115 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Adarnase IV of Iberia, Alexander the Great, Amazasp III of Iberia, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Antoninus Pius, Arabs, Ardashir I, Arian Kartli, Armazi, Armenian language, Armenian National Academy of Sciences, Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia, Arsacid dynasty of Iberia, Artaxias I of Iberia, Ashot I of Iberia, Autocephaly, Azo of Iberia, Bacurius III of Iberia, Bagrat III of Georgia, Bagrationi dynasty, Byzantine Empire, Byzantium, Caliphate, Cappadocia, Cassius Dio, Caucasian Albania, Caucasus, Caucasus Mountains, Chosroid dynasty, Christianity, Christianity in Georgia (country), Christianization of Iberia, Classical antiquity, Colchis, Conversion of Kartli (chronicle), Cyril Toumanoff, Darial Gorge, Early Middle Ages, Emirate of Tbilisi, Eristavi, Exonym and endonym, George the Hagiorite, Georgia (country), Georgia in the Roman era, Georgian monarchs family tree of Iberia, Georgians, Giorgi Melikishvili, Hachdeanq, ..., Hadrian, Heraclius, Herodotus, History of geography, Hormizd IV, Iberian Peninsula, Iberians, Iranian mythology, Ivane Javakhishvili, Julian (emperor), Kartli, Kartvelian languages, King of Iberia, Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), Kingdom of Georgia, Kingdom of Iberia, Kingdom of Pontus, Kouropalates, Kura–Araxes culture, Kvemo Kartli, Lazica, Likhi Range, List of Graeco-Roman geographers, Marzban, Maurice (emperor), Mihrdat I of Iberia, Mirian III of Iberia, Mithraism, Mithridates VI of Pontus, Monarchy, Mtskheta, Mushki, Old Georgian language, Parthia, Peace of Nisibis (299), Pharasmanes II of Iberia, Pharnajom of Iberia, Pharnavaz, Pharnavaz I of Iberia, Pharnavaz II of Iberia, Pharnavazid dynasty, Political union, Pompey, Pompey's Georgian campaign, Prehistoric Georgia, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman Republic, Ronald Grigor Suny, Royal family, Saint Nino, Sasanian Empire, Sasanian Iberia, Seleucid Empire, Shapur I, State religion, Suren Yeremian, Syria, Tbilisi, Vakhtang I of Iberia, Vassal, Vassal state, Vespasian, Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (65 more) » « Shrink index
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Adarnase IV (ადარნასე) (died 923) was a member of the Georgian Bagratid dynasty of Tao-Klarjeti and prince of Iberia/Kartli, responsible for the restoration of kingship, which had been in abeyance since it had been abolished by Iran in the sixth century, in 888.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Aamazasp III or Hamazasp (ამაზასპ III, Latinized as Amazaspus) was a king of Iberia (natively known as Kartli; ancient Georgia) from 260 to 265 AD.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Antoninus Pius (Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius; 19 September 867 March 161 AD), also known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 138 to 161.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Ardashir I or Ardeshir I (Middle Persian:, New Persian: اردشیر بابکان, Ardashir-e Bābakān), also known as Ardashir the Unifier (180–242 AD), was the founder of the Sasanian Empire.
Arian Kartli or Aryan-Kartli (არიან-ქართლი) was a country claimed by the medieval Georgian chronicle "The Conversion of Kartli" (მოქცევაჲ ქართლისაჲ, mokc’evay k’art’lisay) to be the earlier homeland of the Georgians of Kartli (Iberia, central and eastern Georgia).
Armazi (არმაზი) is a locale in Georgia, 4 km southwest of Mtskheta and 22 km northwest of Tbilisi.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
The National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia (NAS RA) (Հայաստանի Հանրապետության գիտությունների ազգային ակադեմիա, ՀՀ ԳԱԱ, Hayastani Hanrapetut’yan gitut’yunneri azgayin akademia) is the primary body that conducts research and coordinates activities in the fields of science and social sciences in Armenia.
The Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia (Հայկական սովետական հանրագիտարան, Haykakan sovetakan hanragitaran; ASE) publishing house was established in 1967 as a department of the Institute of History of the Armenian Academy of Sciences under the presidency of Viktor Hambardzumyan (1908–1996), co-edited by Abel Simonyan (1922–1994) and Makich Arzumanyan (1919–1988).
The Iberian Arsacids or Arshakiani (არშაკიანი), a branch of the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia, ruled the ancient Kingdom of Iberia (Kartli, eastern Georgia) from c. 189 until 284 AD.
Artaxias I, of the Artaxiad dynasty, was a king of Iberia (modern-day Georgia) from 90 to 78 BC.
Ashot I the Great (აშოტ I დიდი) (died 826) was a presiding prince of Iberia (modern Georgia), first of the Bagratid family to have attained to this office c. 813.
Autocephaly (from αὐτοκεφαλία, meaning "property of being self-headed") is the status of a hierarchical Christian Church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop (used especially in Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Independent Catholic churches).
Azo, Azoy or Azon (აზო; აზოჲ; აზონი) was a ruler of Georgians of ancient Kartli (Iberia of the Classical authors) claimed by medieval Georgian annals to have been installed by Alexander the Great, king of Macedon (r. 336–323 BC).
Bakur III (ბაკურ III, Latinized as Bacurius) (died 580) was the last Chosroid king of Iberia (natively known as Kartli; ancient Georgia) upon whose death the Iberian monarchy was abolished by Sassanid Iran.
Bagrat III (ბაგრატ III) (c. 960 – 7 May 1014), of the Georgian Bagrationi dynasty, was King of Abkhazia from 978 on (as Bagrat II) and King of Georgia from 1008 on.
The Bagrationi dynasty (bagrat’ioni) is a royal family that reigned in Georgia from the Middle Ages until the early 19th century, being among the oldest extant Christian ruling dynasties in the world. In modern usage, this royal line is often referred to as the Georgian Bagratids (a Hellenized form of their dynastic name), also known in English as the Bagrations. The common origin with the Armenian Bagratuni dynasty has been accepted by several scholars Toumanoff, Cyril, "Armenia and Georgia", in The Cambridge Medieval History, Cambridge, 1966, vol. IV, p. 609. Accessible online at (Although, other sources claim, that dynasty had Georgian roots). Early Georgian Bagratids through dynastic marriage gained the Principality of Iberia after succeeding Chosroid dynasty at the end of the 8th century. In 888, the Georgian monarchy was restored and united various native polities into the Kingdom of Georgia, which prospered from the 11th to the 13th century. This period of time, particularly the reigns of David IV the Builder (1089–1125) and his great granddaughter Tamar the Great (1184–1213) inaugurated the Georgian Golden Age in the history of Georgia.Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh. "Burke’s Royal Families of the World: Volume II Africa & the Middle East, 1980, pp. 56-67 After fragmentation of the unified Kingdom of Georgia in the late 15th century, the branches of the Bagrationi dynasty ruled the three breakaway Georgian kingdoms, Kingdom of Kartli, Kingdom of Kakheti, and Kingdom of Imereti, until Russian annexation in the early 19th century. While the Treaty of Georgievsk's 3rd Article guaranteed continued sovereignty for the Bagrationi dynasty and their continued presence on the Georgian Throne, the Russian Imperial Crown later broke the terms of the treaty, and their treaty became an illegal annexation. The dynasty persisted within the Russian Empire as an Imperial Russian noble family until the 1917 February Revolution. The establishment of Soviet rule in Georgia in 1921 forced some members of the family to accept demoted status and loss of property in Georgia, others relocated to Western Europe, although some repatriated after Georgian independence in 1991.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.
Albania, usually referred to as Caucasian Albania for disambiguation with the modern state of Albania (the endonym is unknownRobert H. Hewsen. "Ethno-History and the Armenian Influence upon the Caucasian Albanians", in: Samuelian, Thomas J. (Ed.), Classical Armenian Culture. Influences and Creativity. Chicago: 1982, pp. 27-40.Bosworth, Clifford E.. Encyclopædia Iranica.), is a name for the historical region of the eastern Caucasus, that existed on the territory of present-day republic of Azerbaijan (where both of its capitals were located) and partially southern Dagestan.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region.
The Khosroianni (ხოსროიანები; ხოსროიანნი), Latinized as Chosroids, also known as the Iberian Mihranids or Mihranids of Iberia, were a dynasty of the kings and later of the presiding princes of the early Georgian state of Iberia, natively known as Kartli, from the 4th to the 9th centuries.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Today 84% of the population in Georgia practices Orthodox '''Christianity''', primarily the Georgian Orthodox Church.
The Christianization of Iberia (ქართლის გაქრისტიანება kartlis gakrist'ianeba) refers to the spread of Christianity in an early 4th century by the sermon of Saint Nino in an ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli, known as Iberia in Classical antiquity, which resulted in declaring it as a state religion by then-pagan King Mirian III of Iberia.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Colchis (კოლხეთი K'olkheti; Greek Κολχίς Kolkhís) was an ancient Georgian kingdom and region on the coast of the Black Sea, centred in present-day western Georgia.
The Conversion of Kartli (მოქცევაჲ ქართლისაჲ, Asomtavruli: ႫႭႵႺႤႥႠჂ ႵႠႰႧႪႨႱႠჂ) is the earliest surviving medieval Georgian historical compendium, independent from The Georgian Chronicles, the major corpus historicum of medieval Georgia.
Cyril Leo Heraclius, Prince Toumanoff (Кирилл Львович Туманов; 13 October 1913 – 4 February 1997) was a Russian-born American historian and genealogist who mostly specialized in the history and genealogies of medieval Georgia, Armenia, Iran and the Byzantine Empire.
The Darial Gorge (დარიალის ხეობა, Darialis Kheoba; Дарьяльское ущелье; Арвыком, Arvykom; Башлоам-Чу) is a river gorge on the border between Russia and Georgia.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The Emirs of Tbilisi (თბილისის საამირო, إمارة تفليسي) ruled over the parts of today’s eastern Georgia from their base in the city of Tbilisi, from 736 to 1080 (nominally to 1122).
Eristavi (literally, "head of the nation") was a Georgian feudal office, roughly equivalent to the Byzantine strategos and normally translated into English as "duke".
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
George the Hagiorite, George of Athos, Giorgi Mtatsmindeli or Giorgi Atoneli (გიორგი მთაწმინდელი, გიორგი ათონელი) (1009 – June 27, 1065) was a Georgian monk, calligrapher, religious writer, and translator, who spearheaded the activities of Georgian monastic communities in the Byzantine Empire.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The modern state of Georgia was under Roman control between the 1st century BC and the 7th century AD.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Giorgi Melikishvili (გიორგი მელიქიშვილი; Гео́ргий Алекса́ндрович Меликишви́ли; December 30, 1918 – March 27, 2002) was a Georgian historian known for his fundamental works in the history of Georgia, Caucasia and the Middle East.
Hachdeanq was a region and family of the ancient Kingdom of Armenia c. 400-800.
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
The history of geography includes many histories of geography which have differed over time and between different cultural and political groups.
Hormizd IV (𐭠𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭬𐭦𐭣; New Persian: هرمز چهارم), was king of the Sasanian Empire from 579 to 590.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The Iberians (Hibērī, from Ίβηρες, Iberes) were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources (among others, Hecataeus of Miletus, Avienus, Herodotus and Strabo) identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula, at least from the 6th century BC.
Iranian mythology or Iranic mythology may involve in the mythology of Iranian peoples, a branch of Indo-Europeans.
Prince Ivane Javakhishvili (ივანე ჯავახიშვილი, 11 April 1876 – 18 November 1940) was a Georgian historian and a linguist whose voluminous works heavily influenced the modern scholarship of the history and culture of Georgia.
Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus; Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.
Kartli (ქართლი) is a historical region in central-to-eastern Georgia traversed by the river Mtkvari (Kura), on which Georgia's capital, Tbilisi, is situated.
The Kartvelian languages (ქართველური ენები, Kartveluri enebi, also known as Iberian and formerly South CaucasianBoeder (2002), p. 3) are a language family indigenous to the Caucasus and spoken primarily in Georgia, with large groups of native speakers in Russia, Iran, the United States, the European Union, Israel, and northeastern parts of Turkey.
This list is part of the larger set of lists of Georgian monarchs.
The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, or simply Greater Armenia (Մեծ Հայք; Armenia Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD.
The Kingdom of Georgia (საქართველოს სამეფო), also known as the Georgian Empire, was a medieval Eurasian monarchy which emerged circa 1008 AD.
In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Ancient Greek: Ἰβηρία; Hiberia) was an exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.
The Kingdom of Pontus or Pontic Empire was a state founded by the Persian Mithridatic dynasty,http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/pontus which may have been directly related to Darius the Great and the Achaemenid dynasty.
Kouropalatēs, Latinized as curopalates or curopalata (κουροπαλάτης, from cura palatii " charge of the palace").
The Kura–Araxes culture or the early trans-Caucasian culture was a civilization that existed from about 4000 BC until about 2000 BC, which has traditionally been regarded as the date of its end; in some locations it may have disappeared as early as 2600 or 2700 BC.
Kvemo Kartli (Lower Kartli, ქვემო ქართლი) is a historic province and current administrative region (Mkhare) in southeastern Georgia.
Lazica (ეგრისის სამეფო, Egrisi; ლაზიკა, Laziǩa; Λαζική, Lazikē; لازستان, Lazistan; Եգեր, Yeger) was the Latin name given to the territory of Colchis during the Roman/Byzantine period, from about the 1st century BC.
Likhi Range (tr) or Surami Range (tr) is a mountain range in Georgia, a part of the Caucasus mountains.
;Pre-Hellenistic Classical Greece.
Marzbān, or Marzpān (Middle Persian transliteration: mrzwpn, derived from marz "border, boundary" and the suffix -pān "guardian"; Modern Persian: مرزبان Marzbān) were a class of margraves, warden of the marches, and by extension military commanders, in charge of border provinces of the Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD) and mostly Sasanian Empire (224–651 AD) of Iran.
Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus;; 539 – 27 November 602) was Byzantine Emperor from 582 to 602.
Mithridates I (Mihrdat I) (მითრიდატე I) was the 1st-century king of Iberia (Kartli, Georgia) whose reign is evidenced by epigraphic material.
Mirian III (მირიან III) was a king of Iberia or Kartli (Georgia), contemporaneous to the Roman emperor Constantine the Great (r. 306–337).
Mithraism, also known as the Mithraic mysteries, was a mystery religion centered around the god Mithras that was practised in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to the 4th century CE.
Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI (Μιθραδάτης, Μιθριδάτης), from Old Persian Miθradāta, "gift of Mithra"; 135–63 BC, also known as Mithradates the Great (Megas) and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia (now Turkey) from about 120–63 BC.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
Mtskheta (მცხეთა) is a city in Mtskheta-Mtianeti province of Georgia.
The Mushki were an Iron Age people of Anatolia who appear in sources from Assyria but not from the Hittites.
Old Georgian (ძველი ქართული ენა dzveli kartuli ena, Old Georgian: ႤႬႠჂ ႵႠႰႧႳႪႨ, enay kartuli) the literary language of Georgian monarchies in the 5th century.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Peace of Nisibis of 299, also known as the First Peace of Nisibis, was a peace treaty signed in 299 by the Roman and Sassanian empires, and concluded the Roman-Sassanian War of 296-299.
Pharasmanes II the Valiant or the Brave (ფარსმან II ქველი) was a king of Iberia (Kartli) from the Pharnavazid dynasty, contemporary of the Roman emperor Hadrian (r. 117–138).
P'arnajom or P'arnajob (ფარნაჯომი, ფარნაჯობი) (died 90 BC) was a king of Iberia from 109 to 90 BC, the fourth in the P'arnavaziani line.
Pharnavaz (ფარნავაზი) is a Georgian masculine given name.
Pharnavaz I (ფარნავაზ I) was a king of Kartli, an ancient Georgian kingdom known as Iberia in the Classical antiquity.
Parnavaz II (ფარნავაზი) (died 30 BC), of the Artaxiad Dynasty, was a king of Iberia (Kartli, eastern Georgia) from 63 to 30 BC.
The Pharnavazid, Pharnabazid or Parnavazianni (ფარნავაზიანები, ფარნავაზიანნი) is the name of the first dynasty of Georgian kings of Kartli (Iberia) preserved by The Georgian Chronicles.
A political union is a type of state which is composed of or created out of smaller states.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
Pompey's campaign in Iberia and Colchis took place in 65 BC and was a consequence of the Mithridatic Wars.
The prehistory of Georgia is the period between the first human habitation of the territory of modern-day nation of Georgia and the time when Assyrian and Urartian, and more firmly, the Classical accounts, brought the proto-Georgian tribes into the scope of recorded history.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Ronald Grigor Suny (born September 25, 1940) is director of the Eisenberg Institute for Historical Studies, the Charles Tilly Collegiate Professor of Social and Political History at the University of Michigan, and Emeritus Professor of political science and history at the University of Chicago.
A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family.
Saint Nino (წმინდა ნინო, ts'minda nino; Սուրբ Նունե, Surb Nune; Αγία Νίνα, Agía Nína; sometimes St. Nune or St. Ninny) Equal to the Apostles and the Enlightener of Georgia (c. 296 – c. 338 or 340) was a woman who preached Christianity in Georgia, that resulted from the Christianization of Iberia.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Sasanian Iberia (სასანური ქართლი sasanuri kartli; known in Middle Persian sources as Wirōzān/Wiruzān/Wiručān) refers to the period the Kingdom of Iberia (Kartli, eastern Georgia) was under the suzerainty of the Sasanian Empire.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Shapur I (𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩; New Persian: rtl), also known as Shapur I the Great, was the second shahanshah (king of kings) of the Sasanian Empire.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Suren Tigrani Yeremian (Սուրեն Տիգրանի Երեմյան; Сурен Тигранович Еремян; – 17 December 1992) was an Armenian historian and cartographer who specialized in the studies concerning the formation of the Armenian nation and pre-medieval Armenia and the Caucasus.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Vakhtang I Gorgasali (ვახტანგ I გორგასალი, Vaxt’ang I Gorgasali) (c. 439 or 443 – 502 or 522), of the Chosroid dynasty, was a king of Iberia, natively known as Kartli (eastern Georgia) in the second half of the 5th and first quarter of the 6th century.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
A vassal state is any state that is subordinate to another.
Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation: Vespasian was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio–Claudian emperors. Although he fulfilled the standard succession of public offices and held the consulship in AD 51, Vespasian's renown came from his military success; he was legate of Legio II ''Augusta'' during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate. Vespasian dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's Senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college. Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system of Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects, including the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty.
Zoroaster (from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, was an ancient Iranian-speaking prophet whose teachings and innovations on the religious traditions of ancient Iranian-speaking peoples developed into the religion of Zoroastrianism.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Ancient Eastern Georgians, Ancient Georgians, Asiatic Iberia, Caucasian Iberia, Caucasian Iberians, Caucasus Iberia, Eastern Iberia, Iberi, Iberia Kingdom, Iberia in Caucasus, Iberia kingdom, Iberia of Caucasus, Iberia-Kartli, Iberian Caucasus, Iberian Kingdom, Iberian kingdom, Iberians of the Caucasus, Karts (tribe), Transcaucasian Iberia, იბერია, ივერია.