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Index Kinship

In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated. [1]

163 relations: Aboriginal Australians, Affinity (law), Afikpo, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, Algebraic logic, Alliance theory, Altruism, Ambilineality, Ancestor, Andaman Islands, Anthropology, Attachment theory, Aunt, Australian Aboriginal kinship, Avunculate, Binary relation, Bride price, Bride service, Bronisław Malinowski, Brother, Cambridge University Press, Chinese kinship, Cinderella effect, Clan, Classificatory kinship, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Coefficient of relationship, Confucianism, Consanguinity, Consort kin, Contact (law), Converse relation, Cousin, Cousin marriage, Crow kinship, Cultural universal, Darwinian anthropology, David M. Schneider, Deity, Descent, Dynasty, E. E. Evans-Pritchard, Edmund Leach, Empathy, Endogamy, Eskimo kinship, Ethics, Ethnic group, Ethnography, Etymology, ..., Evolutionary psychology, Exogamy, Extended family, Family, Fictive kinship, Filial piety, French language, Genealogy, Genetic genealogy, Genetics, George Murdock, Godparent, Grandparent, Hawaiian kinship, Heredity, Horticulture, House of Windsor, House society, Household, Human sexual activity, Igorot people, Incest, Incest taboo, Inclusive fitness, Inclusive fitness in humans, Inheritance, Institution, Interpersonal relationship, Intimate relationship, Inuit, Irish clans, Irish kinship, Iroquois kinship, J. Clyde Mitchell, Janet Carsten, Japanese clans, Joint custody, Kerala, Kin recognition, Kin selection, Kinism, Kinship, Kinship analysis, Kinship terminology, Lewis H. Morgan, Lineage (anthropology), Madagascar, Madonna (entertainer), Major histocompatibility complex, Major histocompatibility complex and sexual selection, Malinowski, Maluku Islands, Marriage, Marshall Sahlins, Matrifocal family, Matrilineality, Max Gluckman, Meiosis, Mesoamerica, Moiety (kinship), Monogamy, Most recent common ancestor, Normative, North Africa, Nuclear family, Nuer people, Nurture kinship, Nyakyusa people, Omaha kinship, Ontology, Oxford University Press, Parent, Pastoral, Patrilineality, People, Phratry, Polish heraldry, Polygamy, Robin Fox, Same-sex marriage, Samoans, Scottish clan, Serbo-Croatian kinship, Sexual intercourse, Sibling, Social anthropology, Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship, Social group, Socialization, Society, Sociobiology, Somalis, Spouse, Structural functionalism, Sudanese kinship, Surname, Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family, Teip, The Hague, The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia, Tlingit, Totem, Tribe, Trobriand Islands, Uncle, Unilineality, University of California Press, Victor Turner, W. D. Hamilton, Wallis Simpson, Widow, Yakö people, Yupik. Expand index (113 more) »

Aboriginal Australians

Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).

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Affinity (law)

In law and in cultural anthropology, affinity, as distinguished from consanguinity (blood relationship), is the kinship relationship that is created or exists between two or more people as a result of someone's marriage.

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Afikpo, also known as "Ehugbo", is a town and the second largest urban area in Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

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Alfred Radcliffe-Brown

Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown, FBA (born Alfred Reginald Brown; 17 January 1881 – 24 October 1955) was an English social anthropologist who developed the theory of structural functionalism and coadaptation.

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Algebraic logic

In mathematical logic, algebraic logic is the reasoning obtained by manipulating equations with free variables.

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Alliance theory

The alliance theory, also known as the general theory of exchanges, is a structuralist method of studying kinship relations.

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Altruism is the principle and moral practice of concern for happiness of other human beings, resulting in a quality of life both material and spiritual.

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Ambilineality is a cognatic descent system in which individuals may be affiliated either to their father's or mother's group.

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An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).

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Andaman Islands

The Andaman Islands form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India, to the west, and Myanmar, to the north and east.

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Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.

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Attachment theory

Attachment theory is a psychological model that attempts to describe the dynamics of long-term and short-term interpersonal relationships between humans.

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An aunt is a person who is the sister, half-sister, step-sister, or sister-in-law of a parent, or the wife of one's uncle, but can also be an affectionate title for an older nurturing woman.

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Australian Aboriginal kinship

Australian Aboriginal kinship are the systems of law governing social interaction, particularly marriage, in traditional Australian Aboriginal cultures.

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The avunculate, sometimes called avunculism or avuncularism, is any social institution where a special relationship exists between an uncle and his sisters' children.

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Binary relation

In mathematics, a binary relation on a set A is a set of ordered pairs of elements of A. In other words, it is a subset of the Cartesian product A2.

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Bride price

Bride price, bridewealth, or bride token, is money, property, or other form of wealth paid by a groom or his family to the family of the woman he will be married or is just about to marry.

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Bride service

Bride service has traditionally been portrayed in the anthropological literature as the service rendered by the bridegroom to a bride's family as a bride price or part of one (see dowry).

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Bronisław Malinowski

Bronisław Kasper Malinowski (7 April 1884 – 16 May 1942) was a Polish-British anthropologist, often considered one of the most important 20th-century anthropologists.

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A brother is a male sibling.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Chinese kinship

The Chinese kinship system is classified as a "Sudanese" or "descriptive" system for the definition of family.

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Cinderella effect

In evolutionary psychology, the Cinderella effect is the phenomenon of higher incidence of different forms of child-abuse and mistreatment by stepparents than by biological parents.

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A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent.

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Classificatory kinship

Classificatory kinship systems, as defined by Lewis Henry Morgan, put people into society-wide kinship classes on the basis of abstract relationship rules.

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Claude Lévi-Strauss

Claude Lévi-Strauss (28 November 1908, Brussels – 30 October 2009, Paris) was a French anthropologist and ethnologist whose work was key in the development of the theory of structuralism and structural anthropology.

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Coefficient of relationship

The coefficient of relationship is a measure of the degree of consanguinity (or biological relationship) between two individuals.

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Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.

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Consanguinity ("blood relation", from the Latin consanguinitas) is the property of being from the same kinship as another person.

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Consort kin

The consort kin is the Chinese kin of, or a group related to an empress dowager or a spouse of a Chinese dynastic ruler or a warlord.

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Contact (law)

In family law, contact (or in the United States, visitation) is one of the general terms which denotes the level of contact a parent or other significant person in a child's life can have with that child.

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Converse relation

In mathematics, the converse relation, or transpose, of a binary relation is the relation that occurs when the order of the elements is switched in the relation.

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Commonly, "cousin" refers to a "first cousin" or equivalently "full cousin", people whose most recent common ancestor is a grandparent.

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Cousin marriage

Cousin marriage is marriage between cousins (i.e. people with common grandparents or people who share other fairly recent ancestors).

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Crow kinship

Crow kinship is a kinship system used to define family.

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Cultural universal

A cultural universal (also called an anthropological universal or human universal), as discussed by Emile Durkheim, George Murdock, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Donald Brown and others, is an element, pattern, trait, or institution that is common to all human cultures worldwide.

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Darwinian anthropology

Darwinian anthropology describes an approach to anthropological analysis which employs various theories from Darwinian evolutionary biology.

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David M. Schneider

David Murray Schneider (November 11, 1918, Brooklyn, New York – October 30, 1995, Santa Cruz, California) was an American cultural anthropologist, best known for his studies of kinship and as a major proponent of the symbolic anthropology approach to cultural anthropology.

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A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.

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Descent may refer to.

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A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.

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E. E. Evans-Pritchard

Sir Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard, FBA (21 September 1902 – 11 September 1973), known as E. E. Evans-Pritchard, was an English anthropologist who was instrumental in the development of social anthropology.

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Edmund Leach

Sir Edmund Ronald Leach (7 November 1910 – 6 January 1989) was a British social anthropologist.

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Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, i.e., the capacity to place oneself in another's position.

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Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific social group, caste or ethnic group, rejecting those from others as unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships.

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Eskimo kinship

Eskimo kinship is a category of kinship used to define family organization in anthropology.

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Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Ethnic group

An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.

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Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.

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EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".

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Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.

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Exogamy is a social arrangement where marriage is allowed only outside a social group.

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Extended family

An extended family is a family that extends beyond the nuclear family, consisting of parents like father, mother, and their children, aunts, uncles, and cousins, all living nearby or in the same household.

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Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.

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Fictive kinship

Fictive kinship is a term used by anthropologists and ethnographers to describe forms of kinship or social ties that are based on neither consanguineal (blood ties) nor affinal ("by marriage") ties, in contrast to true kinship ties.

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Filial piety

In Confucian philosophy, filial piety (xiào) is a virtue of respect for one's parents, elders, and ancestors.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.

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Genetic genealogy

Genetic genealogy is the use of DNA testing in combination with traditional genealogical methods to infer relationships between individuals and find ancestors.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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George Murdock

George Peter ("Pete") Murdock (May 11, 1897 – March 29, 1985), also known as G. P. Murdock, was an American anthropologist.

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A godparent (also known as a sponsor), in many denominations of Christianity, is someone who bears witness to a child's baptism and then aids in their catechesis, as well as their lifelong spiritual formation.

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Grandparents are the parents of a person's father or mother – paternal or maternal.

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Hawaiian kinship

Hawaiian kinship, also referred to as the generational system, is a kinship system used to define family.

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Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

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Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).

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House of Windsor

The House of Windsor is the reigning royal house of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.

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House society

In anthropology, a house society is a society where kinship and political relations are organized around membership in corporately-organized dwellings rather than around descent groups or lineages, as in the "House of Windsor".

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A household consists of one or more people who live in the same dwelling and also share meals or living accommodation, and may consist of a single family or some other grouping of people.

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Human sexual activity

Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.

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Igorot people

Igorot, or Cordillerans, is the collective name of several Austronesian ethnic groups in the Philippines, who inhabit the mountains of Luzon.

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Incest is sexual activity between family members or close relatives.

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Incest taboo

An incest taboo is any cultural rule or norm that prohibits sexual relations between closely related persons.

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Inclusive fitness

In evolutionary biology, inclusive fitness is one of two metrics of evolutionary success as defined by W. D. Hamilton in 1964.

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Inclusive fitness in humans

Inclusive fitness in humans is the application of inclusive fitness theory to human social behaviour, relationships and cooperation.

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Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, titles, debts, rights, and obligations upon the death of an individual.

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Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".

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Interpersonal relationship

An interpersonal relationship is a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring.

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Intimate relationship

An intimate relationship is an interpersonal relationship that involves physical or emotional intimacy.

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The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.

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Irish clans

Irish clans are traditional kinship groups sharing a common surname and heritage and existing in a lineage based society prior to the 17th century.

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Irish kinship

Irish kinship is a system of kinship terminology (descended from the original Celtic practices) which shows a bifurcate collateral pattern.

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Iroquois kinship

Iroquois kinship (also known as bifurcate merging) is a kinship system named after the Haudenosaunee people that were previously known as Iroquois and whose kinship system was the first one described to use this particular type of system.

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J. Clyde Mitchell

James Clyde Mitchell (usually known as J. Clyde Mitchell) (21 June 1918 Pietermaritzburg – 15 November 1995) was a British sociologist and anthropologist.

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Janet Carsten

Janet Carsten is an anthropologist and professor currently employed at the University of Edinburgh.

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Japanese clans

There are ancient-era clan names called or.

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Joint custody

Joint custody is a form of child custody pursuant to which custody rights are awarded to both parents.

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Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.

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Kin recognition

Kin recognition, also called kin detection, is an organism's ability to distinguish between close genetic kin and non-kin.

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Kin selection

Kin selection is the evolutionary strategy that favours the reproductive success of an organism's relatives, even at a cost to the organism's own survival and reproduction.

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Kinism is a white supremacist interpretation of Christianity.

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In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.

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Kinship analysis

Kinship analysis is any analysis that deals with kinship.

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Kinship terminology

Kinship terminology is the system used in languages to refer to the persons to whom an individual is related through kinship.

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Lewis H. Morgan

Lewis Henry Morgan (November 21, 1818 – December 17, 1881) was a pioneering American anthropologist and social theorist who worked as a railroad lawyer.

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Lineage (anthropology)

A lineage is a unilineal descent group that can demonstrate their common descent from a known apical ancestor.

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Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.

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Madonna (entertainer)

Madonna Louise Ciccone (born August 16, 1958) is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and businesswoman.

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Major histocompatibility complex

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility.

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Major histocompatibility complex and sexual selection

The major histocompatibility complex in sexual selection concerns how major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules allow for immune system surveillance of the population of protein molecules in a host's cells.

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Malinowski is a surname of Polish-language origin.

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Maluku Islands

The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Banda Sea, Indonesia.

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Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity (in-laws and other family through marriage).

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Marshall Sahlins

Marshall David Sahlins (born December 27, 1930) is an American anthropologist best known for his ethnographic work in the Pacific and for his contributions to anthropological theory.

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Matrifocal family

A matrifocal family structure is one where mothers head families and fathers play a less important role in the home and in bringing up children.

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Matrilineality is the tracing of descent through the female line.

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Max Gluckman

Herman Max Gluckman (26 January 1911 – 13 April 1975) was a South African and British social anthropologist.

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Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.

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Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Moiety (kinship)

In the anthropological study of kinship, a moiety is a descent group that coexists with only one other descent group within a society.

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Monogamy is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime — alternately, only one partner at any one time (serial monogamy) — as compared to non-monogamy (e.g., polygamy or polyamory).

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Most recent common ancestor

In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.

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Normative generally means relating to an evaluative standard.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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Nuclear family

A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family group consisting of two parents and their children (one or more).

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Nuer people

The Nuer people are a Nilotic ethnic group primarily inhabiting the Nile Valley.

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Nurture kinship

The concept of nurture kinship in the anthropological study of human social relationships (kinship) highlights the extent to which such relationships are brought into being through the performance of various acts of nurture between individuals.

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Nyakyusa people

The Nyakyusa (also called the Sokile, Ngonde or Nkonde) are an African ethnic and linguistic group who live in the fertile mountains of southern Tanzania and northern Malawi—former German East Africa.

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Omaha kinship

Omaha kinship is the system of terms and relationships used to define family in Omaha tribal culture.

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Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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A parent is a caregiver of the offspring in their own species.

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A pastoral lifestyle (see pastoralism) is that of shepherds herding livestock around open areas of land according to seasons and the changing availability of water and pasture.

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Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.

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A people is a plurality of persons considered as a whole, as is the case with an ethnic group or nation.

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In ancient Greece, a phratry (phratria, φ(ρ)ατρία, "brotherhood", "kinfolk", derived from φρατήρ meaning "brother") was a social division of the Greek tribe (phyle). The nature of these phratries is, in the words of one historian, "the darkest problem among the social institutions." Little is known about the role they played in Greek social life, but they existed from the Greek Dark Ages until the 2nd century BC; Homer refers to them several times, in passages that appear to describe the social environment of his times. In Athens, enrollment in a phratry seems to have been the basic requirement for citizenship in the state before the reforms of Cleisthenes in 508 BC. From their peak of prominence in the Dark Ages, when they appear to have been a substantial force in Greek social life, phratries gradually declined in significance throughout the classical period as other groups (such as political parties) gained influence at their cost. Phratries contained smaller kin groups called gene; these appear to have arisen later than phratries, and it appears that not all members of phratries belonged to a genos; membership in these smaller groups may have been limited to elites. On an even smaller level, the basic kinship group of ancient Greek societies was the oikos (household).

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Polish heraldry

Polish heraldry is a branch of heraldry focused on studying the development of coats of arms in the lands of historical Poland (and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), as well as specifically-Polish traits of heraldry.

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Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.

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Robin Fox

Robin Fox (born 1934) is an Anglo-American anthropologist who has written on the topics of incest avoidance, marriage systems, human and primate kinship systems, evolutionary anthropology, sociology and the history of ideas in the social sciences.

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Same-sex marriage

Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.

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Samoans or Samoan people (tagata Sāmoa) are a Polynesian ethnic group native to the Samoan Islands, an archipelago in Polynesia, who speak the Samoan language.

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Scottish clan

A Scottish clan (from Gaelic clann, "children") is a kinship group among the Scottish people.

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Serbo-Croatian kinship

The Serbo-Croatian standard languages (Croatian, Serbian, Montenegrin and Bosnian) have one of the more elaborate kinship (srodstvo) systems among European languages.

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Sexual intercourse

Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.

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A sibling is one of two or more individuals having one or both parents in common.

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Social anthropology

Social anthropology or anthroposociology is the dominant constituent of anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and much of Europe (France in particular), where it is distinguished from cultural anthropology.

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Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship

Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship: Compatibility between Cultural and Biological Approaches is a book on human kinship and social behavior by Maximilian Holland, published in 2012.

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Social group

In the social sciences, a social group has been defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity.

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In sociology, socialization is the process of internalizing the norms and ideologies of society.

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A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

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Sociobiology is a field of biology that aims to examine and explain social behavior in terms of evolution.

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Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).

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A spouse is a life partner in a marriage, civil union, or common-law marriage.

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Structural functionalism

Structural functionalism, or simply functionalism, is "a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability".

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Sudanese kinship

Sudanese kinship, also referred to as the descriptive system, is a kinship system used to define family.

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A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).

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Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family

Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family is an 1871 book written by Lewis Henry Morgan (1818 - 1881) and published by the Smithsonian Institution.

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Teip (also taip and taipa; Vaynakh тайпа taypa: family, kin, clan, tribe) is a Chechen and Ingush tribal organization or clan, self-identified through descent from a common ancestor and geographic location.

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The Hague

The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.

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The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia

The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia (Życie seksualne dzikich w północno-zachodniej Melanezji) is a 1929 book by anthropologist Bronisław Malinowski.

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The Tlingit (or; also spelled Tlinkit) are Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America.

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A totem (Ojibwe doodem) is a spirit being, sacred object, or symbol that serves as an emblem of a group of people, such as a family, clan, lineage, or tribe.

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A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.

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Trobriand Islands

The Trobriand Islands are a archipelago of coral atolls off the east coast of New Guinea.

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Uncle (from avunculus the diminutive of avus "grandfather") is a male family relationship or kinship within an extended or immediate family.

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Unilineality is a system of determining descent groups in which one belongs to one's father's or mother's line, whereby one's descent is traced either exclusively through male ancestors (patriline), or exclusively through female ancestors (matriline).

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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Victor Turner

Victor Witter Turner (28 May 1920 – 18 December 1983) was a British cultural anthropologist best known for his work on symbols, rituals, and rites of passage.

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W. D. Hamilton

William Donald Hamilton, FRS (1 August 1936 – 7 March 2000) was an English evolutionary biologist, widely recognised as one of the most significant evolutionary theorists of the 20th century.

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Wallis Simpson

Wallis Simpson (born Bessie Wallis Warfield; 19 June 1896 – 24 April 1986), later known as the Duchess of Windsor, was an American socialite whose intended marriage to the British king Edward VIII caused a constitutional crisis that led to Edward's abdication.

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A widow is a woman whose spouse has died and a widower is a man whose spouse has died.

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Yakö people

The Yakurr (also Yakö and Yakạạ) live in five compact towns in Cross River State, Nigeria.

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The Yupik are a group of indigenous or aboriginal peoples of western, southwestern, and southcentral Alaska and the Russian Far East.

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Beanpole family, Bilineal descent, Cousinage, Descent (kinship), Descent group, Descent rules, Duties of Relatives, Familial relations, Family ties, Kin group, Kin relationship, Kinship and Descent, Kinship and descent, Kinship system, Kinship systems, Kinships, Kinswoman, Kinswomen, Line of ancestry, Line of descent, Lineage group, Relatives, Duties of, Rules of descent.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinship

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