236 relations: Abruzzo, Absolute monarchy, Alessandria, Alexios Strategopoulos, Alfonso V of Aragon, Alghero, Allobroges, Alps, Anagni, Ancient Rome, Annexation, Aragonese conquest of Sardinia, Archon, Asti, Austrian Empire, Balearic Islands, Barisone II of Arborea, Barthélemy Catherine Joubert, Battle of Custoza (1848), Battle of Lucocisterna, Battle of Magenta, Battle of Marengo, Battle of Sanluri, Battle of Solferino, Battle of Trocadero, Berbers, Brancaleone Doria, Brigandage in southern Italy after 1861, Buffer state, Burgundians, Byzantine Empire, Cagliarese, Cagliari, Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Capetian House of Anjou, Castelsardo, Catalan language, Cesare Balbo, Chambéry, Chamber of Deputies (Italy), Charles Albert of Sardinia, Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia, Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia, Charles Felix of Sardinia, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, City-state, Commune, Composite monarchy, Congress of Vienna, Constitutional monarchy, ..., Corsica, Corsican language, Counts and dukes of Savoy, County of Nice, County of Savoy, Crimean War, Crown of Aragon, Crown of Castile, Cyprus, Doria (family), Duchy, Duchy of Aosta, Duchy of Genoa, Duchy of Milan, Duchy of Modena and Reggio, Duchy of Parma, Duchy of Savoy, East–West Schism, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, Enzo of Sardinia, Escutcheon (heraldry), Expedition of the Thousand, Ferdinand II of Aragon, Ferdinand VII of Spain, FERT, Feudalism, Fief, First French Empire, Flag of Italy, Florence, France, Franco-Provençal language, Franks, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick III of Sicily, French First Republic, French franc, French language, Gaeta, Gallura, Genoa, Giudicati, Giudicato of Arborea, Giudicato of Cagliari, Giudicato of Gallura, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Goths, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Greek alphabet, Guelphs and Ghibellines, Habsburg Monarchy, History of Genoa, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Empire, House of Barcelona, House of Bourbon, House of Habsburg, House of Savoy, Hugh II of Arborea, Isabella I of Castile, Italian institutional referendum, 1946, Italian irredentism in Savoy, Italian language, Italian Parliament, Italian Peninsula, Italian unification, Italy, Ivrea, James II of Aragon, Jerusalem, Joseph Radetzky von Radetz, Kingdom of Burgundy, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, Kingdom of Naples, Kingdom of Sardinia, Kingdom of Sicily under Savoy, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Latin Church, Leonardo Alagon, Ligurian (Romance language), Ligurian language (ancient), List of Aragonese monarchs, List of monarchs of Sardinia, List of Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Sardinia, List of rulers of Austria, List of viceroys of Sardinia, Logudoro, Lombards, Lombardy, Maddalena archipelago, March of Montferrat, Marianus IV of Arborea, Maritime republics, Marquess, Marquisate of Oristano, Marquisate of Saluzzo, Massacre of the Latins, Medieval commune, Messina, Middle Ages, Modena, Mujāhid al-ʿĀmirī, Naples, Napoleon III, Napoleonic Wars, Naval ensign, Nice, Normans, Occitan language, Oristano, Otto I, Count of Savoy, Ottoman Empire, Palermo, Papal States, Parliamentary system, Parma, Perfect Fusion, Peter IV of Aragon, Piedmont, Piedmontese language, Piedmontese scudo, Pisa, Pope, Pope Benedict VIII, Pope Boniface VIII, Porto Torres, Republic of Genoa, Republic of Lucca, Republic of Pisa, Republic of Venice, Revolutions of 1848, Rhône, Romagna, Roman Empire, Romance languages, Rome, S'hymnu sardu nationale, Sack of Constantinople (1204), Salassi, Sardinia, Sardinia and Corsica, Sardinian language, Sardinian lira, Sardinian scudo, Sardinian–Catalan War, Sassari, Savoy, Second Italian War of Independence, Senate of the Republic (Italy), Sicily, Signoria, Southern Europe, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Spanish Empire, Spanish language, Spanish Netherlands, State (polity), Statuto Albertino, Strait of Bonifacio, Succession of states, Taurini, Tharros, Torchitorio I of Cagliari, Translatio imperii, Treaty of Anagni, Treaty of Paris (1796), Treaty of Rastatt, Treaty of The Hague (1720), Treaty of Utrecht, Turin, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Provinces of Central Italy, Vandals, Veneto, Viceroy, Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia, Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, War of the First Coalition, War of the Quadruple Alliance, War of the Spanish Succession, Western Roman Empire, William II of Narbonne, 1815. Expand index (186 more) » « Shrink index
Abruzzo (Aquiliano: Abbrùzzu) is a region of Southern Italy, with an area of 10,763 square km (4,156 sq mi) and a population of 1.2 million.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Alessandria (Piedmontese: Lissandria) is a city and comune in Piedmont, Italy, and the capital of the Province of Alessandria.
Alexios Komnenos Strategopoulos (Ἀλέξιος Κομνηνός Στρατηγόπουλος) was a Byzantine general during the reign of Michael VIII Palaiologos, rising to the rank of megas domestikos and Caesar.
Alfonso the Magnanimous KG (also Alphonso; Alfons; 1396 – 27 June 1458) was the King of Aragon (as Alfonso V), Valencia (as Alfonso III), Majorca, Sardinia and Corsica (as Alfonso II), Sicily (as Alfonso I) and Count of Barcelona (as Alfonso IV) from 1416, and King of Naples (as Alfonso I) from 1442 until his death.
Alghero (L'Alguer,,; S'Alighèra; La Liéra), is a town of about 44,000 inhabitants in the Italian insular province of Sassari in northwestern Sardinia, next to the Mediterranean Sea.
The Allobroges (Άλλόβριγες, Άλλόβρυγες, Άλλόβρoγες) were a Gallic tribe of ancient Gaul, located between the Rhône River and Lake Geneva in what later became Savoy, Dauphiné, and Vivarais.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
Anagni is an ancient town and comune in the province of Frosinone, Latium, central Italy, in the hills east-southeast of Rome.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state.
The Aragonese conquest of Sardinia took place between 1323 and 1326.
Archon (ἄρχων, árchon, plural: ἄρχοντες, árchontes) is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office.
Asti is a city and comune of 76 164 inhabitants (1-1-2017) located in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy, about east of Turin in the plain of the Tanaro River.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears,; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
Barison II or Barisone II was the giudice (judge or ruler) of Arborea, a kingdom of Sardinia, from 1146 to 1186.
Barthélemy Catherine Joubert (14 April 1769 – 15 August 1799) was a French general.
The First Battle of Custoza was fought on July 24 and 25, 1848 during the First Italian War of Independence between the armies of the Austrian Empire, commanded by Field Marshal Radetzky, and the Kingdom of Sardinia, led by King Charles Albert of Sardinia-Piedmont.
The Battle of Lucocisterna (or Lutocisterna) was fought February 29, 1324, during the Aragonese conquest of Sardinia, between the army of the Crown of Aragon, in command of the Infante Alfonso IV of Aragon, son of King James II of Aragon, and the army of the Republic of Pisa led by Manfredi della Gherardesca, count of Donoratico.
The Battle of Magenta was fought on 4 June 1859 during the Second Italian War of Independence, resulting in a French-Sardinian victory under Napoleon III against the Austrians under Marshal Ferencz Gyulai.
The Battle of Marengo was fought on 14 June 1800 between French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte and Austrian forces near the city of Alessandria, in Piedmont, Italy.
The Battle of Sanluri was fought on 30 June 1409 between the armies of the Giudicato of Arborea (a kingdom in Sardinia) and the Catalan-Sicilian army of King Martin I of Sicily.
The Battle of Solferino (referred to in Italy as the Battle of Solferino and San Martino) on 24 June 1859 resulted in the victory of the allied French Army under Napoleon III and Sardinian Army under Victor Emmanuel II (together known as the Franco-Sardinian Alliance) against the Austrian Army under Emperor Franz Joseph I. It was the last major battle in world history where all the armies were under the personal command of their monarchs.
The Battle of Trocadero, fought on 31 August 1823, was the only significant battle in the French invasion of Spain.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Brancaleone Doria was the husband of Eleanor of Arborea.
Brigandage in Southern Italy had existed in some form since ancient times.
A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers.
The Burgundians (Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; Burgundar; Burgendas; Βούργουνδοι) were a large East Germanic or Vandal tribe, or group of tribes, who lived in the area of modern Poland in the time of the Roman Empire.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cagliarese or Callaresito is the name of a series of coins minted at Cagliari (Sardinia).
Cagliari (Casteddu; Caralis) is an Italian municipality and the capital of the island of Sardinia, an autonomous region of Italy.
Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, Isolabella and Leri (10 August 1810 – 6 June 1861), generally known as Cavour, was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification.
The Capetian House of Anjou was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty.
Castelsardo (Castheddu, Casteddu Sardu) is a town and comune in Sardinia, Italy, located in the northwest of the island within the Province of Sassari, at the east end of the Gulf of Asinara.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Cesare Balbo, Conte di Vinadio (21 November 1789 – 3 June 1853), was an Italian writer and statesman.
Chambéry (Chambèri, Sciamberì, and in Helvetii: Camberia) is a city in the department of Savoie, located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.
The Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei deputati) is a house of the bicameral Parliament of Italy (the other being the Senate of the Republic).
Charles Albert (2 October 1798 – 28 July 1849) was the King of Sardinia from 27 April 1831 to 23 March 1849.
Charles Emmanuel III (27 April 1701 – 20 February 1773) was the Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia from 1730 until his death.
Charles Emmanuel IV (Carlo Emanuele Ferdinando Maria; 24 May 1751 – 6 October 1819) was King of Sardinia from 1796 to 1802.
Charles Felix (6 April 1765 – 27 April 1831) was the Duke of Savoy, Piedmont, Aosta and King of Sardinia from 1821 to 1831.
Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740; Karl VI.) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia, Serbia and Archduke of Austria (as Charles III) in 1711.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
A commune (the French word appearing in the 12th century from Medieval Latin communia, meaning a large gathering of people sharing a common life; from Latin communis, things held in common) is an intentional community of people living together, sharing common interests, often having common values and beliefs, as well as shared property, possessions, resources, and, in some communes, work, income or assets.
A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger in 1975 and popularised by J. H. Elliott, that describes early modern states consisting of several countries under one ruler, who governs his territories as if they were separate kingdoms, in accordance with local traditions and legal structures.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
Corsican (corsu or lingua corsa) is a Romance language within the Italo-Dalmatian subfamily.
The following is a list of rulers of Savoy.
The County of Nice (Comté de Nice / Pays Niçois, Contea di Nizza/Paese Nizzardo, Niçard Countèa de Nissa/Paìs Nissart) is a historical region of France, located in the south-eastern part, around the city of Nice, and roughly equivalent to the modern department of Alpes-Maritimes.
The County of Savoy was a State of the Holy Roman Empire which emerged, along with the free communes of Switzerland, from the collapse of the Burgundian Kingdom in the 11th century.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona de Aragón),Corona d'AragónCorona AragonumCorona de Aragón) also referred by some modern historians as Catalanoaragonese Crown (Corona catalanoaragonesa) or Catalan-Aragonese Confederation (Confederació catalanoaragonesa) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Doria, originally de Auria (from de filiis Auriae), meaning "the sons of Auria", and then de Oria or d'Oria, is the name of an old and extremely wealthy Genoese family who played a major role in the history of the Republic of Genoa and in Italy, from the 12th century to the 16th century.
A duchy is a country, territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess.
The Duchy of Aosta, originally the County of Aosta, was a realm ruled by the House of Savoy from the early 11th century until the late 18th, when its independent institutions were aligned with those of the Principality of Piedmont.
The Duchy of Genoa was the name taken by the territories of the former Republic of Genoa when they were given to the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
The Duchy of Milan was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy.
The Duchy of Modena and Reggio (Ducato di Modena e Reggio, Ducatus Mutinae et Regii) was a small northwestern Italian state that existed from 1452 to 1859, with a break during the Napoleonic Wars (1796–1814) when Emperor Napoleon I reorganized the states and republics of renaissance-era Italy, then under the domination of his French Empire.
The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, which was conquered by the Papal States in 1512.
From 1416 to 1860, the Duchy of Savoy (Duché de Savoie, Ducato di Savoia) was a state in Western Europe.
The East–West Schism, also called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox churches, which has lasted since the 11th century.
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Emmanuel Philibert (in Emanuele Filiberto; also known as Testa di ferro, Testa 'd fer, "Ironhead", because of his military career; 8 July 1528 – 30 August 1580) was Duke of Savoy from 1553 to 1580, KG.
Enzo (or Enzio; – 14 March 1272) was an illegitimate son of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II, who appointed him 'King of Sardinia' in 1238.
In heraldry, an escutcheon is a shield that forms the main or focal element in an achievement of arms.
The Expedition of the Thousand (Italian Spedizione dei Mille) was an event of the Italian Risorgimento that took place in 1860.
Ferdinand II (Ferrando, Ferran, Errando, Fernando) (10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic, was King of Sicily from 1468 and King of Aragon from 1479 until his death.
Ferdinand VII (Fernando; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death.
FERT (sometimes tripled, FERT, FERT, FERT), the motto of the royal house of Savoy-Sardinia and Italy, the House of Savoy, was adopted by King Vittorio Amedeo II (1666–1732).
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
The flag of Italy (Bandiera d'Italia), often referred to in Italian as il Tricolore; is a tricolour featuring three equally-sized vertical pales of green, white and red, with the green at the hoist side.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
Frederick II (or III) (13 December 1272 – 25 June 1337) was the regent (from 1291) and subsequently King of Sicily from 1295 until his death.
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
The franc (sign: F or Fr), also commonly distinguished as the (FF), was a currency of France.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Gaeta (Caiēta, Ancient Greek: Καιέτα) is a city and comune in the province of Latina, in Lazio, central Italy.
Gallura is a region in the northeast of the island of Sardinia, Italy.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
The giudicati (Italian; judicati in Latin; judicadus, logus or rennus in Sardinian), in English referred to as Sardinian Judgedoms or Judicatures, were independent states that took power in Sardinia in the Middle Ages, between the ninth and fifteenth centuries.
The Giudicato of Arborea (Giudicato di Arborea, Judicadu de Arbaree, English: Courts of Arborea), also called Regno di Arborea (Rennu de Arbaree) was one of the four independent, hereditary "Judicatures" (giudicati) or Courts into which the island of Sardinia was divided in the High Middle Ages.
The Judicatus of Caralis (Giudicato di Cagliari, Judicadu de Calaris) was one of the four Sardinian Judicati of the Middle Ages, kingdoms of Byzantine origins.
The Giudicato of Gallura (Iudicatus Gallurae, Judicadu de Gallura, Giudicato di Gallura) was one of four Sardinian giudicati of the Middle Ages.
Giuseppe Garibaldi; 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, politician and nationalist. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi has been called the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay and Europe. He personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the Italian unification. Garibaldi was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II. His last military campaign took place during the Franco-Prussian War as commander of the Army of the Vosges. Garibaldi was very popular in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Many of the greatest intellectuals of his time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, and George Sand, showered him with admiration. The United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances. In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red shirts worn by his volunteers, the Garibaldini, in lieu of a uniform.
The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana, Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
The Guelphs and Ghibellines (guelfi e ghibellini) were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Genoa, Italy has historically been one of the most important ports on the Mediterranean.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Barcelona was a medieval dynasty that ruled the County of Barcelona continuously from 878 and the Crown of Aragon from 1137 (as kings from 1162) until 1410.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia) is a royal family that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps of northern Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720 (exchanged for Sardinia). Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.
Hugh II was Giudice of Arborea, reigning from 1321 CE until his death in 1336 CE.
Isabella I (Isabel, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) reigned as Queen of Castile from 1474 until her death.
An institutional referendum (referendum istituzionale, or referendum sulla forma istituzionale dello Stato, in Italian) was held in Italy on 2 June 1946,Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1047 a key event of Italian contemporary history.
Italian irredentism in Savoy was the political movement among Savoyards promoting annexation to the Savoy dynasty's Kingdom of Italy.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italian Parliament (Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of the Italian Republic.
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivrea (Eporedia) is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy.
James II (10 August 1267 – 2 or 5 November 1327), called the Just, was the King of Aragon and Valencia and Count of Barcelona from 1291 to 1327.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Johann Josef Wenzel Anton Franz Karl, Graf Radetzky von Radetz (John Joseph Wenceslaus Anthony Francis Charles, Count Radetzky of Radetz; Jan Josef Václav Antonín František Karel hrabě Radecký z Radče 2 November 1766 – 5 January 1858) was a Czech nobleman and field marshal, a member of House of Radetzky in the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Kingdom of Burgundy was a name given to various states located in Western Europe during the Middle Ages.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Regno Lombardo-Veneto, Königreich Lombardo–Venetien; Regnum Langobardiae et Venetiae), commonly called the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom, was a constituent land (crown land) of the Austrian Empire.
The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
The Kingdom of Sicily was ruled by the House of Savoy from 1713 until 1720, although they lost control of it in 1718 and did not relinquish their title to it until 1723.
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Regno dê Doje Sicilie, Regnu dî Dui Sicili, Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the largest of the states of Italy before the Italian unification.
The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope and the rest of the Catholic Church, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity.
Leonardo Alagon, even Alagón or de Alagón, (Oristano, 1436 - Xativa, 1494), was the last marquis of Oristano (1470-1478).
Ligurian (ligure or lengua ligure) is a Gallo-Italic language spoken in Liguria in Northern Italy, parts of the Mediterranean coastal zone of France, Monaco and in the villages of Carloforte and Calasetta in Sardinia.
The Ligurian language was spoken in pre-Roman times and into the Roman era by an ancient people of north-western Italy and south-eastern France known as the Ligures.
This is a list of the kings and queens of Aragon.
The following is a list of rulers of Sardinia, in particular, of the monarchs of the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica from 1323 and then of the Kingdom of Sardinia from 1479 to 1861.
This is a list of the Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Sardina (Italian: Presidenti del Consiglio dei Ministri del Regno di Sardegna) from the granting of the Statuto Albertino in 1848 until the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861.
Austria was ruled by the House of Babenberg until 1246 and by the House of Habsburg from 1282 to 1918.
This is a list of viceroys of Sardinia.
The Logudoro (term originated as corrupt blending of the kingdom's name of Logu de Torres) is a large traditional region in central-northern Sardinia, Italy.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.
The Maddalena Archipelago is a group of islands in the Strait of Bonifacio between Corsica (France) and north-eastern Sardinia (Italy).
The March (also margraviate or marquisate) of Montferrat was a frontier march of the Kingdom of Italy during the Middle Ages and a state of the Holy Roman Empire.
Marianus IV (in Catalan: Marià IV d'Arborea, 1329 – 1376), called the Great, was the Giudice of Arborea, island of Sardinia, from 1347 to his death.
The maritime republics (repubbliche marinare) of the Mediterranean Basin were thalassocratic city-states which flourished in Italy and Dalmatia during the Middle Ages.
A marquess (marquis) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies.
The Marquisate of Oristano was a marquisate of Sardinia that lasted from 1410 until 1478.
The Marquisate of Saluzzo was a historical Italian state that included French and Piedmont territories on the Alps.
The Massacre of the Latins (Massacro dei Latini; Σφαγή των Λατίνων) was a massacre of the Catholic (called "Latin") inhabitants of Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, by an assorted mob (the supporters of the usurper Andronikos Komnenos) in April 1182.
Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.
Messina (Sicilian: Missina; Messana, Μεσσήνη) is the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Modena (Mutna; Mutina; Modenese: Mòdna) is a city and comune (municipality) on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
Abu ʾl-Djaysh Mujāhid ibn ʿAbd Allāh al-ʿĀmiri, surnamed al-Muwaffaḳ (died AD 1044/5), was the ruler of Dénia and the Balearic Islands from late 1014 (early AH 405) until his death.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
A naval ensign is an ensign used by naval ships of various countries to denote their nationality.
Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
Oristano (Aristanis) is an Italian city and comune, and capital of the Province of Oristano in the central-western part of the island of Sardinia.
Otto (Odon, Oddon, Othon; Oddone; /1060) was count of Savoy from around 1051 until his death.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Parma (Pärma) is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its prosciutto (ham), cheese, architecture, music and surrounding countryside.
The Perfect Fusion (Fusione perfetta) was the 1847 act of the Savoyard king Charles Albert of Sardinia which abolished the administrative differences between his realms, including Savoy, Sardinia and Piedmont.
Peter IV (5 September 1319 – 6 January 1387), called the Ceremonious (Catalan: el Cerimoniós), was from 1336 until his death the King of Aragon and also King of Sardinia and Corsica (as Peter I), King of Valencia (as Peter II), and Count of Barcelona (and the rest of the Principality of Catalonia as Peter III).
Piedmont (Piemonte,; Piedmontese, Occitan and Piemont; Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.
Piedmontese (Piemontèis or Lenga Piemontèisa, in Italian: Piemontese) is a Romance language spoken by some 700,000 people in Piedmont, northwestern region of Italy.
The scudo (plural: scudi) was the currency of the Piedmont and the other mainland parts of the Savoyard Kingdom of Sardinia until 1816.
Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Benedict VIII (Benedictus VIII; ca. 980 – 9 April 1024) reigned from 18 May 1012 to his death in 1024.
Pope Boniface VIII (Bonifatius VIII; born Benedetto Caetani (c. 1230 – 11 October 1303), was Pope from 24 December 1294 to his death in 1303. He organized the first Catholic "jubilee" year to take place in Rome and declared that both spiritual and temporal power were under the pope's jurisdiction, and that kings were subordinate to the power of the Roman pontiff. Today, he is probably best remembered for his feuds with King Philip IV of France, who caused the Pope's death, and Dante Alighieri, who placed the pope in the Eighth Circle of Hell in his Divine Comedy, among the simoniacs.
Porto Torres (Posthudorra, Pòrtu Turre) is a comune and city in northern Sardinia, in the Province of Sassari.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Republic of Lucca was a historic state of Italy, which lasted from 1160 to 1805 on the central Italian peninsula.
The Republic of Pisa (Repubblica di Pisa) was a de facto independent state centered on the Tuscan city of Pisa during the late 10th and 11th centuries.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
Romagna (Romagnol: Rumâgna) is an Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
S'hymnu sardu nationale ("The Sardinian National Anthem"), also known as Cunservet Deus su Re ("God Save the King"), was the national anthem of the Kingdom of Sardinia under Savoyard rule.
The siege and sack of Constantinople occurred in April 1204 and marked the culmination of the Fourth Crusade.
The Salassi were a Celtic or Celticized Italic or Ligurian tribe whose lands lay on the Italian side of the Little St Bernard Pass across the Graian Alps to Lyons, and the Great St Bernard Pass over the Pennine Alps.
The Province of Sardinia and Corsica (Provincia Sardinia et Corsica) was an ancient Roman province including the islands of Sardinia and Corsica.
Sardinian or Sard (sardu, limba sarda or língua sarda) is the primary indigenous Romance language spoken on most of the island of Sardinia (Italy).
The lira (plural lire) was the currency of the Kingdom of Sardinia between August 6, 1816 and March 17, 1861.
The scudo (plural: scudi) was the currency of the island Kingdom of Sardinia until 1816.
The Sardinian–Catalan War or Sardinian–Aragonese War was a late medieval conflict lasting from 1353 to 1420.
Sassari (Sassari; Tàtari) is an Italian city and the second-largest of Sardinia in terms of population with 127,525 inhabitants, and a Functional Urban Area of about 222,000 inhabitants.
Savoy (Savouè,; Savoie; Savoia) is a cultural region in Western Europe.
The Second Italian War of Independence, also called the Franco-Austrian War, Austro-Sardinian War or Italian War of 1859 (Campagne d'Italie), was fought by the French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859 and played a crucial part in the process of Italian unification.
The Senate of the Republic (Senato della Repubblica) or Senate (Senato) is a house of the bicameral Italian Parliament (the other being the Chamber of Deputies).
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
A signoria (from signore, or "lord"; an abstract noun meaning (roughly) "government; governing authority; de facto sovereignty; lordship"; plural: signorie) was the governing authority in many of the Italian city states during the medieval and renaissance periods.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (Supremus Ordo Militaris Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani Rhodius et Melitensis), also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) or the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order traditionally of military, chivalrous and noble nature.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spanish Netherlands (Países Bajos Españoles; Spaanse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas espagnols, Spanische Niederlande) was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown (also called Habsburg Spain) from 1556 to 1714.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
The Statuto Albertino (English: Albertine Statute), was the constitution that Charles Albert of Sardinia conceded to the Kingdom of Sardinia in Italy on 4 March 1848.
The Strait of Bonifacio (Fretum Gallicum, Bouches de Bonifacio, Bocche di Bonifacio, Bucchi di Bunifaziu, Gallurese: Bocchi di Bunifaciu, Buccas de Bonifatziu, Bocche de Bunifazziu) is the strait between Corsica and Sardinia, named after the Corsican town Bonifacio.
Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.
The Taurini were an ancient Celtic people, who occupied the upper valley of the river Po, in the centre of modern Piedmont.
Tharros (also spelled Tharras, Archaic Greek: Θάρρας, Hellenistic Greek, Tarras or Tarrae, Τάρραι) was an ancient city and former bishopric on the west coast of Sardinia, Italy.
Orzocorre Torchitorio I (also spelled Orzocco and Torgodorio; died circa 1089) was the Judge of Cagliari (rex Sardiniae de loco Call.) from about 1058 to his death.
Translatio imperii (Latin for "transfer of rule") is a historiographical concept, originating in the Middle Ages, in which history is viewed as a linear succession of transfers of an imperium that invests supreme power in a singular ruler, an "emperor" (or sometimes even several emperors, i.e., the Eastern Byzantine Empire and the Western Holy Roman Empire).
The Treaty of Anagni was an accord between the Pope Boniface VIII, James II of Aragon, Philip IV of France, Charles II of Naples, and James II of Majorca.
The Treaty of Paris of May 15, 1796 was a treaty between the French Republic and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia during the War of the First Coalition.
The Treaty of Rastatt was a peace treaty between France and Austria, concluded on 7 March 1714 in the Baden city of Rastatt, to put an end to state of war between them from the War of the Spanish Succession.
The Treaty of The Hague (also known as the Treaty of Den Haag) was signed on 17 February 1720.
The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Provinces of Central Italy, also known as Confederation of Central Italy or Government General of Central Italy, was a short-lived military government established by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
Veneto (or,; Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy.
A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory.
Victor Amadeus II (Vittorio Amedeo Francesco; 14 May 1666 – 31 October 1732) was Duke of Savoy from 1675 to 1730.
Victor Emmanuel I (Vittorio Emanuele; 24 July 1759 – 10 January 1824) was the Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia (1802–1821).
Victor Emmanuel II (Vittorio Emanuele Maria Alberto Eugenio Ferdinando Tommaso di Savoia; 14 March 1820 – 9 January 1878) was King of Sardinia from 1849 until 17 March 1861.
The War of the First Coalition (Guerre de la Première Coalition) is the traditional name of the wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against the French First Republic.
The War of the Quadruple Alliance (1717–1720) was a result of the ambitions of Bourbon King Philip V of Spain, his wife, Elisabeth Farnese, and his chief minister Giulio Alberoni to retake territories in Italy lost to the Habsburgs in Vienna, and perhaps even to claim the French throne.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
William II was Viscount of Narbonne (1397-1424) and the nominal Judge of Arborea (1407-1420).
Kingdom of Piedmont, Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, Kingdom of Piedmont–Sardinia, Kingdom of Piemonte-Sardinia, Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica, Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont, Kingdom of Savoy, Kingdom sardinia, Piedmont-Sardinia, Piedmont–Sardinia, Piemonte-Sardinia, Regno di Sardegna, Sardinia Piedmont, Sardinia-Piedmont, Sardinian Army, Sardinian States, The Kingdom of Sardinia.