236 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, ABC-CLIO, Abdul Rahman Mustafa, Achaemenid Assyria, Achaemenid Empire, Adnan Karim, Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, Akkadian Empire, Akkadian language, Al Zab, Al-Ubaid (tribe), Alexander the Great, Ali Askari, Ali Merdan, Anatolia, Aq Qoyunlu, Arabs, Aramaic language, Armenian Genocide, Armenians in Iraq, Armistice of Mudros, Arrapha, Arshad al-Salihi, Asōristān, Assur, Assyria, Assyria (Roman province), Assyrian Church of the East, Assyrian homeland, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Assyrian people, Assyrians in Iraq, Ba'athist Arabization campaigns in North Iraq, Baba Gurgur, Baban, Babylonia, Baghdad, Bakr Sidqi, Barnabas Fund, Battle of Kirkuk (2016), Battle of Kirkuk (2017), Battle of Mosul (2016–2017), Beth Garmaï (East Syrian Ecclesiastical Province), Beth Garmai, Blowout (well drilling), British Empire, Byzantine Empire, Caliphate, Ceyhan, Chaldean Catholic Archeparchy of Kirkuk-Sulaimaniya, ..., Chaldean Catholic Church, Chopy Fatah, Church of the East, Coalition Provisional Authority, Constitution of Iraq, Cuneiform script, Daniel in Islam, Darius III, Delegation, Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Diyala Governorate, Diyala River, Dohuk, Early Muslim conquests, Eastern Aramaic languages, Eastern Bloc, Edward Balfour, Erbil, Ethnic group, Fadhil Al Azzawi, Ferhad Shakely, Fertile Crescent, Gökhan Kırdar, Geopolitics, Great Zab, Gulf War, Gutian people, Hadidi (tribe), Hajim al-Hassani, Hammurabi, Hawija, Hejaz, Herdi Noor Al-Deen, Hijri Dede, History of Iran, Hovnanian Enterprises, Hurrians, I.B. Tauris, Ibtisam Abdallah, Ilkhanate, Independent politician, Indigenous peoples, Indo-Aryan peoples, Investcorp, Iran–Iraq War, Iraq, Iraq Petroleum Company, Iraq War, Iraqi Interim Government, Iraqi parliamentary election, 2010, Iraqi Turkmen Front, Iraqi Turkmens, Iraqi–Kurdish Autonomy Agreement of 1970, Iraqis, Iraqis in the Netherlands, Ismail Ahmed Rajab Al Hadidi, Jarmo, Jerusalem, Jews, John Murray (publisher), Jubur, Kara Koyunlu, Köppen climate classification, Kelar, Kevork Hovnanian, Khanaqin, Khasa River, Kifri, Kingdom of Iraq, Kirkuk Citadel, Kirkuk Governorate, Kirkuk Provincial Council, Kirkuk status referendum, Kirkuk–Ceyhan Oil Pipeline, Kurdistan Democratic Party, Kurdistan Regional Government, Kurds, Kurds in Iraq, Kuwait, Language isolate, League of Nations, Lingua franca, List of Assyrian settlements, List of cities in Iraq, Looting, Lullubi, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Mandali, Iraq, Masoud Barzani, Medes, Mediterranean Sea, Mehmet Türkmehmet, Mehrdad Izady, Metropolitan bishop, Middle Assyrian Empire, Mitanni, Mohsen Abdel Hamid, Mosul Question, Mosul Vilayet, Muslim, Mustafa Barzani, Najiba Ahmad, Najmadin Shukr Rauf, Najmiddin Karim, Naram-Sin of Akkad, Narsai Toma, Neanderthal, Nemir Kirdar, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Nestorianism, No-fly zone, Northern Iraq offensive (June 2014), Nouri al-Maliki, Nuzi, Oghuz Turks, Oil-for-Food Programme, Old Assyrian Empire, Operation Fath 1, Osama Rashid, Ottoman Empire, Palestine (region), Parthia, Parthian Empire, Paul Bremer, Persian language, Peshmerga, Petroleum, Petroleum reservoir, Philadelphia, Pipeline transport, Popular Mobilization Forces, Ptolemy, Qaysareyah of Kirkuk, Qishla of Kirkuk, Rafiq Hilmi, Rashad Mandan Omar, Riza Talabani, Saadeddin Arkej, Sabotage, Saddam Hussein, Sargon of Akkad, Sasanian Empire, Second Iraqi–Kurdish War, Seleucid Empire, Seleucus I Nicator, Seljuk Empire, Semi-arid climate, Shahrizor, Shanidar Cave, Shapur II, Shemon Bar Sabbae, Simon Jenkins, Sinjar, Sulaymaniyah, Sumer, Sumerian language, Syriac language, Tabula Peutingeriana, Talib Mushtaq, Task Force Shield, Türkmeneli TV, Tell (archaeology), Third Dynasty of Ur, Tikrit, Timur, Tomb of Daniel, Treaty of Lausanne, Tughril, Turkey, Turkic peoples, Turkish people, Ubaid period, Umayyad Caliphate, University of Pennsylvania Press, Upper Mesopotamia, Viscosity, Votes, Washington Kurdish Institute, World War I, Yazdegerd II, Younis Mahmoud, Zengid dynasty, Zoroastrianism, 1975 Algiers Agreement, 1991 uprisings in Iraq, 2003 invasion of Iraq. Expand index (186 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
Abdul Rahman Mustafa, The Kurdish mayor-governor of Kirkuk, was elected in 2003 by multiethnic Kirkuk City Council under supervision of Coalition Provisional Authority in Post-Saddam Hussein Iraq.
Athura (𐎠𐎰𐎢𐎼𐎠 Aθurā), also called Assyria Babylonia, was a geographical area within the Persian Achaemenid Empire held by the last nobility of Aššur (Akkadian), known as Athura (Neo-Aramaic) or Atouria (Greek), during the period of 539 BC to 330 BC as a military protectorate state of Persia under the rule of Cyrus the Great.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Adnan Karim (عهدنان كهریم) (born in Kirkuk 1963) is a prominent Kurdish singer from Kirkuk, Iraq.
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (أحمد حسن البكر; 1 July 1914 – 4 October 1982) was President of Iraq, from 17 July 1968 until 16 July 1979.
The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Al Zab, Al-Zab, or Az-Zab is a town in Iraq administered as part of the Kirkuk Governorate's Hawija District.
Al-Ubaid (Al-Obaidi or Al-Obeidi) is one of the Arab tribes in Iraq settled around Al Jazira, Mesopotamia.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Ali Askari (1936 – 1978) was a Kurdish politician.
Ali Merdan (1904–1981) (عهلی مهردان) is a Kurdish musician who was born in Kirkuk, widely regarded as the man who revolutionized the maqam.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The Aq Qoyunlu or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans (Āq Quyūnlū), was a Persianate Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, Eastern Turkey, most part of Iran, and Iraq from 1378 to 1501.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
The history of Armenians in Iraq is documented since late Babylonian times.
The Armistice of Mudros (Mondros Mütarekesi), concluded on 30 October 1918, ended the hostilities, at noon the next day, in the Middle Eastern theatre between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I. It was signed by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe, on board HMS ''Agamemnon'' in Moudros harbor on the Greek island of Lemnos.
Arrapha or Arrapkha (Akkadian: Arrapḫa, Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, أررابخا,عرفة) was an ancient city in what today is northeastern Iraq, on the site of the modern city of Kirkuk.
Arshad al-Salihi (أرشد الصالحي, Erşad Salihi) is an Iraqi Turkmen politician who has been a member of Iraq Parliament since 2010 and leader of the Iraqi Turkmen Front (ITF) since May 2011.
Asōristān (𐭠𐭮𐭥𐭥𐭮𐭲𐭭 Asōrestān, Āsūrestān) was the name of the Sasanian provinces of Mesopotamia from 226 to 637.
Aššur (Akkadian; ܐܫܘܪ 'Āšūr; Old Persian Aθur, آشور: Āšūr; אַשּׁוּר:, اشور: Āšūr, Kurdish: Asûr), also known as Ashur and Qal'at Sherqat, was an Assyrian city, capital of the Old Assyrian Empire (2025–1750 BC), of the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1050 BC), and for a time, of the Neo-Assyrian Empire of 911–608 BC.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Assyria was a Roman province that lasted only two years (116–118 AD).
The Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ ʻĒdtā d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ʻEdtā Qaddīštā wa-Šlīḥāitā Qātolīqī d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), is an Eastern Christian Church that follows the traditional christology and ecclesiology of the historical Church of the East.
The Assyrian homeland or Assyria refers to a geographic and cultural region situated in Northern Mesopotamia that has been traditionally inhabited by Assyrian people.
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (ܣܘܪܝܬ, sūrët), or just simply Assyrian, is a Neo-Aramaic language within the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
Assyrians in Iraq are an ethnoreligious and linguistic minority in present-day Iraq, and are the indigenous population of the region.
The Ba'athist Arabization campaigns in North Iraq involved the forced displacement and cultural Arabization of minorities (Kurds, Yezidis, Assyrians, Shabaks, Armenians, Turkmen, Mandeans), in line with settler colonialist policies, led by the Ba'athist government of Iraq from the 1960s to the early 2000s, in order to shift the demographics of North Iraq towards Arab domination.
Baba Gurgur (Arabic:بابا كركر) is an oil field and gas flame near the city of Kirkuk which was the first to be discovered in Northern Iraq in 1927.
The house of Baban (1649–1850) ruled a Kurdish principality which encompassed areas of present-day Iraqi Kurdistan and western Iran from the early 17th century until 1850.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Bakr Sidqi al-Askari (بكر صدقي العسكري) was an Iraqi general of Kurdish origin, born in 1890 in Kirkuk and assassinated on August 12, 1937, at Mosul.
The Barnabas Fund is an international, interdenominational Christian aid agency based in Coventry, in the West Midlands of England that supports Christians who face discrimination or persecution as a consequence of their faith.
The Battle of Kirkuk was a raid and a suicide attack on the city of Kirkuk in northern Iraq by ISIL.
The Battle of Kirkuk (2017), also referred to as the Kirkuk Crisis, was a military redeployment by the Iraqi Security Forces to reclaim Kirkuk Governorate from the Peshmerga forces, which sparked clashes between the two forces.
The Battle of Mosul (2016–2017) (معركة الموصل, Ma‘rakat al-Mawṣil; شەڕی مووسڵ, Şeriy Mûsil) was a major military campaign launched by the Iraqi Government forces with allied militias, the Kurdistan Regional Government, and international forces to retake the city of Mosul from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), which had seized the city in June 2014.
The region of Beth Garmai (Syriac: ܒܝܬܓܪܡܝ) in northern Iraq, bounded by the Little Zab and Diyala Rivers and centered on the town of Karka d'Beth Slokh (Syriac: ܟܪܟܐ ܕܒܝܬ ܣܠܘܟ, modern Kirkuk), was a metropolitan province of the Church of the East between the fifth and fourteenth centuries.
Beth Garmai, (باجرمي, Middle Persian: Garamig/Garamīkān/Garmagān, New Persian/Kurdish: Garmakan, ܒܝܬ ܓܪܡܐ, Latin and Greek: Garamaea) is a historical region around the city of Kirkuk in northern Iraq.
A blowout is the uncontrolled release of crude oil and/or natural gas from an oil well or gas well after pressure control systems have failed.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Ceyhan is a city and a district in the Adana Province, in southern Turkey, east of Adana.
The Chaldean Catholic Archeparchy of Kirkuk (ابرشية كركوك الكلدانية) is an archeparchy of the Chaldean Catholic Church in communion with the Pope in Rome.
The Chaldean Catholic Church (ܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ, ʿīdtha kaldetha qāthuliqetha; Arabic: الكنيسة الكلدانية al-Kanīsa al-kaldāniyya; translation) is an Eastern Catholic particular church (sui juris) in full communion with the Holy See and the rest of the Catholic Church, with the Chaldean Patriarchate having been originally formed out of the Church of the East in 1552.
Chopy Shakir Fatah (Çopî Şakir Fetah, چۆپی شاکر فەتاح, جوبي شاكر فتاح; born June 10, 1983) is a contemporary Kurdish singer.
The Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ Ēdṯāʾ d-Maḏenḥā), also known as the Nestorian Church, was an Eastern Christian Church with independent hierarchy from the Nestorian Schism (431–544), while tracing its history to the late 1st century AD in Assyria, then the satrapy of Assuristan in the Parthian Empire.
The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA; سلطة الائتلاف المؤقتة) was a transitional government of Iraq established following the invasion of the country on 19 March 2003 by the U.S.-led Multinational Force (or 'the coalition') and the fall of Ba'athist Iraq.
The Constitution of Iraq is the fundamental law of Iraq.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
Daniel (Arabic: دانيال, Daniyal) is usually considered by Muslims to have been a prophet.
Darius III (c. 380 – July 330 BC), originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC.
Delegation is the assignment of any responsibility or authority to another person (normally from a manager to a subordinate) to carry out specific activities.
The period of the defeat and end of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the Second Constitutional Era with the Young Turk Revolution.
Diyala Governorate (محافظة ديالى) or Diyala Province is a governorate in eastern Iraq.
The Diyala River, is a river and tributary of the Tigris.
Dohuk (دهۆک,; ܢܘܗܕܪܐ.; دهوك) is the capital of Dohuk Governorate in Iraq, it is a city with a population of approximately 300 000 inhabitants, consisting mostly of Kurds and then Assyrians.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
Eastern Aramaic languages have developed from the varieties of Aramaic that developed in and around Mesopotamia (Iraq, southeast Turkey, northeast Syria and northwest and southwest Iran), as opposed to western varieties of the Levant (modern Levantine Syria and Lebanon).
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Edward Green Balfour (6 September 1813 – 8 December 1889) was a Scottish surgeon, orientalist and pioneering environmentalist in India.
Erbil, also spelt Arbil or Irbil, locally called Hawler by the Kurdish people (ھەولێر Hewlêr; أربيل, Arbīl; ܐܲܪܒܝܠ, Arbela), is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan and the largest city in northern Iraq.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Fadhil Al Azzawi (Arabic: فاضل العزاوي; born 1940 in Kirkuk, Iraq) is an Iraqi writer highly respected in the Arab world, as he has published seven volumes of poetry, six novels, three books of criticism and memoir, and several translations of German literary works.
Ferhad Shakely (born 1951) is a prominent Kurdish writer, poet and researcher.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
Gökhan Kırdar, born on June 2, 1970 in Aydın, is a Turkish musician and film score composer.
Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ gê "earth, land" and πολιτική politikḗ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations.
The Great Zab or Upper Zab ((al-Zāb al-Kabīr),,, (zāba ʻalya)) is an approximately long river flowing through Turkey and Iraq.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
The Guti or Quti, also known by the derived exonyms Gutians or Guteans, were a nomadic people of the Zagros Mountains (on the border of modern Iran and Iraq) during ancient times.
Al-Hadidi, Hadidi, or Hadidiyin (الحديدي) is an Arab tribe.
Hajim Mahdi Saleh al-Hassani (Arabic: حاجم مهدي صالح الحسني), (born 1954, Kirkuk) to a prominent family is an Iraqi politician and was the speaker of the Iraqi National Assembly under the Iraqi Transitional Government.
Hammurabi was the sixth king of the First Babylonian Dynasty, reigning from 1792 BC to 1750 BC (according to the Middle Chronology).
Hawija (Kurdish "hawij" for wild carrot) is the centre of Al-Hawija District in the Kirkuk province of Iraq, 45 km west of Kirkuk, and north of Baghdad.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
Herdi Noor Al-Din (هيردي نور الدين; born January 24, 1992 in Kirkuk, Iraq) is an Iraqi football player of kurdish ethnicity, who currently plays for Kirkuk FC in Iraq.
Hijri Dede was an Iraqi Turkmen poet from Kirkuk, Iraq.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
Hovnanian Enterprises, Inc. is a United States real estate company which is involved in every aspect of marketing homes, including design, construction and sales.
The Hurrians (cuneiform:; transliteration: Ḫu-ur-ri; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Near East.
I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) was an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York City.
Ibtisam Abdallah is a noted Iraqi novelist, short-story writer and literary translator.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages.
Investcorp is a global manager of alternative investment products, for private and institutional clients.. It has offices in New York City, Bahrain, London, Riyadh, Abu Dhabi, Doha and Singapore. The company offers investments in corporate investment, real estate, credit management and alternative investment solutions, and has arranged investments with a combined value of approximately $55 billion. It typically places the private equity of companies and real estate properties it acquires directly with investors on a deal-by-deal basis and through a fund structure. In addition, the firm operates the Gulf Opportunity Fund investing in the MENA region, and a number of technology funds. Since its inception in 1982, Investcorp has made over 175 corporate investments in the U.S., Europe and the Middle East and North Africa region, including Turkey, across a range of sectors including retail and consumer products, technology, business services and industrials, and more than 470 commercial and residential real estate investments in the US, for in excess of $55 billion in transaction value. The company diversified in 1997 into hedge funds. Non-Gulf investors, mainly in the US, now account for around three quarters of Investcorp’s hedge fund client assets under management, with $1 billion in new US hedge fund mandates being secured in 2009.. Investcorp currently has approximately $22.2 billion in invested assets under management across its four asset classes. In 2011, it ranked 67th in the PEI300 (Private Equity Index 300) ranking of private equity firms by assets deployed, with $4.68bn invested in private equity over the previous five years.. Its principal client base is in the six countries of the Gulf Co-operation Council, but it also has institutional clients in North America, Europe and Asia. The company maintains relationships with over 1,000 individual and institutional investors in the Gulf. The company is regulated in Bahrain as a wholesale bank, and has traditionally utilised long-term and medium-term bank financing, including private placements and syndicated loans, in order to ensure a longer maturity profile. The company’s capital adequacy ratio (Basel III) at 2017 December 30 was 29.8%. The company is listed on the Bahrain Bourse (BSE), with a financial year end of 30 June. Investcorp's portfolio company, Moneybookers, ended its relationship with Wikileaks in August 2010 as a result of U.S. government pressure.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC), known prior to 1929 as the Turkish Petroleum Company (TPC), is an oil company which, between 1925 and 1961, had a virtual monopoly on all oil exploration and production in Iraq.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
The Iraqi Interim Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until the drafting of the new constitution following the National Assembly election conducted on January 30, 2005.
A parliamentary election was held in Iraq on 7 March 2010.
The Iraqi Turkmen Front (ITF, Irak Türkmen Cephesi, الجبهة التركمانية العراقية al-Jabha al-Turkmāniya al-Irāqiya) is a political movement founded in 1995 which seeks to represent the Iraqi Turkmen people.
The Iraqi Turkmens (also spelled Turcomans, Turkomens, and Turkmans; Irak Türkmenleri), also referred to as Iraqi Turks, or Turks of Iraq (تركمان العراق, Irak Türkleri), are Iraqi citizens of Turkic origin who mostly adhere to a Turkish heritage and identity.
Iraqi–Kurdish Autonomy Agreement of 1970 (or the Iraqi–Kurdish peace talks or the 1970 Peace Accord) was an agreement, which the Iraqi government and the Kurds reached in March 1970, in the aftermath of the First Iraqi–Kurdish War, for the creation of an Autonomous Region, consisting of the three Kurdish governorates and other adjacent districts that have been determined by census to have a Kurdish majority.
The Iraqi people (Arabic: العراقيون ʿIrāqiyyūn, Kurdish: گهلی عیراق Îraqîyan, ܥܡܐ ܥܝܪܩܝܐ ʿIrāqāyā, Iraklılar) are the citizens of the modern country of Iraq. Arabs have had a large presence in Mesopotamia since the Sasanian Empire (224–637). Arabic was spoken by the majority in the Kingdom of Araba in the first and second centuries, and by Arabs in al-Hirah from the third century. Arabs were common in Mesopotamia at the time of the Seleucid Empire (3rd century BC).Ramirez-Faria, 2007, p. 33. The first Arab kingdom outside Arabia was established in Iraq's Al-Hirah in the third century. Arabic was a minority language in northern Iraq in the eighth century BC, from the eighth century following the Muslim conquest of Persia, it became the dominant language of Iraqi Muslims because Arabic was the language of the Quran and of the Abbasid Caliphate. Kurds who are Iraqi citizens live in the Zagros Mountains of northeast Iraq to the east of the upper Tigris. Arabic and Kurdish are Iraq's national languages.
There are over 50,000 Iraqis in the Netherlands, including immigrants from Iraq and locally born people of Iraqi heritage, constiting 0.3% of the total population in the Netherlands.
Ismail Ahmed Rajab Al Hadidi, the Arabic deputy for the Kurdish mayor-governor of city of Kirkuk in Iraq.
Ancient Assyria Jarmo Ancient Assyria (Qal'at Jarmo) is a prehistoric archeological site located in Iraq on the foothills of the Zagros Mountains.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Murray is a British publisher, known for the authors it has published in its history, including Jane Austen, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Lord Byron, Charles Lyell, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Herman Melville, Edward Whymper, and Charles Darwin.
Jubur (جبور), also known as Jebour, Jibour, Jubour, Jabur, Jaburi, Jebouri, and Jabara, is the largest Arab tribe in Iraq that scattered throughout central and northern Iraq.
The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans (قره قویونلو), were a Muslim Oghuz Turkic monarchy that ruled over the territory comprising present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia (1406), northwestern Iran, eastern Turkey, and northeastern Iraq from about 1374 to 1468.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kelar or Kalâr (کهلار) is a town in Iraqi Kurdistan located on the Sirwan (Diyala) river, and to the east of Kifri and to the west of Qasri Shirin and Sarpol Zahab in Kermanshah Province in western Iran.
Kevork S. Hovnanian (1923 – September 24, 2009) was an Armenian-American businessman and home builder, who founded Hovnanian Enterprises in 1959.
Khanaqin (Arabic: خانقين; Kurdish: Xaneqîn خانهقین) is a city in Iraq in Iraq's Diyala Governorate, near the Iranian border on the Alwand tributary of the Diyala River.
The Khasa River (نهر خاصة, ڕووباری خاسە) is a winterbourne river which runs through the City of Kirkuk in northern Iraq.
Kifri (كفري, Kifri) is a town in Iraq and the seat of Kifri District, in the north of the Diyala Governorate.
The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq (المملكة العراقية الهاشمية) was founded on 23 August 1921 under British administration following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the Mesopotamian campaign of World War I. Although a League of Nations mandate was awarded to the UK in 1920, the 1920 Iraqi revolt resulted in the scrapping of the original mandate plan in favor of a British administered semi-independent kingdom, under the Hashemite allies of Britain, via the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty.
The Kirkuk Citadel (Kurdish: Qelay Kerkûk, قلعة كركوك Qal’at Karkuk, Kerkük Kalesi) is located in the centre of the city of Kirkuk in Iraq, and is considered to be the oldest part of the city.
Kirkuk Governorate (محافظة كركوك, پارێزگای کەرکووک Parêzgay Kerkûk, ܟܪܟ ܣܠܘܟ, Kerkük ili) or Kirkuk Province is a governorate in northern Iraq.
The Kirkuk Provincial Council is the provincial council of the Kirkuk Governorate, based in Kirkuk, Iraq.
The Kirkuk status referendum was the Kirkuk part of a planned plebiscite to decide whether the disputed territories of Northern Iraq should become part of the Iraqi Kurdistan region.
The Kirkuk–Ceyhan Oil Pipeline, also known as the Iraq–Turkey Crude Oil Pipeline, is a long pipeline that runs from Kirkuk in Iraq to Ceyhan in Turkey.
The Kurdistan Democratic Party (Partiya Demokrat a Kurdistanê), usually abbreviated as KDP or PDK, is one of the main Kurdish parties in Iraqi Kurdistan.
The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) (حکوومەتی هەرێمی کوردستان, Hikûmetî Herêmî Kurdistan; حكومة اقليم كردستان, Ḥukūmat ʾIqlīm Kurdistān) is the official ruling body of the predominantly Kurdish region of Northern Iraq referred to as Iraqi Kurdistan or Southern Kurdistan.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
Kurds in Iraq (کوردانی باشووری کوردستان / کوردانی عێڕاق.) are people born in or residing in Iraq who are of Kurdish origin.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
The following is a list of Assyrian settlements in the Middle East subsequent to the Assyrian genocide in 1914.
This article shows a list of cities in Iraq.
Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.
The Lullubi or Lulubi were a group of Pre-Iranian tribes during the 3rd millennium BC, from a region known as Lulubum, now the Sharazor plain of the Zagros Mountains of modern Iraqi Kurdistan.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
Mandali (Mendelî., مندلي.) is a town in Balad Ruz District, Diyala Governorate, Iraq, near the Iranian border.
Masoud Barzani (Mesûd Barzanî; born 16 August 1946) is a Kurdish politician who had been President of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region from 2005 to 2017.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mehmet Türkmehmet (born 18 October 1980 in Kirkuk, Iraq) is an Iraqi Turkmen professional football midfielder.
Michael Mehrdad R.S.C. Izady or Michael Izady (born 1963), is a contemporary writer on ethnic and cultural topics, particularly the Greater Middle East, and Kurds.
In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis (then more precisely called metropolitan archbishop); that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.
The Middle Assyrian Empire is the period in the history of Assyria between the fall of the Old Assyrian Empire in the 14th century BC and the establishment of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 10th century BC.
Mitanni (Hittite cuneiform; Mittani), also called Hanigalbat (Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform) in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500 to 1300 BC.
Mohsen Abdel Hamid (born 1937 محسن عبد الحميد) is an Iraqi politician and Islamic scholar who was a member of the Interim Iraq Governing Council (president, February 2004), created following the United States's 2003 invasion of Iraq.
The Mosul Question was a territorial dispute in the early 20th century between Turkey and the United Kingdom (later Iraq) over the possession of the former Ottoman Mosul Vilayet.
The Mosul Vilayet (ولايت موصل, Vilâyet-i Musul) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Mustafa Barzani (Mistefa Barzanî) (March 14, 1903 – March 1, 1979) also known as Mullah Mustafa, was a Kurdish nationalist leader, and one of the most prominent political figures in modern Kurdish politics.
Najiba Ahmad (born 1954) (Kurdish:نهجیبە ئهحمهد, Necîbe Ehmed; pronounced) is a contemporary Kurdish writer, poet, and translator, born in northern city of Kirkuk.
Najmadin Shukr Rauf or Mama Risha (Kurdish: مامه ڕیشه meaning Bearded Uncle) (July 1, 1957 – January 25, 1985), was a prominent member of the Peshmerga loyal to the PUK, in Southern Kurdisttan.
Naram-Sin (also transcribed Narām-Sîn or Naram-Suen, meaning "Beloved of Sin"; reigned c. 2254–2218 BC) was a ruler of the Akkadian Empire, the third successor and grandson of King Sargon of Akkad.
Mar Narsai Toma was the late Metropolitan of the Ancient Church of the East of the diocese of Kirkuk, Iraq.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
Nemir A. Kirdar is an Iraqi businessman and financier.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.
A no-fly zone or no-flight zone (NFZ), or air exclusion zone, is a territory or an area over which aircraft are not permitted to fly.
The Northern Iraq offensive began on 4 June 2014, when the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL; sometimes referred to as the Islamic State (IS)) and aligned forces began a major offensive in northern Iraq against the Iraqi government, following earlier clashes that had begun in December 2013.
Nouri Kamil Mohammed Hasan al-Maliki (نوري كامل محمد حسن المالكي.; born 20 June 1950), also known as Jawad al-Maliki (جواد المالكي) or Abu Esraa (أبو إسراء), is an Iraqi politician who was Prime Minister of Iraq from 2006 to 2014.
Nuzi (or Nuzu; Akkadian Gasur; modern Yorghan Tepe, Iraq) was an ancient Assyrian Mesopotamian city southwest of the major Assyrian city of Arrapha (Karka modern Kirkuk in modern Al Ta'amim Governorate of Iraq), located near the Tigris river.
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.
The Oil-for-Food Programme (OIP), established by the United Nations in 1995 (under UN Security Council Resolution 986) was established to allow Iraq to sell oil on the world market in exchange for food, medicine, and other humanitarian needs for ordinary Iraqi citizens without allowing Iraq to boost its military capabilities.
The Old Assyrian Empire is one of four periods in which the history of Assyria is divided, the other three being the Early Assyrian Period, the Middle Assyrian Period, and the New Assyrian Period.
Operation Fath 1 (عملیات فتح 1, meaning "conquest"), or Operation Wahdat (the Kurdish code-name), was a joint Iranian and Iraqi Kurdish military operation conducted by Iran's IRGC special forces and Iraqi Kurdish partisans of Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) in 11 and 12 October 1986 in Kirkuk area of northern Iraq during the Iran–Iraq War.
Osama Jabbar Shafeeq Rashid (أسامة رشيد; born 17 January 1992) is an Iraqi professional footballer who currently plays as a midfielder for Santa Clara in the LigaPro, and the Iraq national team.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
Lewis Paul Bremer III (born September 30, 1941) is an American diplomat.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Peshmerga (lit, or Those who face death') are the military forces of the federal region of Iraqi Kurdistan.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
A petroleum reservoir or oil and gas reservoir is a subsurface pool of hydrocarbons contained in porous or fractured rock formations.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.
The Popular Mobilization Forces (PMF), also known as the People's Mobilization Committee (PMC) and the Popular Mobilization Units (PMU) (الحشد الشعبي Al-Hashd Al-Sha'abi), is an Iraqi state-sponsored umbrella organization composed of some 40 militias that are mainly Shia Muslim groups, but also including Sunni Muslim, Christian, and Yazidi individuals as well. The popular mobilization units have fought in nearly every major battle against ISIL. It has been called the new Iraqi Republican Guard after it was fully reorganized in early 2018 by its Commander in Chief Haider al-Abadi. Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi issued “regulations to adapt the situation of the Popular Mobilization fighters,” giving them ranks and salaries equivalent to other branches of the Iraqi military.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Al Qaysareyah Market is an old market in the city of Kirkuk in Iraq, located near the Kirkuk Citadel.
The Qishla of Kirkuk is a historical building in Kirkuk, Iraq.
Rafiq Hilmi (1898–1960) was a Kurdish historian, writer and politician born in Kirkuk.
Rashad Mandan Omar was Minister of Science and Technology in the cabinet appointed by the Interim Iraq Governing Council in September 2003 and in the Iraqi Interim Government.
Sheikh Riza Talabani (Kurdish; Şêx Rizayê Telebanî) (1835–1910), a celebrated Kurdish poet from Kirkuk, Iraq.
Sadettin Ergeç is an Iraqi Turkmen politician and the leader of the Iraqi Turkmen Front (ITF) political party.
Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity, effort or organization through subversion, obstruction, disruption or destruction.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
Sargon of Akkad (Akkadian Šarru-ukīn or Šarru-kēn, also known as Sargon the Great) was the first ruler of the Semitic-speaking Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
The Second Iraqi–Kurdish War was the second chapter of the Barzani rebellion, initiated by the collapse of the Kurdish autonomy talks and the consequent Iraqi offensive against rebel KDP troops of Mustafa Barzani during 1974–1975. The war came in the aftermath of the First Iraqi–Kurdish War (1961–1970), as the 1970 peace plan for Kurdish autonomy had failed to be implemented by 1974. Unlike the previous guerrilla campaign in 1961–1970, waged by Barzani, the 1974 war was a Kurdish attempt at symmetric warfare against the Iraqi Army, which eventually led to the quick collapse of the Kurds, who were lacking advanced and heavy weaponry. The war ended with the exile of the Iraqi KDP party and between 7,000–20,000 deaths from both sides combined.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ Séleukos Α΄ Nikátōr; "Seleucus the Victor") was one of the Diadochi.
The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
Shahrizor is a plain between Suleimania and Darbandikhan, situated in the southeastern part of Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraq.
Shanidar Cave (Kurdish: Şaneder or Zewî Çemî Şaneder) is an archaeological site located on Bradost Mountain in the Erbil Governorate of Iraqi Kurdistan.
Shapur II (𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩 Šāpuhr), also known as Shapur II the Great, was the tenth Shahanshah of the Sasanian Empire.
Mar Shimun Bar Sabbae (ܡܪܝ ܫܡܥܘܢ ܒܪܨܒܥܐ, died Good Friday, 345) was a Persian Bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, the de facto head of the Church of the East, until his death.
Sir Simon David Jenkins (born 10 June 1943) is a British author and newspaper columnist and editor.
Sinjar, also known as Shingal (Şengal/Şingal/Şingar/شنگار/ شنگال., Ancient: Singara) is a town in Shingal District, Nineveh Province, Iraq near Mount Shingal.
Sulaymaniyah (Iraqi:السليمانية, as-Sulaymāniyyah), also called Slemani, is a city in Iraqi Kurdistan.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
Tabula Peutingeriana (Latin for "The Peutinger Map"), also referred to as Peutinger's Tabula or Peutinger Table, is an illustrated itinerarium (ancient Roman road map) showing the layout of the cursus publicus, the road network of the Roman Empire.
Talib Mushtaq was a leading diplomat and Arab nationalist in Iraq during the 1930s.
Task Force Shield was set up by the Coalition Provisional Authority in 2003 to provide security for Iraq's critical oil infrastructure.
Türkmeneli Televizyonu, or simply Türkmeneli TV, is a Television station in Iraq which broadcasts the interests of the Iraqi Turkmen community.
In archaeology, a tell, or tel (derived from تَل,, 'hill' or 'mound'), is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years.
The terms "Third Dynasty of Ur" and "Neo-Sumerian Empire" refer to both a 22nd to 21st century BC (middle chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state which some historians consider to have been a nascent empire.
Tikrit (تكريت Tikrīt, ܬܓܪܝܬ) sometimes transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit, is a city in Iraq, located northwest of Baghdad and southeast of Mosul on the Tigris River.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
The Tomb of Daniel is the traditional burial place of the biblical prophet Daniel.
The Treaty of Lausanne (Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in the Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.
Tughril Beg (full name: Rukn al-Dunya wa al-Din Abu Talib Muhammad Toghrul-Beg ibn Mikail) also spelled Toghrul I, Tugril, Toghril, Tugrul or Toghrïl Beg; (Tuğrul) (990 – September 4, 1063) was the Turkic founder of the Seljuk Empire, ruling from 1037 to 1063.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
The Ubaid period (c. 6500 to 3800 BC) is a prehistoric period of Mesopotamia.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The University of Pennsylvania Press (or Penn Press) is a university press affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Votes, sometimes also Vods (vađđalaizõd) are a Finnic ethic group native to Votia in Ingria, the part of modern-day northwestern Russia that is roughly southwest of Saint Petersburg and east of the Estonian border-town of Narva.
Washington Kurdish Institute is an educational and research organization focused on Kurds.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yazdegerd II (𐭩𐭦𐭣𐭪𐭥𐭲𐭩 Yazdākird, meaning "made by God"; یزدگرد), was the sixteenth Sasanian emperor of Iran.
Younis Mahmoud Khalaf (يونس محمود خلف; born 2 March 1983 in Dibis, Kirkuk, Iraq), is an Iraqi former professional footballer who played as a striker for the Iraq national football team and is currently the President of the Iraq Former Players Association.
The Zengid or Zangid dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turk origin, which ruled parts of the Levant and Upper Mesopotamia on behalf of the Seljuk Empire.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
The 1975 Algiers Agreement (commonly known as the Algiers Accord, sometimes as the Algiers Declaration) was an agreement between Iran and Iraq to settle their border disputes and conflicts (such as the Shatt al-Arab, known as Arvand Rud in Iran), and it served as basis for the bilateral treaties signed on 13 June and 26 December 1975.
The 1991 uprisings in Iraq were a series of popular rebellions in northern and southern Iraq in March and April 1991 in a cease fire of the Persian Gulf War.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).