127 relations: Aethiopia, Afroasiatic languages, Ahmose, son of Ebana, Akkadian Empire, Akkadian language, Alara of Nubia, Alodia, Alphabet, Amanirenas, Amenhotep I, Amun, Anatolia, Ancient Egypt, Archery, Arqamani, Ashurbanipal, Aspelta, Assyrian people, Atbarah River, Augustus, Babylon, Blue Nile, Calneh, Canaan, Canary Islands, Cataracts of the Nile, Caucasus, Christianity, Classical antiquity, Client state, Cush (Bible), Diodorus Siculus, Eastern Sudanic languages, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Egyptian language, Elephantine, Encyclopedia of World History, Ergamenes, Esarhaddon, Ferrous metallurgy, Friedrich Delitzsch, Gaius Petronius, Ham (son of Noah), Hezekiah, Horn of Africa, Hyksos, Jebel Barkal, Jebel Sahaba, Jerusalem, Josephus, ..., Kandake, Kashta, Kassites, Kerma culture, Khoisan languages, Kingdom of Aksum, Late Bronze Age collapse, Leontopolis, Libu, List of monarchs of Kush, Maghreb, Makuria, Mediterranean Sea, Memphis, Egypt, Mentuhotep II, Meroë, Meroitic alphabet, Meroitic language, Merowe Dam, Mesopotamia, Middle Assyrian Empire, Middle Kingdom of Egypt, Monarch, Multilingualism, Napata, Near East, Necho I, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Nero, New Kingdom of Egypt, Niger–Congo languages, Nile, Nilo-Saharan languages, Nimrod, Nineveh, Nobatia, Nobiin language, Nubia, Nubian languages, Nubian pyramids, Nubians, Old Nubian language, Pharaoh, Phonotactics, Polity, Psamtik I, Red Sea, Roman Empire, Sargon II, Second Intermediate Period of Egypt, Semna (Nubia), Sennacherib, Shalmaneser V, Shanakdakhete, Shinar, Shoshenq I, South Sudan, Strabo, Stylus, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sudan, Taharqa, Tanakh, Tantamani, The New York Times, Thebes, Egypt, Theodor Mommsen, Third Intermediate Period of Egypt, Thutmose I, Tribe of Benjamin, Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt, Upper Egypt, Uruk, Viceroy of Kush, White Nile, Zagros Mountains. Expand index (77 more) » « Shrink index
Ancient Aethiopia (Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia) first appears as a geographical term in classical documents in reference to the upper Nile region, as well as all certain areas south of the Sahara desert and south of the Atlantic Ocean.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Ahmose, son of Ebana, served in the Egyptian military under the pharaohs Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, and Thutmose I. His autobiography has survived and is intact on the wall of his tomb and has proven a valuable source of information on the late 17th Dynasty and the early 18th Dynasty of Egypt.
The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Alara was a King of Kush who is generally regarded as the founder of the Napatan royal dynasty by his 25th Dynasty Nubian successors and was the first recorded prince of Nubia.
Alodia, also referred to as Alwa or Aloa, was a medieval Nubian kingdom in what is now central and southern Sudan.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Amanirenas (also spelled Amanirena) was a queen of the Meroitic Kingdom of Kush.
Amenhotep I from Ancient Egyptian "jmn-ḥtp" or "yamānuḥātap" meaning "Amun is satisfied" or Amenophis I,, from Ancient Greek Ἀμένωφις,Dodson & Hilton (2004) p.126 additionally King Zeserkere (transliteration: Ḏśr-k-R), was the second Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt.
Amun (also Amon, Ammon, Amen; Greek Ἄμμων Ámmōn, Ἅμμων Hámmōn) was a major ancient Egyptian deity who appears as a member of the Hermopolitan ogdoad.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.
Arqamani (also Arkamani or Ergamenes IITörök (2008), p. 393) was a Kushite King of Meroë dating from the late 3rd to early 2nd century BCE.
Ashurbanipal (Aššur-bāni-apli; ܐܫܘܪ ܒܢܐ ܐܦܠܐ; 'Ashur is the creator of an heir'), also spelled Assurbanipal or Ashshurbanipal, was King of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from 668 BC to c. 627 BC, the son of Esarhaddon and the last strong ruler of the empire, which is usually dated between 934 and 609 BC.
Aspelta was a ruler of the kingdom of Kush (c. 600 – c. 580 BCE).
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
The Atbarah River (نهر عطبرة; transliterated: Nahr 'Atbarah) in northeast Africa rises in northwest Ethiopia, approximately 50 km north of Lake Tana and 30 km west of Gondar.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
The Blue Nile is a river originating at Lake Tana in Ethiopia.
Calneh (כַלְנֵה) is one of four cities founded by Nimrod, mentioned a single time in the Hebrew Bible.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
The Cataracts of the Nile are shallow lengths (or white water rapids) of the Nile River, between Aswan and Khartoum, where the surface of the water is broken by many small boulders and stones jutting out of the river bed, as well as many rocky islets.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
Cush, also spelled as Kush (Biblical: כּוּשׁ Kûš), was, according to the Bible, the eldest son of Ham, who was a son of Noah.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
In most classifications, the Eastern Sudanic languages are a group of nine families of languages that may constitute a branch of the Nilo-Saharan language family.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
Elephantine (Gazīrat il-Fantīn; Ἐλεφαντίνη) is an island on the Nile, forming part of the city of Aswan in Upper Egypt.
The Encyclopedia of World History is a classic single-volume work detailing world history.
Ergamenes is the hellenized name of a Nubian king of Meroë reported by Agatharchides in Diodorus Siculus (3.2.6, FHN II No. 142).
Esarhaddon (Akkadian: Aššur-aḥa-iddina "Ashur has given a brother";; Ασαρχαδδων; Asor Haddan) was a king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire who reigned 681 – 669 BC.
Ferrous metallurgy is the metallurgy of iron and its alloys.
Friedrich Delitzsch (3 September 1850 – 19 December 1922) was a German Assyriologist.
Gaius Petronius or Publius Petronius (c. 75 BC – after 20 BC) was the second and then fourth Prefect of Roman Aegyptus.
Ham (Greek Χαμ, Kham; Arabic: حام, Ḥām), according to the Table of Nations in the Book of Genesis, was a son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut and Canaan.
Hezekiah was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the son of Ahaz and the 13th king of Judah.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
The Hyksos (or; Egyptian heqa khasut, "ruler(s) of the foreign countries"; Ὑκσώς, Ὑξώς) were a people of mixed origins, possibly from Western Asia, who settled in the eastern Nile Delta some time before 1650 BC.
Jebel Barkal or Gebel Barkal (جبل بركل) is a very small mountain located some 400 km north of Khartoum, in Karima town in Northern State in Sudan, on a large bend of the Nile River, in the region called Nubia.
Jebel Sahaba (also Site 117) is a prehistoric cemetery site in the Nile Valley (now submerged in Lake Nasser), near the northern border of Sudan, associated with the Qadan culture, dated to the Younger Dryas (some 12,000 to 14,000 years old).
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Kandake, kadake or kentake, often Latinised as Candace (Κανδάκη), was the Meroitic language term for "queen" or possibly "royal woman".
Kashta was a king of the Kushite Dynasty and the successor of Alara.
The Kassites were people of the ancient Near East, who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire c. 1531 BC and until c. 1155 BC (short chronology).
The Kerma culture or Kerma kingdom was an early civilization centered in Kerma, Sudan.
The Khoisan languages (also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg.
The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The Late Bronze Age collapse involved a dark-age transition period in the Near East, Asia Minor, Aegean region, North Africa, Caucasus, Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, a transition which historians believe was violent, sudden, and culturally disruptive.
Leontopolis was an Ancient Egyptian city located in the Nile Delta, Lower Egypt.
The Libu (rbw; also transcribed Rebu, Lebu) were an Ancient Libyan tribe of Berber origin, from which the name ''Libya'' derives.
This is an incomplete list for rulers with the title of Qore (king) or Kandake (queen) of the Kingdom of Kush.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
The Kingdom of Makuria (Old Nubian: ⲇⲱⲧⲁⲩⲟ, Dotawo; Greek: Μακογρια, Makouria; مقرة, al-Muqurra) was a Nubian kingdom located in what is today Northern Sudan and Southern Egypt.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Memphis (مَنْف; ⲙⲉⲙϥⲓ; Μέμφις) was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt.
Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II (reigned c. 2061 BC – 2010 BC) was a Pharaoh of the 11th Dynasty who reigned for 51 years.
Meroë (also spelled Meroe; Meroitic: Medewi or Bedewi; Arabic: مرواه and مروى Meruwi; Ancient Greek: Μερόη, Meróē) is an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile about 6 km north-east of the Kabushiya station near Shendi, Sudan, approximately 200 km north-east of Khartoum.
The Meroitic script refers to two alphasyllabaric scripts developed to write the Kushite language at the beginning of the Meroitic Period (3rd century BC) of the Kingdom of Kush.
Meroitic also called Kushite after the apparent attested endoethnonym transcribed in Egyptian as k3š ← "Meroitic",. The commonly used scholarly name "Meroitic" derives from the royal city of Meroë of the Kingdom of Kush.
The Merowe Dam, also known as Merowe High Dam, Merowe Multi-Purpose Hydro Project or Hamdab Dam, is a large dam near Merowe Town in northern Sudan, about north of the capital Khartoum.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Middle Assyrian Empire is the period in the history of Assyria between the fall of the Old Assyrian Empire in the 14th century BC and the establishment of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 10th century BC.
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between circa 2050 BC and 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the impulse of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
Napata was a city-state of ancient Nubia on the west bank of the Nile River, at the site of modern Karima, Northern Sudan.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
Menkheperre Necho I (Egyptian: Nekau, Greek: Νεχώς Α' or Νεχώ Α', Akkadian: Nikuu) (? – 664 BCE near Memphis) was a ruler of the Ancient Egyptian city of Sais.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
The New Kingdom, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties of Egypt.
The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
The Nilo-Saharan languages are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile meet.
Nimrod (ܢܡܪܘܕ, النمرود an-Namrūd), a biblical figure described as a king in the land of Shinar (Assyria/Mesopotamia), was, according to the Book of Genesis and Books of Chronicles, the son of Cush, therefore the great-grandson of Noah.
Nineveh (𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua); ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq.
Nobatia or Nobadia (Greek: Νοβαδἰα, Nobadia; Old Nubian: ⲙⲓⲅⲓⲧⲛ︦ ⲅⲟⲩⲗ, Migitin Goul) was a late antique kingdom in Lower Nubia.
Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan phylum.
Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.
The Nubian languages (لغات نوبية) are a group of related languages spoken by the Nubians of Nubia, a region along the Nile in southern Egypt and northern Sudan.
Nubian pyramids are pyramids that were built by the rulers of the ancient Kushite kingdoms.
Nubians are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to present-day Sudan and southern Egypt who originate from the early inhabitants of the central Nile valley, believed to be one of the earliest cradles of civilization.
Old Nubian (also called Middle Nubian or Old Nobiin) is an extinct Nubian language, attested in writing from the 8th to the 15th century CE.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.
A polity is any kind of political entity.
Wahibre Psamtik I, known by the Greeks as Psammeticus or Psammetichus (Latinization of translit), who ruled 664–610 BC, was the first of three kings of that name of the Saite, or Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Sargon II (Assyrian Šarru-ukīn (LUGAL-GI.NA 𒈗𒄀𒈾).; Aramaic סרגן; reigned 722–705 BC) was an Assyrian king.
The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom.
The region of Semna is 15 miles south of Wadi Halfa and is situated where rocks cross the Nile narrowing its flow—the Semna Cataract.
Sennacherib was the king of Assyria from 705 BCE to 681 BCE.
Shalmaneser V was king of Assyria from 727 to 722 BC.
Shanakhdakheto or Shanakdakhete was a queen regnant of the Kingdom of Kush, when the polity was centered at Meroë.
Shinar (Hebrew שִׁנְעָר Šinʻar, Septuagint Σεννααρ Sennaar) is the term used in the Hebrew Bible for the general region of Mesopotamia.
Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian ššnq, Tamazight: ⵛⵉⵛⵓⵏⵇ cicunq), (reigned c. 943–922 BC)—also known as Sheshonk or Sheshonq I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq)—was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
A stylus, plural styli or styluses, is a writing utensil or a small tool for some other form of marking or shaping, for example, in pottery.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Taharqa, also spelled Taharka or Taharqo (Manetho's Tarakos, Strabo's Tearco), was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty and qore (king) of the Kingdom of Kush.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Tantamani (Assyrian UR-daname), Tanutamun or Tanwetamani (Egyptian) or Tementhes (Greek) (d. 653 BC) was a Pharaoh of Egypt and the Kingdom of Kush located in Northern Sudan and a member of the Nubian or Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai), known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile about south of the Mediterranean.
Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (30 November 1817 – 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician and archaeologist.
The Third Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt began with the death of Pharaoh Ramesses XI in 1070 BC, ending the New Kingdom, and was eventually followed by the Late Period.
Thutmose I (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis I, Thothmes in older history works in Latinized Greek; Ancient Egyptian: /ḏḥwty.ms/ Djehutymes, meaning "Thoth is born") was the third pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt.
According to the Torah, the Tribe of Benjamin (Hebrew: שֵׁבֶט בִּנְיָמִֽן, Shevet Binyamin) was one of the Twelve Tribes of Israel.
The Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXV, alternatively 25th Dynasty or Dynasty 25), also known as the Nubian Dynasty or the Kushite Empire, was the last dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period that occurred after the Nubian invasion of Ancient Egypt.
The Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt is also known as the Bubastite Dynasty, since the pharaohs originally ruled from the city of Bubastis.
Upper Egypt (صعيد مصر, shortened to الصعيد) is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.
Uruk (Cuneiform: URUUNUG; Sumerian: Unug; Akkadian: Uruk; وركاء,; Aramaic/Hebrew:; Orḥoē, Ὀρέχ Oreḥ, Ὠρύγεια Ōrugeia) was an ancient city of Sumer (and later of Babylonia), situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates, some 30 km east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.
The Kingdom of Kush based in Lower Nubia was a province of Ancient Egypt from the 16th century BCE to eleventh century BCE.
The White Nile (النيل الأبيض) is a river in Africa, one of the two main tributaries of the Nile; the other is the Blue Nile.
The Zagros Mountains (کوههای زاگرس; چیاکانی زاگرۆس) form the largest mountain range in Iran, Iraq and southeastern Turkey.