution to the present day.
This is a list of kings of the modern state of Greece.
This is a list of the heads of government of the modern Greek state, from its establishment during the Greek Revolution to the present day.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The London Conference of 1832 was an international conference convened to establish a stable government in Greece.
The London Protocol of 16 November 1828 was an agreement between the three Great Powers (Britain, France and Russia), which established the creation of an internally autonomous, but tributary Greek state under Ottoman suzerainty.
The London Protocol of 3 February 1830 was an agreement between the three Great Powers (Britain, France and Russia), which amended the decisions of the 1829 protocol and established Greece as an independent, sovereign state.
Macedonia (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) is a geographic and historical region of Greece in the southern Balkans.
Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe.
The Macedonian Front, also known as the Salonica Front (after Thessaloniki), was a military theatre of World War I formed as a result of an attempt by the Allied Powers to aid Serbia, in the fall of 1915, against the combined attack of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria.
The Macedonian Struggle (Μακεδονικὸς Ἀγών, Makedonikos Agon) or Greek Struggle in Macedonia (Гръцка въоръжена пропаганда в Македония, "Greek armed propaganda in Macedonia") was a series of social, political, cultural and military conflicts between Greek and Bulgarian subjects living in Ottoman Macedonia between 1893 and 1908.
Emmanuel "Manos" Katrakis (Εμμανουήλ (Μάνος) Κατράκης; 14 August 1908 – 3 September 1984) was a Greek actor of theater and film.
Marika Kotopouli (Μαρίκα Κοτοπούλη; 3 May 1887 – 11 September 1954) was a Greek stage actress during the first half of the 20th century.
The Maritsa, Meriç or Evros (Марица, Marica; Ἕβρος, Hébros; Έβρος, Évros; Hebrus; Romanized Thracian: Evgos or Ebros; Meriç) is, with a length of, the longest river that runs solely in the interior of the Balkans.
The Megali Idea (Μεγάλη Ιδέα, Megáli Idéa, "Great Idea") was an irredentist concept of Greek nationalism that expressed the goal of establishing a Greek state that would encompass all historically ethnic Greek-inhabited areas, including the large Greek populations that were still under Ottoman rule after the Greek War of Independence (1830) and all the regions that traditionally belonged to Greeks in ancient times (the Southern Balkans, Anatolia and Cyprus).
Maria Amalia Mercouri (Μαρία Αμαλία Μερκούρη; 31 October 1920 – 6 March 1994), known professionally as Melina Mercouri (Μελίνα Μερκούρη), was a Greek actress, singer and politician.
The Metapolitefsi (Μεταπολίτευση, translated as "polity/regime change") was a period in modern Greek history after the fall of the military junta of 1967–74 that includes the transitional period from the fall of the dictatorship to the 1974 legislative elections and the democratic period immediately after these elections.
The Metaxas Line was a chain of fortifications constructed along the line of the Greco-Bulgarian border, designed to protect Greece in case of a Bulgarian invasion after the rearmament of Bulgaria.
Michael Cacoyannis (Μιχάλης Κακογιάννης, Michalis Kakogiannis; 11 June 192225 July 2011) was a Greek Cypriot filmmaker, best known for his 1964 film Zorba the Greek.
Michael Moutoussis (Μιχαήλ Μουτούσης, 1885 – 16 March 1956) was one of the first military aviators in the Greek Armed Forces.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
Modern Greek art is art from the period between the emergence of the new independent Greek state and the 20th century.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
The Monarchy of Greece (Μοναρχία της Ελλάδας) or Greek Monarchy (Ελληνική Μοναρχία) was the government in which a hereditary monarch was the sovereign of the Kingdom of Greece from 1832 to 1924 and 1935 to 1973.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Mother church or matrice is a term depicting the Christian Church as a mother in her functions of nourishing and protecting the believer.
Moudros (Μούδρος) is a town and a former municipality on the island of Lemnos, North Aegean, Greece.
Munich School (Σχολή του Μονάχου) is the name given to a group of painters who worked in Munich or were trained at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of Munich (Münchner Akademie der Bildenden Künste) between 1850 and 1918.
Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance.
The Muslim minority of Greece is the only explicitly recognized minority in Greece.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.
Nafplio (Ναύπλιο, Nauplio or Nauplion in Italian and other Western European languages) is a seaport town in the Peloponnese in Greece that has expanded up the hillsides near the north end of the Argolic Gulf.
The National Liberation Front or EAM (Εθνικό Απελευθερωτικό Μέτωπο (ΕΑΜ), Ethniko Apeleftherotiko Metopo) was the main movement of the Greek Resistance during the Axis occupation of Greece.
The National Republican Greek League or EDES (Εθνικός Δημοκρατικός Ελληνικός Σύνδεσμος (ΕΔΕΣ), Ethnikos Dimokratikos Ellinikos Syndesmos) was one of the major resistance groups formed during the Axis Occupation of Greece during World War II.
The National Schism (Εθνικός Διχασμός, Ethnikos Dikhasmos, sometimes called The Great Division) was a series of disagreements between King Constantine I and Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos regarding the foreign policy of Greece in the period of 1910–1922 of which the tipping point was whether Greece should enter World War I. Venizelos was in support of the Allies and wanted Greece to join the war on their side, while the pro-German King wanted Greece to remain neutral, which would favor the plans of the Central Powers.
The National Theatre of Greece is based in Athens, Greece.
The National Youth Organisation (Εθνική Οργάνωσις Νεολαίας, Ethnikí Orgánosis Neoléas, EON) was a youth organization in Greece during the years of the Metaxas Regime (1936–1941), established by the regime with the stated goals of helping the youth in the productive spending of their free time and cultivating their national values and cooperative spirit.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Nemanjić (Немањић, Nemanjići / Немањићи) was the most important dynasty of Serbia in the Middle Ages.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Nikolaos Plastiras (Νικόλαος Πλαστήρας; 4 November 1883 – 26 July 1953) was a Greek general and politician, who served thrice as Prime Minister of Greece.
Nikolaos Skoufas (Νικόλαος Σκουφάς; 1779 – July 31, 1818) was a founding member of the Filiki Eteria ("Society of Friends"), a Greek conspiratorial organization against the Ottoman Empire.
Nikolaos Votsis (Νικόλαος Βότσης; 1877–1931) was a Greek naval officer who distinguished himself during the Balkan Wars and rose to the rank of Rear Admiral.
Nikos Kazantzakis (Νίκος Καζαντζάκης; 18 February 188326 October 1957) was a Greek writer.
Nikos Koundouros (Νίκος Κούνδουρος; 15 December 1926 – 22 February 2017) was a Greek film director.
Nikos Tsiforos (Νίκος Τσιφόρος; 27 August 1912 – 6 August 1970) was a Greek screenwriter and film director.
Nobile Teatro di San Giacomo di Corfù, translated as The Noble Theatre of Saint James of Corfu, or simply Teatro di San Giacomo, was a theatre in Corfu, Greece which became the centre of Greek opera between 1733 and 1893.
A nocturne (from the French which meant nocturnal, from Latin nocturnus) is usually a musical composition that is inspired by, or evocative of, the night.
The Noemvriana (Νοεμβριανά, "November Events") of, or the Greek Vespers, was a political dispute which led to an armed confrontation in Athens between the royalist government of Greece and the forces of the Allies over the issue of Greece's neutrality during World War I. Friction existed between the two sides from the beginning of World War I. The unconditional surrender of the border fortress of Rupel in May 1916 to the Central Powers' forces, mainly composed of Bulgarian troops, was the first event that led to the Noemvriana.
Northern Epirus (Βόρειος Ήπειρος, Vorios Ipiros, Epiri i Veriut) is a term used to refer to those parts of the historical region of Epirus, in the western Balkans, which today are part of Albania.
The Occupation of Smyrna was the military control by Greek forces of the city of Smyrna (modern-day İzmir) and surrounding areas from 15 May 1919 until 9 September 1922.
Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter.
Orestis Laskos (Ορέστης Λάσκος; 11 November 1907 – 17 October 1992) was a Greek film director, screenwriter and actor.
Orestis Makris (Ορέστης Μακρής; 30 September 1898 – 29 January 1975) was a Greek actor and tenor.
Otto (Óthon; 1 June 1815 – 26 July 1867) was a Bavarian prince who became the first modern King of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London.
HamidiyeThe name is also sometimes rendered as Hamidieh in English; see Gardiner and Gray, p. 389 and Halpern, p. 228.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Feth-i Bülend (Ottoman Turkish: "Great Victory") was an Ottoman ironclad warship built in the late 1860s, the lead ship of her class.
Panagiotis Anagnostopoulos (Παναγιώτης Αναγνωστόπουλος; c. 1790–1854) was a Greek revolutionary leader during the Greek War of Independence and a member of Filiki Eteria, the secret organization whose purpose was to overthrow the Ottoman rule of Greece and establish an independent Greek state.
The Pangaion Hills (Greek, Παγγαίο, ancient forms: Pangaeon, Pangaeum, Homeric name: Nysa) are a mountain range in Greece, approximately 40 km from Kavala.
Pantelis Horn (Παντελής Χορν; 1 January 1881–1 November 1941) was a Greek naval officer and playwright, one of the few Greek writers of the early 20th century who devoted themselves solely to theatre.
The Paris Peace Treaties (Traité de Paris) was signed on 10 February 1947, as the outcome of the Paris Peace Conference, held from 29 July to 15 October 1946.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Patmos (Πάτμος) is a small Greek island in the Aegean Sea, most famous for being the location of both the vision of and the writing of the Christian Bible's Book of Revelation.
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.
Paul (Παύλος, Pávlos; 14 December 1901 – 6 March 1964) was King of Greece from 1947 until his death in 1964.
Pavlos Kountouriotis (Παύλος Κουντουριώτης, 9 April 1855 – 22 August 1935) was a Greek rear admiral during the Balkan Wars, regent, and the first President of the Second Hellenic Republic.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
The Percentages agreement was a secret agreement between British prime minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin during the Fourth Moscow Conference in.
Periklis Argyropoulos (Περικλής Ι. Αργυρόπουλος; 1871–1953) was a Greek naval officer, politician and diplomat.
Petros Protopapadakis (Πέτρος Πρωτοπαπαδάκης; 1854–1922) was a Greek politician and Prime Minister of Greece in May–August 1922.
Piraeus (Πειραιάς Pireás, Πειραιεύς, Peiraieús) is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece.
The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey (Ἡ Ἀνταλλαγή, Mübâdele) stemmed from the "Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations" signed at Lausanne, Switzerland, on 30 January 1923, by the governments of Greece and Turkey.
Port Said (بورسعيد, the first syllable has its pronunciation from Arabic; unurbanized local pronunciation) is a city that lies in north east Egypt extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, north of the Suez Canal, with an approximate population of 603,787 (2010).
Preveza (Πρέβεζα) is a town in the region of Epirus, northwestern Greece, located at the mouth of the Ambracian Gulf.
Prince George of Greece and Denmark (Greek: Πρίγκιπας Γεώργιος; 24 June 1869 – 25 November 1957) was the second son of George I of Greece and Olga Konstantinovna of Russia, and is remembered chiefly for having once saved the life of the future Emperor of Russia, Nicholas II in 1891 during their visit to Japan together.
Marko Mrnjavčević (Марко Мрњавчевић,; – 17 May 1395) was the de jure Serbian king from 1371 to 1395, while he was the de facto ruler of territory in western Macedonia centered on the town of Prilep.
The island of Samos had participated in the Greek War of Independence and had successfully resisted several Turkish and Egyptian attempts to occupy it, but it was not included with the boundaries of the newly independent Kingdom of Greece after 1832.
The Provisional Government of Albania (Qeveria e Përkohshme e Shqipërisë) was the first government of Albania, created by the Assembly of Vlorë on 4 December 1912.
The Provisional Government of National Defence, or the Movement of National Defence, was a parallel administration set up in the city of Thessaloniki by former Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos and his supporters during World War I, in opposition and rivalry to the official royal government in Athens.
Psara (Ψαρά, Psará,; formerly known as Ψύρα, Psyra, or Ψυρίη, Psyriī) is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
Queen Anne-Marie of Greece, (Άννα-Μαρία, born Princess Anne-Marie of Denmark on 30 August 1946) is the wife of King Constantine II, who reigned from 1964 until 1973.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Quisling is a term originating in Norway, which is used in Scandinavian languages and in English for a person who collaborates with an enemy occupying force – or more generally as a synonym for traitor.
Hüseyin Rauf Orbay (27 July 1881 – 16 July 1964) was an Ottoman-born Turkish naval officer, statesman and diplomat.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
A revue (from French 'magazine' or 'overview') is a type of multi-act popular theatrical entertainment that combines music, dance, and sketches.
Ribes is a genus of about 150 known species of flowering plants native throughout the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman salute (Italian: saluto romano) is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight, with palm down, and fingers touching.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
Samos (Σάμος) is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the -wide Mycale Strait.
Samothrace (also Samothraki, Samothracia) (Σαμοθρᾴκη, Ionic Σαμοθρηΐκη; Σαμοθράκη) is a Greek island in the northern Aegean Sea.
The Second Balkan War was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on 16 (O.S.) / 29 (N.S.) June 1913.
The Second Hellenic Republic (Βʹ Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) is the modern historiographical term for the political regime of Greece between 24 March 1924 and 10 October 1935, which at the time was simply known as the Hellenic Republic.
The Security Battalions (Τάγματα Ασφαλείας, Tagmata Asfaleias, derisively known as Germanotsoliades (Γερμανοτσολιάδες) or Tagmatasfalites (Ταγματασφαλίτες) were Greek collaborationist military groups, formed during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II in order to support the German occupation troops.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
Slavic-speakers are a linguistic minority population in the northern Greek region of Macedonia, who are mostly concentrated in certain parts of the peripheries of West and Central Macedonia, adjacent to the territory of the Republic of Macedonia.
Smyrna (Ancient Greek: Σμύρνη, Smýrni or Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia.
The Social Insurance Institute (Ίδρυμα Κοινωνικών Ασφαλίσεων, IKA) is the largest, state based, social security organization in Greece: its beneficiaries are 5,530,000 members of the Greek employed population and 830,000 pensioners.
Sophia of Prussia (Sophia Dorothea Ulrike Alice; 14 June 1870 – 13 January 1932) was Queen consort of Greece during 1913–1917 and 1920–1922.
A sovereign default is the failure or refusal of the government of a sovereign state to pay back its debt in full.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spyridon-Filiskos Samaras (also Spyros, Spiro Samara; Σπυρίδων Σαμάρας) (29 November 1861 – 7 April 1917) was a Greek composer particularly admired for his operas who was part of the generation of composers that heralded the works of Giacomo Puccini.
Spiridon Trikoupis (Σπυρίδων Τρικούπης; April 20, 1788 – February 24, 1873) was a Greek statesman, diplomat, author and orator.
Spyridon Xyndas or Spiridione Xinda (Σπυρίδων Ξύνδας; June 8, 1812 – November 25, 1896) was a Greek composer and guitarist, whose last name has also been transliterated as "Xinta", "Xinda", "Xindas" and "Xyntas".
Stella (Στέλλα) is a 1955 Greek film is a retelling of Carmen featuring Melina Mercouri.
Stylianos Gonatas (Στυλιανός Γονατάς; 15 August 1876 in Patras – 29 March 1966 in Athens) was a Greek military officer and Venizelist politician and Prime Minister of Greece between 1922 and 1924.
Suez (السويس; Egyptian Arabic) is a seaport city (population ca. 497,000) in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez (a branch of the Red Sea), near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having the same boundaries as Suez governorate.
Syros (Σύρος), or Siros or Syra is a Greek island in the Cyclades, in the Aegean Sea.
In economics, tax incidence or tax burden is the analysis of the effect of a particular tax on the distribution of economic welfare.
Tenedos (Tenedhos) or Bozcaada (Bozcaada) is an island of Turkey in the northeastern part of the Aegean Sea.
Thasos or Thassos (Θάσος) is a Greek island, geographically part of the North Aegean Sea, but administratively part of the Kavala regional unit.
O Drakos (Ο Δράκος; English: The Ogre of Athens or The Dragon or The fiend of Athens) is a Greek black-and-white film, produced in 1956, directed by Nikos Koundouros.
Themistoklis Sofoulis or Sophoulis (24 November 1860 – 24 June 1949) was a prominent centrist Greek politician from Samos Island, who served three times as Prime Minister of Greece, belonging to the centre-left wing of the Liberal Party, which he led for many years.
Theodoros Diligiannis, also spelled Deligiannis, Delyannis, Delijannis and Deliyannis, (Θεόδωρος Δηλιγιάννης, 2 January 182013 June 1905), was a Greek statesman.
Theophrastos Sakellaridis (Θεόφραστος Σακελλαρίδης) (7 September 1883 2 January 1950), was a Greek composer, conductor, and basic creator of Greek operetta.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.
Third Hellenic Republic (Γ΄ Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) is the period in modern Greek history that stretches from 1974, with the fall of Greek military junta and the final abolition of the Greek monarchy, to the present day.
Thomas W. Gallant is a historian who specializes in modern Greek history and archaeology.
Thrasyvoulos Zaimis (Θρασύβουλος Ζαΐμης, 1822–1880) was a Greek politician and the 21st Prime Minister of Greece.
The Tito–Stalin Split, or Yugoslav–Soviet Split, was a conflict between the leaders of SFR Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, which resulted in Yugoslavia's expulsion from the Communist Information Bureau (Cominform) in 1948.
A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to carry torpedoes into battle.
The Treaty of Berlin (formally the Treaty between Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire for the Settlement of Affairs in the East) was signed on July 13, 1878.
The Treaty of Bucharest (Tratatul de la Bucureşti; Bukureštanski mir/ Букурештански мир; Договорът от Букурещ; Συνθήκη του Βουκουρεστίου) was concluded on 10 August 1913, by the delegates of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece.
The Τreaty of Constantinople was the product of the Constantinople Conference which opened in February 1832 with the participation of the Great Powers (Britain, France and Russia) on the one hand and the Ottoman Empire on the other.
The Treaty of Lausanne (Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in the Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.
The Treaty of London (1913) was signed on 30 May during the London Conference of 1912–13.
The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine required Bulgaria to cede various territories, after Bulgaria had been one of the Central Powers defeated in World War I. The treaty was signed on 27 November 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France.
The Treaty of Sèvres (Traité de Sèvres) was one of a series of treaties that the Central Powers signed after their defeat in World War I. Hostilities had already ended with the Armistice of Mudros.
The Treaty of Varkiza (also known as the Varkiza Pact or the Varkiza Peace Agreement) was signed in Varkiza (near Athens) on February 12, 1945 between the Greek Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Secretary of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) for EAM-ELAS.
The Trial of the Six (Δίκη των Έξι, Díki ton Éxi) or the Execution of the Six was the trial for treason, in late 1922, of the anti-venizelists officials held responsible for the Greek military defeat in Asia Minor.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkish National Movement (Türk Ulusal Hareketi) encompasses the political and military activities of the Turkish revolutionaries that resulted in the creation and shaping of the modern Republic of Turkey, as a consequence of the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I and the subsequent occupation of Constantinople and partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States of the Ionian Islands (Inoménon Krátos ton Ioníon Níson, literally "United State of the Ionian Islands"; Stati Uniti delle Isole Ionie) was a state and amical protectorate of the United Kingdom between 1815 and 1864.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
Venizelism (Βενιζελισμός) was one of the major political movements in Greece from the 1900s until the mid-1970s.
Vlorë is the third most populous city of the Republic of Albania.
King Vukašin of Serbia, also known as Vukašin Mrnjavčević (Вукашин Мрњавчевић,; c. 1320 – 26 September 1371) was a Serbian king and co-ruler of Serbian Emperor Stefan Uroš V from 1365 to 1371.
Western Thrace (Θράκη, Thráki; Batı Trakya; Западна Тракия, Zapadna Trakiya or Беломорска Тракия, Belomorska Trakiya) is a geographic and historical region of Greece, between the Nestos and Evros rivers in the northeast of the country; Eastern Thrace, which lies east of the river Evros, forms the European part of Turkey, and the area to the north, in Bulgaria, is known as Northern Thrace.
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yannoulis Chalepas (Γιαννούλης Χαλεπάς, August 14, 1851 – September 15, 1938) was a Greek sculptor and significant figure of Modern Greek art.
The Young Turk Revolution (July 1908) of the Ottoman Empire was when the Young Turks movement restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and ushered in multi-party politics in a two stage electoral system (electoral law) under the Ottoman parliament.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
The 1896 Summer Olympics (Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 1896), officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, was the first international Olympic Games held in modern history.
The attempted coup d'état of March 1935 (Κίνημα του 1935) was a Venizelist revolt against the People's Party government of Panagis Tsaldaris, which was suspected of pro-royalist tendencies.
The 3 September 1843 Revolution (Επανάσταση της 3ης Σεπτεμβρίου 1843; N.S. 13 September), was an uprising by the Hellenic Army in Athens, supported by large sections of the people, against the autocratic rule of King Otto.
The 4th of August Regime (Καθεστώς της 4ης Αυγούστου, Kathestós tis tetártis Avgoústou), commonly also known as the Metaxas Regime (Καθεστώς Μεταξά, Kathestós Metaxá), was a totalitarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas that ruled the Kingdom of Greece from 1936 to 1941.
The 5th Airmobile Brigade "5th Cretan Division" (5η Αερομεταφερόμενη Ταξιαρχία Πεζικού «V Μεραρχία Κρητών»), formerly the 5th Infantry Division (V Μεραρχία Πεζικού) and commonly referred to simply as the Cretan Division (Μεραρχία Κρητών), is an air assault brigade of the Hellenic Army responsible for the defense of the southern Aegean sea.
First Kingdom of Greece, Greek Kingdom, Hellenic kingdom, Kingdom of Greece (1832–1862), Kingdom of Greece (Glücksburg), Kingdom of Greece (Wittelsbach), Kingdom of Greece (disambiguation), Kingdom of the Greeks, Kingdom of the Hellenes, Of the Hellenes, Royal House of the Hellenes.