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Index Knight

A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity. [1]

345 relations: Accolade, Adrian FitzGerald, Adrian von Bubenberg, Affinity (medieval), Agility, Alcántara, Alexandra of Denmark, Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy, Ancient Rome, Angélique Brûlon, Anglican ministry, Astronaut, Aswaran, Attainder, Austria, Austria-Hungary, Auxilium ad filium militem faciendum et filiam maritandam, Avis, Portugal, Ælfric of Eynsham, Æthelstan, Baghatur, Baldassare Castiglione, Baron, Baronet, Battle of Nancy, Battle of Tours, Belgium, Benefice, Benito Mussolini, Bertrand du Guesclin, Bishop, Black knight, Black nobility, Book of Chivalry, Boydell & Brewer, Calatrava la Vieja, Cantar de Mio Cid, Carolingian dynasty, Castle, Cataphract, Charlemagne, Charles I of Hungary, Charles Martel, Charles the Bald, Charles the Bold, Chivalric romance, Chivalry, Christendom, Christian, Christian denomination, ..., Christian humanism, Christian I of Denmark, Christian state, Christian V of Denmark, Christmas, Church of England, Classical Latin, Clergy, Coat of arms, Code of 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the Garter, List of Knights and Ladies of the Thistle, Loderingo degli Andalò, Long jump, Lord, Louis XI of France, Loyalty, Maharlika, Man-at-arms, Margaret Thatcher, Marion Fraser, Mary of Teck, Matter of Britain, Matter of France, Medieval History Magazine, Medieval literature, Medieval warfare, Medjay, Mercenary, Middle High German, Miguel de Cervantes, Military order (monastic society), Military Order of William, Minstrel, Monarch, Monarchy, Monasticism, Moors, National Order of Merit (France), Netherlands, New Zealand, Nobility, Norma Major, Norman Thomas Gilroy, O'Shaughnessy, Old Church Slavonic, Old East Slavic, Old English, Old Frisian, Order (distinction), Order of Alcántara, Order of Aviz, Order of Calatrava, Order of chivalry, Order of Leopold (Belgium), Order of Leopold II, Order of Merit, Order of Orange-Nassau, Order of Saint George (Kingdom of Hungary), Order of Saint John (Bailiwick of Brandenburg), Order of Saint Lazarus, Order of Saint Michael, Order of Santiago, Order of St Michael and St George, Order of St Patrick, Order of St. Olav, Order of the Bath, Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Order of the British Empire, Order of the Companions of Honour, Order of the Crown (Belgium), Order of the Dragon, Order of the Elephant, Order of the Garter, Order of the Golden Fleece, Order of the Holy Sepulchre, Order of the Netherlands Lion, Order of the Thistle, Order of the White Eagle (Poland), Orders, decorations, and medals of Italy, Orders, decorations, and medals of the Holy See, Orders, decorations, and medals of the United Kingdom, Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, Ordre des Palmes Académiques, Ostrogoths, Oxford Latin Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Page (servant), Paladin, Parzival, Pas d'armes, Paul McCartney, Pearl Poet, Petty nobility, Philip Riedesel zu Camberg, Philip the Good, Pierre Terrail, seigneur de Bayard, Pike (weapon), Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Pope Alexander IV, Pope Sixtus V, Prelate, Professional ethics, Prussia, Queen 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Caliphate, United Kingdom, Vassal, Vikings, Vulgar Latin, W. P. Ker, Warrior, West Germanic languages, White Knight (Fitzgibbon family), William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, William Wallace, Wolfram von Eschenbach, Wrestling, Youxia, Zawisza Czarny. Expand index (295 more) »


The accolade (also known as dubbing or adoubement) (benedictio militis) was the central act in the rite of passage ceremonies conferring knighthood in the Middle Ages.

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Adrian FitzGerald

Sir Adrian James Andrew Denis FitzGerald, 6th Baronet, 24th Knight of Kerry (born 24 June 1940) is a baronet, hereditary knight, a Conservative Party politician in the UK, and former Mayor of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea.

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Adrian von Bubenberg

Adrian von Bubenberg (born c. 1434 in Bern; died August 1479 in Bern) was a Bernese knight, military commander and mayor (Schultheiss) of Bern in 1468-1469, 1473-1474 and 1477-1479.

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Affinity (medieval)

In the Post-classical history, an affinity was a collective name for the group of (usually) men whom a lord gathered around himself in his service; it has been described by one modern historian as "the servants, retainers, and other followers of a lord", and as "part of the normal fabric of society".

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Agility or nimbleness is the ability to change the body's position efficiently, and requires the integration of isolated movement skills using a combination of balance, coordination, speed, reflexes, strength, and endurance.

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Alcántara is a municipality in the province of Cáceres, Extremadura, Spain, on the Tagus, near Portugal.

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Alexandra of Denmark

Alexandra of Denmark (Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia; 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925) was Queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the wife of King Edward VII.

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Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy

Amadeus VI (4 January 1334, Chambéry – 1 March 1383, Campobasso), nicknamed the Green Count (Il Conte Verde) was Count of Savoy from 1343 to 1383.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Angélique Brûlon

Marie-Angélique Josèphe Brûlon, née Duchemin (January 20, 1772 – July 13, 1859), was a French soldier.

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Anglican ministry

The Anglican ministry is both the leadership and agency of Christian service in the Anglican Communion.

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An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.

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The Aswārān (singular aswār), also spelled Asbārān, was a military force that formed the backbone of the army of the Sasanian Empire.

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In English criminal law, attainder or attinctura was the metaphorical "stain" or "corruption of blood" which arose from being condemned for a serious capital crime (felony or treason).

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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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Auxilium ad filium militem faciendum et filiam maritandam

Auxilium ad filium militem faciendum et filiam maritandam was an ancient writ directed to the sheriff of every county in England, where the king or other lord had any tenants, to levy of them reasonable aid, towards the knighting of his son, and the marriage of his eldest daughter.

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Avis, Portugal

Avis is a municipality in the District of Portalegre in Portugal.

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Ælfric of Eynsham

Ælfric of Eynsham (Ælfrīc; Alfricus, Elphricus) was an English abbot, as well as a consummate, prolific writer in Old English of hagiography, homilies, biblical commentaries, and other genres.

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Æthelstan or Athelstan (Old English: Æþelstan, or Æðelstān, meaning "noble stone"; 89427 October 939) was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 924 to 927 and King of the English from 927 to 939.

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Baghatur (ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠦᠷ Baγatur, Khalkha Mongolian: Баатар Bātar; Bağatur, Batur, Bahadır; Bogatyr) is a historical Turco-Mongol honorific title, in origin a term for "hero" or "valiant warrior".

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Baldassare Castiglione

Baldassare Castiglione (December 6, 1478 – February 2, 1529),Dates of birth and death, and cause of the latter, from, Italica, Rai International online.

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Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary.

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A baronet (or; abbreviated Bart or Bt) or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess (or; abbreviation Btss), is the holder of a baronetcy, an hereditary title awarded by the British Crown.

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Battle of Nancy

The Battle of Nancy was the final and decisive battle of the Burgundian Wars, fought outside the walls of Nancy on 5 January 1477 by Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, against René II, Duke of Lorraine, and the Swiss Confederacy.

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Battle of Tours

The Battle of Tours (10 October 732) – also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Palace of the Martyrs (Ma'arakat Balāṭ ash-Shuhadā’) – was fought by Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus.

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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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A benefice or living is a reward received in exchange for services rendered and as a retainer for future services.

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Benito Mussolini

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).

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Bertrand du Guesclin

Bertrand du Guesclin (c. 1320 – 13 July 1380), nicknamed "The Eagle of Brittany" or "The Black Dog of Brocéliande", was a Breton knight and French military commander during the Hundred Years' War.

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A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.

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Black knight

The black knight is a literary stock character who masks their identity and that of their liege by not displaying heraldry.

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Black nobility

The black nobility or black aristocracy (nobiltà nera, aristocrazia nera) are Roman aristocratic families who sided with the Papacy under Pope Pius IX after the Savoy family-led army of the Kingdom of Italy entered Rome on 20 September 1870, overthrew the Pope and the Papal States, and took over the Quirinal Palace, and any nobles subsequently ennobled by the Pope prior to the 1929 Lateran Treaty.

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Book of Chivalry

The Book of Chivalry (French: Livre de chevalerie) was written by the knight Geoffroi de Charny (c.1306-1356) sometime around the early 1350s.

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Boydell & Brewer

Boydell & Brewer is an academic press based in Woodbridge, Suffolk, England that specializes in publishing historical and critical works.

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Calatrava la Vieja

Calatrava la Vieja (formerly just Calatrava) is a medieval site and original nucleus of the Order of Calatrava.

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Cantar de Mio Cid

El Cantar de mio Cid, literally "The Song of my Cid" (or El Poema de mio Cid), also known in English as The Poem of the Cid, is the oldest preserved Castilian epic poem (epopeya).

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Carolingian dynasty

The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.

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A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.

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A cataphract was a form of armored heavy cavalry used in ancient warfare by a number of peoples in Europe, East Asia, Middle East and North africa.

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Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

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Charles I of Hungary

Charles I, also known as Charles Robert (Károly Róbert; Karlo Robert; Karol Róbert; 128816 July 1342) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1308 to his death.

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Charles Martel

Charles Martel (c. 688 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.

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Charles the Bald

Charles the Bald (13 June 823 – 6 October 877) was the King of West Francia (843–877), King of Italy (875–877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–877, as Charles II).

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Charles the Bold

Charles the Bold (also translated as Charles the Reckless).

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Chivalric romance

As a literary genre of high culture, romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose and verse narrative that was popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

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Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal, varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220, never decided on or summarized in a single document, associated with the medieval institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlewomen's behaviours were governed by chivalrous social codes.

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Christendom has several meanings.

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A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Christian denomination

A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.

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Christian humanism

Christian humanism is a philosophy that combines Christian ethics and humanist principles.

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Christian I of Denmark

Christian I (February 1426 – 21 May 1481) was a Scandinavian monarch under the Kalmar Union.

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Christian state

A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity as its official religion and often has a state church, which is a Christian denomination that supports the government and is supported by the government.

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Christian V of Denmark

Christian V (15 April 1646 25 August 1699) was king of Denmark and Norway from 1670 until his death in 1699.

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Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Church of England

The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.

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Classical Latin

Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.

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Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions.

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Coat of arms

A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.

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Code of conduct

A code of conduct is a set of rules outlining the social norms, religious rules and responsibilities of, and or proper practices for, an individual.

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In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.

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Combat of the Thirty

The Combat of the Thirty (26 March 1351) (French: Combat des Trente) was an episode in the Breton War of Succession fought to determine who would rule the Duchy of Brittany.

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Comitatus is the Latin term for an armed escort or retinue.

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The common people, also known as the common man, commoners, or the masses, are the ordinary people in a community or nation who lack any significant social status, especially those who are members of neither royalty, nobility, the clergy, nor any member of the aristocracy.

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Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.

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County palatine

In England, a county palatine or palatinate was an area ruled by a hereditary nobleman enjoying special authority and autonomy from the rest of a kingdom or empire.

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Courage (also called bravery or valour) is the choice and willingness to confront agony, pain, danger, uncertainty, or intimidation.

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Court (royal)

A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who regularly attend on a monarch, or another central figure.

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A courtier is a person who is often in attendance at the court of a monarch or other royal personage.

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Crusader states

The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.

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The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.

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Dame is an honorific title and the feminine form of address for the honour of knighthood in the British honours system and the systems of several other Commonwealth countries, such as Australia and New Zealand, with the masculine form of address being Sir.

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David Nicolle

David C. Nicolle (born 4 April 1944) is a British historian specialising in the military history of the Middle Ages, with a particular interest in the Middle East.

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In the feudal system, the demesne was all the land which was retained by a lord of the manor for his own use and support, under his own management, as distinguished from land sub-enfeoffed by him to others as sub-tenants.

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Derek Pattinson

Sir William Derek Pattinson (31 March 1930 – 10 October 2006) was Secretary-General of the General Synod of the Church of England from 1972 until 1990.

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The destrier is the best-known war horse of the medieval era.

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Distinguished Service Order

The Distinguished Service Order (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other parts of the Commonwealth of Nations, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat.

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Don Quixote

The Ingenious Nobleman Sir Quixote of La Mancha (El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha), or just Don Quixote (Oxford English Dictionary, ""), is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes.

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Duchy of Burgundy

The Duchy of Burgundy (Ducatus Burgundiae; Duché de Bourgogne) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians, which after its conquest in 532 had formed a constituent part of the Frankish Empire.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Eagle warrior

Eagle warriors or eagle knights (Classical Nahuatl: cuāuhtli (singular) or cuāuhmeh (plural)Nahuatl Dictionary. (1997). Wired Humanities Project. University of Oregon. Retrieved September 5, 2012, from) were a special class of infantry soldier in the Aztec army, one of the two leading military special forces orders in Aztec society.

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Earl of Desmond

The title of Earl of Desmond has been held historically by lords in Ireland, first as a title outside of the peerage system and later as part of the Peerage of Ireland.

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Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.

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Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.

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Edler was until 1919 the lowest rank of nobility in Austria-Hungary and Germany, just beneath a Ritter (hereditary knight), but above untitled nobles, who used only the nobiliary particle von before their surname.

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Edmund FitzGibbon

Edmund Fitzgibbon (c. 1552 – 23 April 1608) was an Irish nobleman of the FitzGerald dynasty, who inherited the Anglo-Norman title of the White Knight and struggled to maintain his loyalty to the crown during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England.

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Edward III of England

Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.

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Edward VI of England

Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death.

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Edward VII

Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.

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El Cid

Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (1099) was a Castilian nobleman and military leader in medieval Spain.

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Elias Ashmole

Elias Ashmole (23 May 1617 – 18 May 1692) was an English antiquary, politician, officer of arms, astrologer and student of alchemy.

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Elton John

Sir Elton Hercules John (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight; 25 March 1947) is an English singer, pianist, and composer.

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Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.

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The equites (eques nom. singular; sometimes referred to as "knights" in modern times) constituted the second of the property-based classes of ancient Rome, ranking below the senatorial class.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Ewart Oakeshott

Ewart Oakeshott (25 May 1916 – 30 September 2002) was a British illustrator, collector, and amateur historian who wrote prodigiously on medieval arms and armour.

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In the context of religion, one can define faith as confidence or trust in a particular system of religious belief, within which faith may equate to confidence based on some perceived degree of warrant, in contrast to the general sense of faith being a belief without evidence.

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Falconry is the hunting of wild animals in their natural state and habitat by means of a trained bird of prey.

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A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.

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First Crusade

The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.

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FitzGerald dynasty

The FitzGerald dynasty (Ríshliocht Mhic Gearailt or Clann Gearailt) is an Irish Hiberno-Norman or Cambro-Norman royal dynasty.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Frank De Winne

Frank, Viscount De Winne (born 25 April 1961, in Ledeberg, Belgium) is a Belgian Air Component officer and an ESA astronaut.

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Franz von Sickingen

Franz von Sickingen or Francis of Sickingen (2 March 1481 – 7 May 1523) was a German knight who, along with Ulrich von Hutten, led the Knight's Revolt and was one of the most notable figures of the early period of the Reformation.

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Freiherr (male, abbreviated as Frhr.), Freifrau (his wife, abbreviated as Frfr., literally "free lord" or "free lady") and Freiin (his unmarried daughters and maiden aunts) are designations used as titles of nobility in the German-speaking areas of the Holy Roman Empire, and in its various successor states, including Austria, Prussia, Bavaria, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, etc.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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(rtl; also transliterated as) is the historical Arabic term for equestrian martial exercise.

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Götz von Berlichingen

Gottfried "Götz" von Berlichingen (1480 – 23 July 1562), also known as Götz of the Iron Hand, was a German (Franconian) Imperial Knight (Reichsritter), mercenary, and poet.

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Geoffrey Chaucer

Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.

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Geoffrey of Monmouth

Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy; c. 1095 – c. 1155) was a British cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularity of tales of King Arthur.

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Geoffroi de Charny

This article is about the French knight who died in 1356 at the Battle of Poitiers.

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Georg von Trapp

Corvette Captain Georg Ludwig Ritter von Trapp (4 April 1880 – 30 May 1947), was an Austro-Hungarian Navy officer.

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George I of Great Britain

George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Germanic Heroic Age

The Germanic (or "German") Heroic Age, so called in analogy to the Heroic Age of Greek mythology, is the period of early historic or quasi-historic events reflected in Germanic heroic poetry.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Given name

A given name (also known as a first name, forename or Christian name) is a part of a person's personal name.

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Godfrey of Bouillon

Godfrey of Bouillon (18 September 1060 – 18 July 1100) was a Frankish knight and one of the leaders of the First Crusade from 1096 until its conclusion in 1099.

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Grand Cross

Grand Cross is the highest class in many orders, and manifested in its insignia.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Hastilude is a generic term used in the Middle Ages to refer to many kinds of martial games.

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Heavy cavalry

Heavy cavalry is a class of cavalry whose primary role was to engage in direct combat with enemy forces, and are heavily armed and armoured compared to light cavalry.

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Heinrich von Bülow (Grotekop)

Heinrich von Bülow also known as Big Top (Grotekop) was a knight born in the middle of the fourteenth century.

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Heinrich von Winkelried

Heinrich von Winkelried (d. after 1303), known as Schrutan or Strut "the giant", was a medieval knight in what is now Central Switzerland.

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Henry Percy (Hotspur)

Sir Henry Percy KG (20 May 1364 – 21 July 1403), commonly known as Sir Harry Hotspur, or simply Hotspur, was a late-medieval English nobleman.

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Henry VIII of England

Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.

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Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.

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Hide (unit)

The hide was an English unit of land measurement originally intended to represent the amount of land sufficient to support a household.

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High Middle Ages

The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.

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Hippeis (ἱππεῖς, singular ἱππεύς, hippeus) is a Greek term for cavalry.

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Historia Regum Britanniae

Historia regum Britanniae (The History of the Kings of Britain), originally called De gestis Britonum (On the Deeds of the Britons), is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136 by Geoffrey of Monmouth.

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Historical European martial arts

Historical European martial arts (HEMA) refers to martial arts of European origin, particularly using arts formerly practised, but having since died out or evolved into very different forms.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Holy See

The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.

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Homage (feudal)

Homage in the Middle Ages was the ceremony in which a feudal tenant or vassal pledged reverence and submission to his feudal lord, receiving in exchange the symbolic title to his new position (investiture).

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Honour (or honor in American English, note) is the idea of a bond between an individual and a society, as a quality of a person that is both of social teaching and of personal ethos, that manifests itself as a code of conduct, and has various elements such as valor, chivalry, honesty, and compassion.

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Horses in the Middle Ages

Horses in the Middle Ages differed in size, build and breed from the modern horse, and were, on average, smaller.

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Horses in warfare

The first use of horses in warfare occurred over 5,000 years ago.

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House of Hauteclocque

The House of Hauteclocque is a French noble family established during the Middle Ages by the lords of the fief of Hautecloque.

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Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.

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Hundred Years' War

The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.

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Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.

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Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.

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Hwarang, also known as Flowering Knights, were an elite warrior group of male youth in Silla, an ancient kingdom of the Korean Peninsula that lasted until the 10th century.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.

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Ideal (ethics)

An ideal is a principle or value that one actively pursues as a goal, usually in the context of ethics, and one's prioritization of ideals can serve to indicate the extent of one's dedication to each.

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Imperial Knight

The Free Imperial knights (Reichsritter Eques imperii) were free nobles of the Holy Roman Empire, whose direct overlord was the Emperor.

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Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.

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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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James II of England

James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.

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Jean III d'Aa of Gruuthuse

Jean III d'Aa, lord of Gruuthuse (Jan III van Gruuthuse en van der Aa, sieur de Gruuthuse; born about 1368/69, died before 1420) was a Flemish-Burgundian knight of the Bruges noble family of Gruuthuse.

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Jean Le Maingre

Jean II Le Maingre (in Old French, Jehan le Meingre), called Boucicaut (August 28, 1366 — June 21, 1421) was marshal of France and a knight renowned for his military skill.

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Joanot Martorell

Joanot Martorell (Gandia, south of Valencia, 1413 – 1468) was a Valencian knight and the author of the novel Tirant lo Blanch, written in the Valencian vernacular (Martorell calls it vulgar llengua valenciana) and published at Valencia in 1490.

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John Hawkwood

Sir John Hawkwood (c. 1323–1394) was an English soldier and condottiere.

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John Major

Sir John Major (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997.

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John O'Donovan (scholar)

John O'Donovan (Seán Ó Donnabháin; 25 July 1806 – 10 December 1861), from Atateemore, in the parish of Kilcolumb, County Kilkenny, and educated at Hunt's Academy, Waterford, was an Irish language scholar from Ireland.

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Jonkheer (female equivalent: jonkvrouw; French: Écuyer) is a honorific in the Low Countries denoting the lowest rank within the nobility.

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Jousting is a martial game or hastilude between two horsemen wielding lances with blunted tips, often as part of a tournament.

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Judi Dench

Dame Judith Olivia Dench, (born 9 December 1934) is an English actress.

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Julie Andrews

Dame Julia Elizabeth Andrews, (born 1 October 1935) is an English actress, singer, and author.

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Juramentado, in Philippine history, refers to a male Moro swordsman who attacked and killed targeted occupying and invading police and soldiers, expecting to be killed himself, the martyrdom undertaken as a form of jihad, considered a form of suicide attack.

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King Arthur

King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.

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Kingdom of the Netherlands

The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden), commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small island territories in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies islands (Leeward Islands and Lesser Antilles).

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Knight Bachelor

The dignity of Knight Bachelor is the most basic and lowest rank of a man who has been knighted by the monarch but not as a member of one of the organised orders of chivalry; it is a part of the British honours system.

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Knight banneret

A knight banneret, sometimes known simply as banneret, was a medieval knight ("a commoner of rank") who led a company of troops during time of war under his own banner (which was square-shaped, in contrast to the tapering standard or the pennon flown by the lower-ranking knights) and was eligible to bear supporters in English heraldry.

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Knight of Glin

The Knight of Glin (dormant 14 September 2011), also known as the Black Knight or Knight of the Valley, was a hereditary title held by the FitzGerald families of County Limerick, Ireland, since the early 14th century.

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Knight of Kerry

Knight of Kerry, also called The Green Knight is one of three Anglo-Irish hereditary knighthoods, all of which existed in Ireland since feudal times.

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A knight-errant (or knight errant) is a figure of medieval chivalric romance literature.

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Knights Hospitaller

The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.

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Knights Templar

The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.

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Kshatriya (Devanagari: क्षत्रिय; from Sanskrit kṣatra, "rule, authority") is one of the four varna (social orders) of the Hindu society.

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Landed gentry

Landed gentry or gentry is a largely historical British social class consisting in theory of landowners who could live entirely from rental income, or at least had a country estate.

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Landed property

In real estate, a landed property or landed estate is a property that generates income for the owner without the owner having to do the actual work of the estate.

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Late Middle Ages

The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lavinia Fitzalan-Howard, Duchess of Norfolk

Lavinia Mary Fitzalan-Howard, Duchess of Norfolk LG CBE (née Strutt; 22 March 1916 – 10 December 1995) was a British noblewoman.

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Le Morte d'Arthur

Le Morte d'Arthur (originally spelled Le Morte Darthur, Middle French for "the death of Arthur") is a reworking of existing tales by Sir Thomas Malory about the legendary King Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot, Merlin, and the Knights of the Round Table.

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Legion of Honour

The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.

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List of British consorts

A royal consort is the spouse of a ruling king or queen.

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List of Knights and Ladies of the Garter

The Most Noble Order of the Garter was founded by Edward III of England in 1348.

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List of Knights and Ladies of the Thistle

The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle was founded in 1687.

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Loderingo degli Andalò

Loderingo degli Andalò (1210–1293) was an Italian nobleman from a Bolognese Ghibelline family.

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Long jump

The long jump (historically called the broad jump in the USA) is a track and field event in which athletes combine speed, strength and agility in an attempt to leap as far as possible from a take off point.

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Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others acting like a master, a chief, or a ruler.

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Louis XI of France

Louis XI (3 July 1423 – 30 August 1483), called "Louis the Prudent" (le Prudent), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1461 to 1483.

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Loyalty, in general use, is a devotion and faithfulness to a nation, cause, philosophy, country, group, or person.

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The Maharlika were the feudal warrior class in ancient Tagalog society in Luzon the Philippines translated in Spanish as Hidalgos, and meaning freeman, libres or freedman.

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A man-at-arms was a soldier of the High Medieval to Renaissance periods who was typically well-versed in the use of arms and served as a fully armoured heavy cavalryman.

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Margaret Thatcher

Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.

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Marion Fraser

Lady Marion Anne Fraser (née Forbes; 17 October 1932 – 25 December 2016) was a Scottish music educator.

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Mary of Teck

Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was Queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the wife of King George V. Although technically a princess of Teck, in the Kingdom of Württemberg, she was born and raised in England.

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Matter of Britain

The Matter of Britain is the body of Medieval literature and legendary material associated with Great Britain, and sometimes Brittany, and the legendary kings and heroes associated with it, particularly King Arthur.

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Matter of France

The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle, is a body of literature and legendary material associated with the history of France, in particular involving Charlemagne and his associates.

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Medieval History Magazine

Medieval History Magazine was a magazine dedicated to the medieval era, with a readership encompassing historians, re-enactors and other individuals interested in the history of the Middle Ages.

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Medieval literature

Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (that is, the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. AD 500 to the beginning of the Florentine Renaissance in the late 15th century).

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Medieval warfare

Medieval warfare is the European warfare of the Middle Ages.

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In the New Kingdom of Egypt, the Medjay (also Medjai, Mazoi, Madjai, Mejay, Egyptian mđʔ.y, a nisba of mđʔ) were an elite paramilitary police force, serving as desert scouts and protectors of areas of Pharaonic interest.

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A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.

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Middle High German

Middle High German (abbreviated MHG, Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages.

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Miguel de Cervantes

Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (29 September 1547 (assumed)23 April 1616 NS) was a Spanish writer who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists.

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Military order (monastic society)

A military order (Militaris ordinis) is a chivalric order with military elements.

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Military Order of William

The Military William Order, or often named Military Order of William (Dutch: Militaire Willems-Orde, abbreviation: MWO), is the oldest and highest honour of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

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A minstrel was a medieval European entertainer.

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A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.

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A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.

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Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.

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The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.

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National Order of Merit (France)

The National Order of Merit (Ordre national du Mérite) is a French order of merit with membership awarded by the President of the French Republic, founded on 3 December 1963 by President Charles de Gaulle.

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.

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Norma Major

Dame Norma Christina Elizabeth Major, Lady Major, (née Wagstaff, formerly Johnson; born 12 February 1942) is the wife of Sir John Major.

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Norman Thomas Gilroy

Sir Norman Thomas Gilroy KBE (22 January 1896 – 21 October 1977) was an Australian bishop.

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Ó Seachnasaigh, O'Shaughnessy, collectively Uí Sheachnasaigh, clan name Cinél nAedha na hEchtghe, is a family surname of Irish origin.

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Old Church Slavonic

Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.

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Old East Slavic

Old East Slavic or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old Frisian

Old Frisian is a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries in the area between the Rhine and Weser on the European North Sea coast.

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Order (distinction)

An order is a visible honour awarded by a sovereign state, monarch, dynastic royal house or organisation to a recipient, typically in recognition of individual merit, that often comes with distinctive insignia such as collars, medals, badges, and sashes worn by recipients.

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Order of Alcántara

The Order of Alcántara (Leonese: Orde de Alcántara, Orden de Alcántara), also called the Knights of St.

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Order of Aviz

The Military Order of Aviz (Ordem Militar de Avis), previously to 1910 Royal Military Order of Aviz (Ordem Real Militar de Avis), previously to 1789 Knights (of the Order) of Saint Benedict of Aviz (Ordem de São Bento de Aviz) or Friars of Santa Maria of Évora, is a Portuguese order of chivalry, founded in Portugal in 1146.

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Order of Calatrava

The Order of Calatrava (Orden de Calatrava Ordem de Calatrava) was the first military order founded in Castile, but the second to receive papal approval.

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Order of chivalry

A chivalric order, order of chivalry, order of knighthood or equestrian order is an order, confraternity or society of knights typically founded during or in inspiration of the original Catholic military orders of the Crusades (circa 1099-1291), paired with medieval concepts of ideals of chivalry.

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Order of Leopold (Belgium)

The Order of Leopold (Leopoldsorde, Ordre de Léopold) is one of the three current Belgian national honorary orders of knighthood.

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Order of Leopold II

The Order of Leopold II is an order of Belgium and is named in honor of King Léopold II.

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Order of Merit

The Order of Merit (Ordre du Mérite) is an order of merit recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture.

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Order of Orange-Nassau

The Order of Orange-Nassau (Orde van Oranje-Nassau) is a civil and military Dutch order of chivalry founded on 4 April 1892 by the Queen regent Emma, acting on behalf of her under-age daughter Queen Wilhelmina.

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Order of Saint George (Kingdom of Hungary)

The Order of St George, Szent György Vitézei Lovagrend, was the first secular chivalric order in the world and was established by King Charles I of Hungary in 1326.

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Order of Saint John (Bailiwick of Brandenburg)

The Bailiwick of Brandenburg of the Chivalric Order of Saint John of the Hospital at Jerusalem (Balley Brandenburg des Ritterlichen Ordens Sankt Johannis vom Spital zu Jerusalem), commonly known as the Order of Saint John or the Johanniter Order (German: Johanniterorden), is the German Protestant branch of the Knights Hospitaller, the oldest surviving chivalric order, which generally is considered to have been founded in Jerusalem in the year 1099 AD.

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Order of Saint Lazarus

The Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem was a Catholic military order founded by crusaders around 1119 at a leper hospital in Jerusalem, Kingdom of Jerusalem, whose care became its original purpose, named after their patron saint, Lazarus.

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Order of Saint Michael

The Order of Saint Michael (Ordre de Saint-Michel) is a French dynastic order of chivalry, founded by Louis XI of France on 1 August 1469, in competitive response to the Burgundian Order of the Golden Fleece founded by Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, Louis' chief competitor for the allegiance of the great houses of France, the Dukes of Orléans, Berry, and Brittany.

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Order of Santiago

The Order of Santiago (Orde de Santiago, Orden de Santiago), also known as "The Order of St.

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Order of St Michael and St George

The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent, later King George IV, while he was acting as regent for his father, King George III.

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Order of St Patrick

The Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick is a dormant British order of chivalry associated with Ireland.

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Order of St. Olav

The Royal Norwegian Order of Saint Olav (Den Kongelige Norske Sankt Olavs Orden; or Sanct Olafs Orden, the old Norwegian name) is a Norwegian order of chivalry instituted by King Oscar I on August 21, 1847.

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Order of the Bath

The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.

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Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Frati della Beata Gloriosa Vergine Maria; Ordo Militiae Mariae Gloriosae), also called the Order of Saint Mary of the Tower or the Order of the Knights of the Mother of God, commonly the Knights of Saint Mary, was a military order founded in 1261.

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Order of the British Empire

The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil service.

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Order of the Companions of Honour

The Order of the Companions of Honour is an order of the Commonwealth realms.

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Order of the Crown (Belgium)

The Order of the Crown (Ordre de la Couronne, Kroonorde) is a national order of the Kingdom of Belgium.

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Order of the Dragon

The Order of the Dragon (Societas Draconistarum, literally "Society of the Dragonists") was a monarchical chivalric order for selected nobility,Florescu and McNally, Dracula, Prince of Many Faces.

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Order of the Elephant

The Order of the Elephant (Elefantordenen) is a Danish order of chivalry and is Denmark's highest-ranked honour.

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Order of the Garter

The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.

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Order of the Golden Fleece

The Order of the Golden Fleece (Orden del Toisón de Oro, Orden vom Goldenen Vlies) is a Roman Catholic order of chivalry founded in Bruges by the Burgundian duke Philip the Good in 1430, to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Isabella.

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Order of the Holy Sepulchre

The Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem (Ordo Equestris Sancti Sepulcri Hierosolymitani, OESSH), also called Order of the Holy Sepulchre or Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, is a Roman Catholic order of knighthood under the protection of the Holy See.

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Order of the Netherlands Lion

The Order of the Netherlands Lion, also referred to as the Order of the Lion of the Netherlands (De Orde van de Nederlandse Leeuw, L'Ordre du Lion Néerlandais) is a Dutch order of chivalry founded by King William I of the Netherlands on 29 September 1815.

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Order of the Thistle

The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle is an order of chivalry associated with Scotland.

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Order of the White Eagle (Poland)

The Order of the White Eagle (Order Orła Białego) is Poland's highest order awarded to both civilians and the military for their merits.

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Orders, decorations, and medals of Italy

The Italian honours system is a means to reward achievements or service to the Italian Republic, formerly the Kingdom of Italy including the Italian Social Republic.

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Orders, decorations, and medals of the Holy See

The orders, decorations, and medals of the Holy See include titles, chivalric orders, distinctions and medals honoured by the Holy See, with the Pope as the fount of honour, for deeds and merits of their recipients to the benefit of the Holy See, the Catholic Church, or their respective communities, societies, nations and the world at large.

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Orders, decorations, and medals of the United Kingdom

The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery, achievement, or service to the United Kingdom and the British Overseas Territories.

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Ordre des Arts et des Lettres

The Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (Order of Arts and Letters) is an Order of France, established on 2 May 1957 by the Minister of Culture, and its supplementary status to the Ordre national du Mérite was confirmed by President Charles de Gaulle in 1963.

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Ordre des Palmes Académiques

The Ordre des Palmes académiques (Order of Academic Palms) is a national order of France for distinguished academics and figures in the world of culture and education.

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The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).

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Oxford Latin Dictionary

The Oxford Latin Dictionary (or OLD) is the standard English lexicon of Classical Latin, compiled from sources written before AD 200.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Page (servant)

A page or page boy is traditionally a young male attendant or servant, but may also have been used for a messenger at the service of a nobleman.

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The paladins, sometimes known as the Twelve Peers, were the foremost warriors of Charlemagne's court, according to the literary cycle known as the Matter of France.

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Parzival is a medieval romance written by the knight-poet Wolfram von Eschenbach in Middle High German.

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Pas d'armes

The pas d'armes or passage of arms was a type of chivalric hastilude that evolved in the late 14th century and remained popular through the 15th century.

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Paul McCartney

Sir James Paul McCartney (born 18 June 1942) is an English singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, and composer.

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Pearl Poet

The "Pearl Poet", or the "Gawain Poet", is the name given to the author of Pearl, an alliterative poem written in 14th-century Middle English.

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Petty nobility

Petty nobility refers to lower nobility classes.

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Philip Riedesel zu Camberg

Philip Riedesel zu Camberg was an important German knight (Ritter) in the latter half of the 16th century.

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Philip the Good

Philip the Good (Philippe le Bon, Filips de Goede; 31 July 1396 – 15 June 1467) was Duke of Burgundy as Philip III from 1419 until his death.

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Pierre Terrail, seigneur de Bayard

Pierre Terrail, seigneur de Bayard (1473 – 30 April 1524) was a French knight, generally known as the Chevalier de Bayard.

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Pike (weapon)

A pike is a pole weapon, a very long thrusting spear formerly used extensively by infantry.

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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Pope Alexander IV

Pope Alexander IV (1199 or ca. 1185 – 25 May 1261) was Pope from 12 December 1254 to his death in 1261.

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Pope Sixtus V

Pope Sixtus V or Xystus V (13 December 1521 – 27 August 1590), born Felice Peretti di Montalto, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 24 April 1585 to his death in 1590.

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A prelate is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ranks in precedence with ordinaries.

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Professional ethics

Professional ethics encompass the personal, and corporate standards of behavior expected by professionals.

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Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother

Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon (4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was the wife of King George VI and the mother of Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon.

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Questia Online Library

Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.

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Quid pro quo

Quid pro quo ("something for something" in Latin) is a phrase used in English to mean an exchange of goods or services, in which one transfer is contingent upon the other; "a favour for a favour".

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Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.

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Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona

Ramon Berenguer IV (c. 1114 – 6 August 1162, Anglicized Raymond Berengar IV), sometimes called the Saint, was the Count of Barcelona who brought about the union of his County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragon to form the Crown of Aragon.

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Ramon Llull

Ramon Llull, T.O.S.F. (c. 1232 – c. 1315; Anglicised Raymond Lully, Raymond Lull; in Latin Raimundus or Raymundus Lullus or Lullius) was a philosopher, logician, Franciscan tertiary and Spanish writer.

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The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.

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Renaissance literature

Renaissance literature refers to European literature which was influenced by the intellectual and cultural tendencies associated with the Renaissance.

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A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.

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Richard Francis Burton

Sir Richard Francis Burton (19 March 1821 – 20 October 1890) was a British explorer, geographer, translator, writer, soldier, orientalist, cartographer, ethnologist, spy, linguist, poet, fencer, and diplomat.

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Ridder (title)

Ridder (English: "Knight") is a noble title in the Netherlands and Belgium.

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Ritter (German for "knight") is a designation used as a title of nobility in German-speaking areas.

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Roland (Frankish: *Hrōþiland; Latin: Hruodlandus, Rotholandus; died 15 August 778) was a Frankish military leader under Charlemagne who became one of the principal figures in the literary cycle known as the Matter of France.

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Roll of arms

A roll of arms (or armorial) is a collection of coats of arms, usually consisting of rows of painted pictures of shields, each shield accompanied by the name of the person bearing the arms.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Round Table

The Round Table is King Arthur's famed table in the Arthurian legend, around which he and his knights congregate.

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Royal Order of the Seraphim

The Royal Order of the Seraphim (Swedish: Kungliga Serafimerorden; Seraphim being a category of Angels) is a Swedish order of chivalry created by King Frederick I on 23 February 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Polar Star.

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Royal Victorian Order

The Royal Victorian Order (Ordre royal de Victoria) is a dynastic order of knighthood established in 1896 by Queen Victoria.

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were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan.

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Santiago de Compostela

Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia, in northwestern Spain.

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Saracen was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages.

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Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor

Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg – 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.

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Sipahi (translit) were two types of Ottoman cavalry corps, including the fief-holding provincial timarli sipahi, which constituted most of the army, and the regular kapikulu sipahi, palace troops.

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Sir Gawain and the Green Knight

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (Middle English: Sir Gawayn and þe Grene Knyȝt) is a late 14th-century Middle English chivalric romance.

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Social class

A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.

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Social class in ancient Rome

Social class in ancient Rome was hierarchical, but there were multiple and overlapping social hierarchies, and an individual's relative position in one might be higher or lower than in another.

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Sovereign Military Order of Malta

The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (Supremus Ordo Militaris Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani Rhodius et Melitensis), also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) or the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order traditionally of military, chivalrous and noble nature.

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Spanish military orders

The Spanish military orders or Spanish Medieval knights orders are a set of religious-military institutions which arose in the context of the Reconquista, the most important are arising in the 12th century in the Crowns of León and Castile (Order of Santiago, Order of Alcántara and Order of Calatrava) and in 14th century in the Crown of Aragon (Order of Montesa); preceded by many others that have not survived, such as the Aragonese Militia Christi of Alfonso of Aragon and Navarre, the Confraternity of Belchite (founded in 1122) or the Military order of Monreal (created in 1124), which after being refurbished by Alfonso VII of León and Castile took the name of Cesaraugustana and in 1149 with Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona, are integrated into the Knights Templar.

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Starting in the Middle Ages, a squire was the shield- or armour-bearer of a knight.

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St. Martin's Press


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Standing army

A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army.

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State of the Teutonic Order

The State of the Teutonic Order (Staat des Deutschen Ordens; Civitas Ordinis Theutonici), also called Deutschordensstaat or Ordensstaat in German, was a crusader state formed by the Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order during the 13th century Northern Crusades along the Baltic Sea.

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Stibor of Stiboricz

Stibor of Stiboricz of Ostoja (also written in English as Scibor or Czibor; Ścibor ze Ściborzyc, Stiborici Stibor, Știbor de Știborici, Stibor zo Stiboríc; c. 1348 – February 1414) was an aristocrat of Polish origin in the Kingdom of Hungary.

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A stirrup is a light frame or ring that holds the foot of a rider, attached to the saddle by a strap, often called a stirrup leather.

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Suero de Quiñones

Suero de Quiñones (c. 1409 – 11 July 1456), called El del Passo ("he of the pass"), was a Leonese knight and author.

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Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation

The Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation (French: Ordre suprême de la Très Sainte Annonciade, Italian: Ordine Supremo della Santissima Annunziata) is a Roman Catholic order of knighthood, originating in Savoy.

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A surcoat or surcote initially was an outer garment commonly worn in the Middle Ages by both men and women in Western Europe.

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A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).

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Surrender and regrant

During the Tudor conquest of Ireland (c.1540–1603), "surrender and regrant" was the legal mechanism by which Irish clans were to be converted from a power structure rooted in clan and kin loyalties, to a late-feudal system under the English legal system.

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Swimming (sport)

Swimming is an individual or team sport that requires the use of ones arms and legs to move the body through water.

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Swithun (or Swithin, Swīþhūn, Swithunus; died 862 AD) was an Anglo-Saxon bishop of Winchester and subsequently patron saint of Winchester Cathedral.

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Swordsmanship or sword fighting refers to the skills of a swordsman, a person versed in the art of the sword.

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Teutonic Order

The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.

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The Book of the Courtier

The Book of the Courtier (Il Cortegiano) is a courtesy book.

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The Knight's Tale

"The Knight's Tale" (The Knightes Tale) is the first tale from Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales.

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The Song of Roland

The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland) is an epic poem (Chanson de geste) based on the Battle of Roncevaux Pass in 778, during the reign of Charlemagne.

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The Twelve of England

The Twelve of England (in Portuguese: Os Doze de Inglaterra) is a Portuguese chivalric legend of 15th-century origin, famously related by the poet Luís de Camões in his 1572 Os Lusíadas (Canto VI).

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Thomas Malory

Sir Thomas Malory (c. 1415 – 14 March 1471) was an English writer, the author or compiler of Le Morte d'Arthur (originally titled, The Whole Book of King Arthur and His Noble Knights of the Round table).

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The Timawa (Spanish spelling: Timagua) were the feudal warrior class of the ancient Visayan societies of the Philippines.

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A title is a prefix or suffix added to someone's name in certain contexts.

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Tortosa is the capital of the comarca of Baix Ebre, in Catalonia, Spain.

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Tournament (medieval)

A tournament, or tourney (from Old French torneiement, tornei) was a chivalrous competition or mock fight in Europe in the Middle Ages and Renaissance (12th to 16th centuries).

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Trial by combat

Trial by combat (also wager of battle, trial by battle or judicial duel) was a method of Germanic law to settle accusations in the absence of witnesses or a confession in which two parties in dispute fought in single combat; the winner of the fight was proclaimed to be right.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.

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Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.

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Vulgar Latin

Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.

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W. P. Ker

William Paton Ker, FBA (usually referred to as W. P. Ker; 30 August 1855 – 17 July 1923) was a Scottish literary scholar and essayist.

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A warrior is a person specializing in combat or warfare, especially within the context of a tribal or clan-based warrior culture society that recognizes a separate warrior class or caste.

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West Germanic languages

The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).

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White Knight (Fitzgibbon family)

The Pedigree of The White Knight was one of three hereditary knighthoods within Ireland dating from the medieval period.

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William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke

William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1146 or 1147 – 14 May 1219), also called William the Marshal (Norman French: Williame li Mareschal), was an Anglo-Norman soldier and statesman.

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William Wallace

Sir William Wallace (Scottish Gaelic: Uilleam Uallas; Norman French: William le Waleys; died 23 August 1305) was a Scottish knight who became one of the main leaders during the Wars of Scottish Independence.

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Wolfram von Eschenbach

Wolfram von Eschenbach (–) was a German knight and poet, regarded as one of the greatest epic poets of medieval German literature.

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Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.

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Youxia was a type of ancient Chinese warrior folk hero celebrated in classical Chinese poetry and fictional literature.

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Zawisza Czarny

Zawisza Czarny (or Zawisza the Black; 1379 – 12 June 1428), Sulima coat of arms, was a Polish knight and nobleman who served as a commander and diplomat under Polish king Władysław II Jagiełło and Hungarian-Bohemian king Sigismund of Luxembourg.

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Arma dare, Hereditary knight, Hereditary knighthood, Knight at arms, Knight miles, Knight-at-arms, Knighted, Knighthood, Knighthood, Orders of, Knighthoods, Knights, Knights in popular culture, Knightship, Knigthood, Knt, Knyght, Knyghts, Nobilitate.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knight

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