158 relations: Achaean League, Achaemenid Empire, Ahura Mazda, Amasra, Amasya, Anatolian languages, Ancient Greek religion, Antigonus I Monophthalmus, Antiochus XIII Asiaticus, Apollo, Apple, Ariarathes IX of Cappadocia, Ariarathes VI of Cappadocia, Ariarathes VII of Cappadocia, Ariobarzanes II of Cius, Ariobarzanes of Pontus, Armenians, Army, Arsaces of Pontus, Arsenic, Artaxerxes II of Persia, Asia (Roman province), Asiatic Vespers, Athens, Attalus II Philadelphus, Attalus III, Basileus, Battle of Chaeronea (86 BC), Battle of Orchomenus, Battle of Tigranocerta, Bithynia, Bithynia and Pontus, Black Sea, Boeotia, Bosporan Kingdom, Cabira, Cappadocia, Cassander, Cataphract, Cavalry, Chalcedon, Chalkaspides, Cherry, Chersonesus, Cilicia, Cius, Colchis, Copper, Cyzicus, Dardanus (city), ..., Darius I, Darius of Pontus, Delos, Demetrius I of Macedon, Ethnarchy of Comana, Eumenes III, Farm (revenue leasing), Galatia, Galatians (people), Georgia (country), Giresun, Greece, Hellenistic armies, Hellenization, Heraclea Pontica, Iazyges, Imperium, Iron, Jugurthine War, Kelkit River, Koine Greek, Laz language, Lead, Lesser Armenia, Long Walls, Lucius Licinius Murena, Lucullus, Lycaonia, Macedonian phalanx, Machares, Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 67 BC), Men (deity), Millet, Mithraism, Mithridates Chrestus, Mithridates I of Pontus, Mithridates II of Cius, Mithridates II of Pontus, Mithridates III of Pontus, Mithridates IV of Pontus, Mithridates V of Pontus, Mithridates VI of Pontus, Mithridatic dynasty, Mithridatic Wars, Mysia, Navy, Nero, Nicomedes III of Bithynia, Nusaybin, Old Persian, Ordu, Paphlagonia, Parthia, Partition of Triparadisus, Pear, Pergamon, Persian people, Pharnaces I of Pontus, Pharnaces II of Pontus, Phrygia, Phrygians, Piraeus, Pisidia, Polemon I of Pontus, Polemon II of Pontus, Pompey, Pontic Greek, Pontic Mountains, Proconsul, Prusias I of Bithynia, Prusias II of Bithynia, Ptolemy I Soter, Pythodorida of Pontus, Quintus Marcius Rex (consul 68 BC), Quintus Sertorius, Rhodes, Roman Empire, Roman legion, Roman Republic, Samsun, Sarmatians, Scythed chariot, Scythians, Second Mithridatic War, Seleucus I Nicator, Silver, Sinop, Turkey, Slavery, Social War (91–88 BC), Socrates Chrestus, Sophene, Sparta, Sulla, Syrian Wars, Tauri, Thespiae, Third Mithridatic War, Thracians, Tigranes the Great, Tigranocerta, Trabzon, Turkey, Ukraine, Varna, Veni, vidi, vici, Zeus, Zile, Zinc. Expand index (108 more) » « Shrink index
The Achaean League (Greek: Κοινὸν τῶν Ἀχαιῶν, Koinon ton Akhaion - "League of Achaeans") was a Hellenistic-era confederation of Greek city states on the northern and central Peloponnese.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Ahura Mazda (also known as Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, Harzoo and Hurmuz) is the Avestan name for the creator and sole God of Zoroastrianism, the old Iranian religion that spread across the Middle East, before ultimately being relegated to small minorities after the Muslim conquest of Iran.
Amasra (from Greek Amastris Ἄμαστρις, gen. Ἀμάστριδος) is a small Black Sea port town in the Bartın Province, Turkey, formerly known as Amastris.
Amasya (Ἀμάσεια) is a city in northern Turkey and is the capital of Amasya Province, in the Black Sea Region.
The Anatolian languages are an extinct family of Indo-European languages that were spoken in Asia Minor (ancient Anatolia), the best attested of them being the Hittite language.
Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
Antigonus I Monophthalmus (Antigonos ho Monophthalmos, Antigonus the One-eyed, 382–301 BC), son of Philip from Elimeia, was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great.
Antiochus XIII Philadelphus, known as Asiaticus was one of the last rulers of the Seleucid kingdom.
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
Ariarathes IX Eusebes Philopator (Ἀριαράθης Εὐσεβής Φιλοπάτωρ, Ariaráthēs Eusebḗs Philopátōr; reigned ca. 101–89 BC or 96 BC–95 BC), was made king of Cappadocia by his father King Mithridates VI of Pontus after the assassination of Ariarathes VII of Cappadocia.
Ariarathes VI Epiphanes Philopator (Ἀριαράθης Ἐπιφανής Φιλοπάτωρ, Ariaráthēs Epiphanḗs Philopátōr; reigned 130–116 or 126–111 BC), King of Cappadocia, was the youngest son of Ariarathes V of Cappadocia and Nysa of Cappadocia.
Ariarathes VII Philometor ("mother-loving") (Ἀριαράθης Φιλομήτωρ, Ariaráthēs Philomḗtōr; reigned in 116–101 BC or 111–100 BC), King of Cappadocia, was the first son of King Ariarathes VI of Cappadocia and his wife Laodice of Cappadocia.
Ariobarzanes (in Greek Ἀριoβαρζάνης; ruled 363–337 BC) a Persian noble, succeeded his kinsman or father, Mithridates or alternatively succeeded another Ariobarzanes I of Cius, as ruler of the Greek city of Cius in Mysia, governing for 26 years between 363 BC and 337 BC for the Persian king.
Ariobarzanes (in Greek Ἀριoβαρζάνης; reigned 266 BC – c. 250 BC) was the second king of Pontus, succeeding his father Mithridates I Ctistes in 266 BC and died in an uncertain date between 258 and 240.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine)) or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land.
Arsaces of Pontus (flourished 1st century BC) was a Prince from the Kingdom of Pontus.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Artaxerxes II Mnemon (𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂, meaning "whose reign is through truth") was the Xšâyathiya Xšâyathiyânâm (King of Kings) of Persia from 404 BC until his death in 358 BC.
The Roman province of Asia or Asiana (Ἀσία or Ἀσιανή), in Byzantine times called Phrygia, was an administrative unit added to the late Republic.
The Asiatic Vespers (also known as the Asian Vespers, Ephesian Vespers, or the Vespers of 88 BC) refers to an infamous episode during the First Mithridatic War.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Attalus II Philadelphus (Greek: Ἄτταλος Β΄ ὁ Φιλάδελφος, Attalos II Philadelphos, which means "Attalus the brother-loving"; 220–138 BC) was a King of Pergamon and the founder of modern-day Turkish city Antalya.
Attalus III (Ἄτταλος Γ΄) Philometor Euergetes (c. 170 BC – 133 BC) was the last Attalid king of Pergamon, ruling from 138 BC to 133 BC.
Basileus (βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history.
For the earlier battle, see Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC) The Battle of Chaeronea was fought by the Roman forces of Lucius Cornelius Sulla and Mithridates' general, Archelaus, near Chaeronea, in Boeotia, in 86 BC during the First Mithridatic War.
The Battle of Orchomenus was fought in 85 BC between Rome and the forces of Mithridates VI of Pontus.
The Battle of Tigranocerta (Tigranakerti tchakatamart) was fought on 6 October 69 BC between the forces of the Roman Republic and the army of the Kingdom of Armenia led by King Tigranes the Great.
Bithynia (Koine Greek: Βιθυνία, Bithynía) was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea.
Bithynia and Pontus (Provincia Bithynia et Pontus) was the name of a province of the Roman Empire on the Black Sea coast of Anatolia (Turkey).
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (Βοιωτία,,; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece.
The Bosporan Kingdom, also known as the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus (Basileion tou Kimmerikou Bosporou), was an ancient state located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus, the present-day Strait of Kerch (it was not named after the more famous Bosphorus beside Istanbul at the other end of the Black Sea).
Cabira (τὰ Κάβειρα) was a place in the Pontus region of Asia minor, at the base of the range of Paryadres, about 150 stadia south of Eupatoria or Magnopolis, which was at the junction of the Iris and the Lycus.
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
Cassander (Greek: Κάσσανδρος Ἀντιπάτρου, Kassandros Antipatrou; "son of Antipatros": c. 350 BC – 297 BC), was king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from 305 BC until 297 BC, and de facto ruler of much of Greece from 317 BC until his death.
A cataphract was a form of armored heavy cavalry used in ancient warfare by a number of peoples in Europe, East Asia, Middle East and North africa.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
Chalcedon (or;, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor.
The Chalkaspides (Χαλκάσπιδες "Bronze Shields") made up one of the two probable corps of the Antigonid-era Macedonian phalanx in the Hellenistic period, with the Leukaspides ("White Shields") forming the other.
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).
Chersonesus (Khersónēsos; Chersonesus; modern Russian and Ukrainian: Херсонес, Khersones; also rendered as Chersonese, Chersonesos), in medieval Greek contracted to Cherson (Χερσών; Old East Slavic: Корсунь, Korsun) is an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2,500 years ago in the southwestern part of the Crimean Peninsula.
In antiquity, Cilicia(Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire.
Cius (Kίος Kios), later renamed Prusias on the Sea (Prusias ad Mare) after king Prusias I of Bithynia, was an ancient Greek city bordering the Propontis (now known as the Sea of Marmara), in Bithynia (in modern northwestern Turkey), and had a long history, being mentioned by Aristotle, Strabo and Apollonius Rhodius.
Colchis (კოლხეთი K'olkheti; Greek Κολχίς Kolkhís) was an ancient Georgian kingdom and region on the coast of the Black Sea, centred in present-day western Georgia.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cyzicus (Κύζικος Kyzikos; آیدینجق, Aydıncıḳ) was an ancient town of Mysia in Anatolia in the current Balıkesir Province of Turkey.
Dardanus (Δάρδανος, Dardanos) was an ancient city in the Troad.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Darius of Pontus (reigned 37-37/36 BC) was a monarch of Iranian and Greek Macedonian ancestry.
The island of Delos (Δήλος; Attic: Δῆλος, Doric: Δᾶλος), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological sites in Greece.
Demetrius I (Δημήτριος; 337–283 BC), called Poliorcetes (Πολιορκητής, "The Besieger"), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a Macedonian Greek nobleman, military leader, and finally king of Macedon (294–288 BC).
The ethnarchy of Comana was a client-state of ancient Rome that lay between Pontus and Cappadocia.
Eumenes III (Εὐμένης Γʹ; originally named Aristonicus; in Greek Aristonikos Ἀριστόνικος) was a pretender to the throne of Pergamon, who lost the kingdom to the Roman Republic.
Farming is a technique of financial management, namely the process of commuting (changing), by its assignment by legal contract to a third party, a future uncertain revenue stream into fixed and certain periodic rents, in consideration for which commutation a discount in value received is suffered.
Ancient Galatia (Γαλατία, Galatía) was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia (Ankara, Çorum, Yozgat Province) in modern Turkey.
The Galatians (Latin: Gallograeci; Greek: Γαλάται) were a Gallic people of the Hellenistic period that dwelt mainly in the north central regions of Asia Minor or Anatolia, in what was known as Galatia, in today's Turkey.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Giresun, formerly Cerasus (Κερασοῦς), is the provincial capital of Giresun Province in the Black Sea Region of northeastern Turkey, about west of the city of Trabzon.
The Hellenistic armies is the term applied to the armies of the successor kingdoms of the Hellenistic period, which emerged after the death of Alexander the Great.
Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC.
__notoc__ Heraclea Pontica (Ἡράκλεια Ποντική Hērakleia Pontikē) was an ancient city on the coast of Bithynia in Asia Minor, at the mouth of the river Lycus.
The Iazyges, singular Iazyx (Ἰάζυγες, singular Ἰάζυξ), were an ancient Sarmatian tribe who travelled westward from Central Asia onto the steppes of what is now Ukraine in BC.
Imperium is a Latin word that, in a broad sense, translates roughly as 'power to command'.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
The Jugurthine War took place in 112–106 BC, between Rome and Jugurtha of Numidia, a kingdom on the north African coast approximating to modern Algeria.
The Kelkit River (Kelkit Irmağı or Kelkit Çayı), is a river in the Black Sea Region of Turkey.
The Laz language (ლაზური ნენა, lazuri nena; ლაზური ენა, lazuri ena, or ჭანური ენა, ç̌anuri ena / chanuri ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken by the Laz people on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lesser Armenia (Փոքր Հայք, Pokr Hayk; Armenia Minor), also known as Armenia Minor and Armenia Inferior, comprised the Armenian–populated regions primarily to the west and northwest of the ancient Kingdom of Armenia (also known as Kingdom of Greater Armenia).
Although long walls were built at several locations in ancient Greece, notably Corinth and Megara, the term Long Walls (Μακρὰ Τείχη) generally refers to the walls that connected Athens to its ports at Piraeus and Phalerum.
Lucius Licinius Murena was the name of a father and son who lived in the late Roman Republic.
Lucius Licinius Lucullus (118 – 57/56 BC) was an optimate politician of the late Roman Republic, closely connected with Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
Lycaonia (Λυκαονία, Lykaonia, Likaonya) was a large region in the interior of Asia Minor, north of the Taurus Mountains.
The Macedonian phalanx is an infantry formation developed by Philip II and used by his son Alexander the Great to conquer the Achaemenid Empire and other armies.
Machares (ο Μαχάρης; means in Persian: warrior; died 65 BC) was a Pontian prince and son of King Mithridates VI of Pontus and Queen Laodice.
Manius Acilius Glabrio, Roman statesman and general, grandson of the jurist P. Mucius Scaevola.
Mēn (Greek "month; Moon",Mensis Gerald L. Borchert. --> presumably influenced by Avestan måŋha) was a lunar god worshipped in the western interior parts of Anatolia.
Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.
Mithraism, also known as the Mithraic mysteries, was a mystery religion centered around the god Mithras that was practised in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to the 4th century CE.
Mithridates Chrestus (Μιθριδάτης ό Χρηστός; the Good, flourished 2nd century BC, died 115 BC-113 BC) was a Prince and co-ruler of the Kingdom of Pontus.
Mithridates I Ctistes (in Greek Mιθριδάτης Kτίστης; reigned 281–266 BCE), also known as Mithridates III of Cius, was a Persian nobleman and the founder (this is the meaning of the word Ctistes, literally Builder) of the Kingdom of Pontus in Anatolia.
Mithridates of Cius (in Greek Mιθριδάτης or Mιθραδάτης; lived c. 386–302 BCE, ruled 337–302 BCE) a Persian noble, succeeded his kinsman or father Ariobarzanes II in 337 BCE as ruler of the Greek town of Cius in Mysia (today part of Turkey).
Mithridates II (in Greek Mιθριδάτης; lived 3rd century BC), third king of Pontus and son of Ariobarzanes, whom he succeeded on the throne.
Mithridates III (Mιθριδάτης) was the fourth King of Pontus, son of Mithridates II of Pontus and Laodice.
Mithridates IV of Pontus, sometimes known by his full name Mithridates Philopator Philadelphus, (Mιθριδάτης ὁ Φιλoπάτωρ Φιλάδελφoς, "Mithridates the father-loving, brother-loving"; died) was a prince and sixth ruler of the Kingdom of Pontus.
Mithridates V Euergetes (Greek: Μιθριδάτης ὁ εὐεργέτης, which means "Mithridates the benefactor"; fl. 2nd century BC, r. 150–120 BC); also known as Mithridates V of Pontus, Mithradates V of Pontus and Mithradates V Euergetes, was a Prince and seventh King of the wealthy Kingdom of Pontus.
Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI (Μιθραδάτης, Μιθριδάτης), from Old Persian Miθradāta, "gift of Mithra"; 135–63 BC, also known as Mithradates the Great (Megas) and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia (now Turkey) from about 120–63 BC.
The Mithridatic dynasty, also known as the Pontic dynasty, was a hereditary dynasty of Persian origin, founded by Mithridates I Ktistes (Mithridates III of Cius) in 281 BC.
There were three Mithridatic Wars between Rome and the Kingdom of Pontus in the 1st century BC.
Mysia (UK, US or; Μυσία, Mysia, Misya) was a region in the northwest of ancient Asia Minor (Anatolia, Asian part of modern Turkey).
A navy or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions.
Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Nicomedes III Euergetes (the Benefactor, Nikomḗdēs Euergétēs) was the king of Bithynia, from c. 127 BC to c. 94 BC.
Nusaybin (Akkadian: Naṣibina; Classical Greek: Νίσιβις, Nisibis; نصيبين., Kurdish: Nisêbîn; ܢܨܝܒܝܢ, Nṣībīn; Armenian: Մծբին, Mtsbin) is a city and multiple titular see in Mardin Province, Turkey.
Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).
Ordu is a port city on the Black Sea coast of Turkey, historically also known as Cotyora or Kotyora, and the capital of Ordu Province with a population of 213,582 in the city center.
Paphlagonia (Παφλαγονία, Paphlagonía, modern pronunciation Paflagonía; Paflagonya) was an ancient area on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia to the west and Pontus to the east, and separated from Phrygia (later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Partition of Triparadisus was a power-sharing agreement passed at Triparadisus in 321 BCE between the generals (Diadochi) of Alexander the Great, in which they named a new regent and arranged the repartition of the satrapies of Alexander's empire among themselves.
The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus, in the family Rosaceae.
Pergamon, or Pergamum (τὸ Πέργαμον or ἡ Πέργαμος), was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Pharnaces I (Φαρνάκης; lived 2nd century BC), fifth king of Pontus, was of Persian and Greek ancestry.
Pharnaces II of Pontus, also known as Pharnaces II (Φαρνάκης; about 97–47 BC) was the king of the Bosporan Kingdom until his death.
In Antiquity, Phrygia (Φρυγία, Phrygía, modern pronunciation Frygía; Frigya) was first a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centered on the Sangarios River, later a region, often part of great empires.
The Phrygians (gr. Φρύγες, Phruges or Phryges) were an ancient Indo-European people, initially dwelling in the southern Balkans – according to Herodotus – under the name of Bryges (Briges), changing it to Phryges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the Hellespont.
Piraeus (Πειραιάς Pireás, Πειραιεύς, Peiraieús) is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece.
Pisidia (Πισιδία, Pisidía; Pisidya) was a region of ancient Asia Minor located north of Lycia, bordering Caria, Lydia, Phrygia and Pamphylia, and corresponding roughly to the modern-day province of Antalya in Turkey.
Polemon Pythodoros, also known as Polemon I or Polemon I of Pontus (Πολέμων Πυθόδωρος; fl. 1st century BC – died 8 BC) was the Roman Client King of Cilicia, Pontus, Colchis and the Bosporan Kingdom.
Marcus Antonius Polemon Pythodoros, also known as Polemon II of Pontus and Polemon of Cilicia (Μάρκος Ἀντώνιος Πολέμων Πυθόδωρος; 12 BC/11 BC–74) was a prince of the Bosporan, Pontus, Cilicia and Cappadocia.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
Pontic Greek (ποντιακά, pontiaká) is a Greek language originally spoken in the Pontus area on the southern shores of the Black Sea, northeastern Anatolia, the Eastern Turkish/Caucasus province of Kars, southern Georgia and today mainly in northern Greece.
The Pontic Mountains or Pontic Alps (Turkish: Kuzey Anadolu Dağları, meaning North Anatolian Mountains) form a mountain range in northern Anatolia, Turkey.
A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul.
Prusias I Cholus (Greek: Προυσίας ὁ Χωλός "the Lame") (lived c. 243 – 182 BC, reigned c. 228 – 182 BC) was a king of Bithynia, the son of Ziaelas of Bithynia.
Prusias II Cynegus (Greek: Προυσίας ὁ Κυνηγός; "the Hunter", c. 220 BC – 149 BC, reigned c. 182 BC – 149 BC) was the Greek king of Bithynia.
Ptolemy I Soter (Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – 283/2 BC), also known as Ptolemy of Lagus (Πτολεμαῖος ὁ Λάγου/Λαγίδης), was a Macedonian Greek general under Alexander the Great, one of the three Diadochi who succeeded to his empire.
Pythodorida or Pythodoris of Pontus (Πυθοδωρίδα or Πυθοδωρίς, 30 BC or 29 BC – 38) was a Roman client queen of Pontus, the Bosporan Kingdom, Cilicia, and Cappadocia.
Quintus Marcius Rex was a consul of the Roman Republic.
Quintus Sertorius (c. 123–72 BC).
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Samsun is a city on the north coast of Turkey with a population over half a million people.
The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
The scythed chariot was a war chariot with scythe blades mounted on each side, employed in ancient times.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
The Second Mithridatic War (83–81 BC) was one of three wars fought between Pontus and the Roman Republic.
Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ Séleukos Α΄ Nikátōr; "Seleucus the Victor") was one of the Diadochi.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Sinop (Σινώπη, Sinōpē, historically known as Sinope) is a city with a population of 36,734 on the isthmus of İnce Burun (İnceburun, Cape Ince), near Cape Sinope (Sinop Burnu, Boztepe Cape, Boztepe Burnu) which is situated on the most northern edge of the Turkish side of the Black Sea coast, in the ancient region of Paphlagonia, in modern-day northern Turkey.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
The Social War (from socii ("allies"), thus Bellum Sociale; also called the Italian War, the War of the Allies or the Marsic War) was a war waged from 91 to 88 BC between the Roman Republic and several of the other cities in Italy, which prior to the war had been Roman allies for centuries.
Socrates Chrestus (Σωκράτης ό Χρηστός; Chrestus (The Good) died 90–88 BC) was the second son of Nicomedes III of Bithynia.
Sophene (Ծոփք Tsopkh, translit or Չորրորդ Հայք, Fourth Armenia) was a province of the Armenian Kingdom and of the Roman Empire, located in the south-west of the kingdom.
Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.
The Syrian Wars were a series of six wars between the Seleucid Empire and the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, successor states to Alexander the Great's empire, during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC over the region then called Coele-Syria, one of the few avenues into Egypt.
The Tauri (Ταῦροι in Ancient Greek), also Scythotauri, Tauri Scythae, Tauroscythae (Pliny, H. N. 4.85) were a people settled on the southern coast of the Crimea peninsula, inhabiting the Crimean Mountains and the narrow strip of land between the mountains and the Black Sea.
Thespiae (Greek: Θεσπιαί, Thespiaí) was an ancient Greek city (polis) in Boeotia.
The Third Mithridatic War (73–63 BC) was the last and longest of three Mithridatic Wars and was fought between Mithridates VI of Pontus, who was joined by his allies, and the Roman Republic.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Tigranes II, more commonly known as Tigranes the Great (Տիգրան Մեծ, Tigran Mets; Τιγράνης ὁ Μέγας Tigránes ho Mégas; Tigranes Magnus) (140 – 55 BC) was King of Armenia under whom the country became, for a short time, the strongest state to Rome's east.
Tigranocerta (Τιγρανόκερτα, Tigranόkerta; Tigranakert (Տիգրանակերտ)) was the capital of the Armenian Kingdom.
Trabzon, historically known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Varna (Варна, Varna) is the third-largest city in Bulgaria and the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.
Veni, vidi, vici ("I came; I saw; I conquered") is a Latin phrase popularly attributed to Julius Caesar who, according to Appian, used the phrase in a letter to the Roman Senate around 47 BC after he had achieved a quick victory in his short war against Pharnaces II of Pontus at the Battle of Zela.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
Zile, anciently known as Zela (Ζῆλα) (still as Latin Catholic titular see), is a city and a district of Tokat Province, Turkey.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.