135 relations: Amidah, Analytic–synthetic distinction, Anglicanism, Arturo Escobar (anthropologist), Belief, Bhagavad Gita, Bounded rationality, Catholic Church, Certainty, Chair, Christianity, Cognition, Communication, Contingency (philosophy), Data, Dāna, Debate, Description, Descriptive knowledge, Discovery (observation), Donna Haraway, Education, Epistemic modal logic, Epistemology, Evidence, Experience, Experiment, Fact, Family resemblance, Feminism, Francis Bacon, General Scholium, Genetic epistemology, Geography, Gettier problem, Gnosis, Gnosticism, God in Islam, Hadith, Hard and soft science, Hebrew language, Hindu, History, Hypothesis, Indian religions, Inductive probability, Inductive reasoning, Inference, Infinite regress, Information, ..., Inquiry, Intelligence, Intuition, Islam, Jean Piaget, Jews, Jnana yoga, JSTOR, Karl Popper, Karma yoga, Krishna, Learning, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Measurement, Merriam-Webster, Mervin F. Verbit, Meta-epistemology, Metaknowledge, Mind Association, Moore's paradox, Muhammad, Names of God in Islam, Narrative, Natural philosophy, Neil Postman, Niels Kaj Jerne, Niyama, Objectification, Observable, Observation, Old Testament, On Certainty, Outline of knowledge, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Paroksha, Perception, Phaedrus (dialogue), Philosopher, Philosophical skepticism, Philosophy, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, Philosophy of science, Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Plato, Post-structuralism, Power (social and political), Pragmatism, Procedural knowledge, Quran, Reason, Richard Kirkham, Richard Rorty, Robert Nozick, Sandra Harding, Science, Scientia potentia est, Scientific method, Semiotics, Seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, Sigmund Freud, Simon Blackburn, Skepticism, Skill, Social science, Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Socrates, Space, Statement (logic), Subject (philosophy), Symbolic linguistic representation, Tacit knowledge, Tanakh, Technopoly, Theaetetus (dialogue), Theory, Theory of justification, Three-dimensional space, Tree of the knowledge of good and evil, Tree structure, Trial and error, Truth, Ulama, Visual perception, Wisdom. Expand index (85 more) » « Shrink index
The Amidah (תפילת העמידה, Tefilat HaAmidah, "The Standing Prayer"), also called the Shmoneh Esreh ("The Eighteen", in reference to the original number of constituent blessings: there are now nineteen), is the central prayer of the Jewish liturgy.
The analytic–synthetic distinction (also called the analytic–synthetic dichotomy) is a semantic distinction, used primarily in philosophy to distinguish propositions (in particular, statements that are affirmative subject–predicate judgments) into two types: analytic propositions and synthetic propositions.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Arturo Escobar (born 1952) is a Colombian-American anthropologist and the Kenan Distinguished Professor of Anthropology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.
Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.
The Bhagavad Gita (भगवद्गीता, in IAST,, lit. "The Song of God"), often referred to as the Gita, is a 700 verse Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of the 6th book of Mahabharata).
Bounded rationality is the idea that when individuals make decisions, their rationality is limited by the tractability of the decision problem, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the time available to make the decision.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Certainty is perfect knowledge that has total security from error, or the mental state of being without doubt.
A chair is a piece of furniture with a raised surface supported by legs, commonly used to seat a single person.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
In philosophy and logic, contingency is the status of propositions that are neither true under every possible valuation (i.e. tautologies) nor false under every possible valuation (i.e. contradictions).
Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.
Dāna (Devanagari: दान) is a Sanskrit and Pali word that connotes the virtue of generosity, charity or giving of alms in Indian philosophies.
Debate is a process that involves formal discussion on a particular topic.
Description is the pattern of narrative development that aims to make vivid a place, an object, a character, or a group.
Descriptive knowledge, also declarative knowledge or propositional knowledge, is the type of knowledge that is, by its very nature, expressed in declarative sentences or indicative propositions.
Discovery is the act of detecting something new, or something "old" that had been unrecognized as meaningful.
Donna J. Haraway (born September 6, 1944) is a Distinguished American Professor Emerita in the History of Consciousness Department and Feminist Studies Department at the University of California, Santa Cruz, United States.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Epistemic modal logic is a subfield of modal logic that is concerned with reasoning about knowledge.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion.
Experience is the knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
A fact is a statement that is consistent with reality or can be proven with evidence.
Family resemblance (Familienähnlichkeit) is a philosophical idea made popular by Ludwig Wittgenstein, with the best known exposition given in his posthumously published book Philosophical Investigations (1953).
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
The General Scholium is an essay written by Isaac Newton, appended to his work of Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, known as the Principia.
Genetic epistemology or 'developmental theory of knowledge' is a study of the origins (genesis) of knowledge (epistemology) established by Jean Piaget.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
The Gettier problem, in the field of epistemology, is a landmark philosophical problem concerning our understanding of knowledge.
Gnosis is the common Greek noun for knowledge (γνῶσις, gnôsis, f.). The term is used in various Hellenistic religions and philosophies.
Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Hard science and soft science are colloquial terms used to compare scientific fields on the basis of perceived methodological rigor, exactitude, and objectivity.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
Inductive probability attempts to give the probability of future events based on past events.
Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.
Inferences are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to logical consequences.
An infinite regress in a series of propositions arises if the truth of proposition P1 requires the support of proposition P2, the truth of proposition P2 requires the support of proposition P3,...
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
An inquiry is any process that has the aim of augmenting knowledge, resolving doubt, or solving a problem.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without proof, evidence, or conscious reasoning, or without understanding how the knowledge was acquired.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss psychologist and epistemologist known for his pioneering work in child development.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jñāna yoga, also known as Jnanamarga, is one of the several spiritual paths in Hinduism that emphasizes the "path of knowledge", also known as the "path of self-realization".
JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
Karma yoga, also called Karma marga, is one of the several spiritual paths in Hinduism, one based on the "yoga of action".
Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
Mervin Feldman Verbit (born November 24, 1936) is an American sociologist whose work focuses on sociology of religion, American Jews and the American Jewish Community.
Meta-epistemology is a metaphilosophical study of the subject, matter, methods and aims of epistemology and of approaches to understanding and structuring our knowledge of knowledge itself.
Metaknowledge or meta-knowledge is knowledge about a preselected knowledge.
The Mind Association is a philosophical society whose purpose is to promote the study of philosophy.
Moore's paradox concerns the apparent absurdity involved in asserting a first-person present-tense sentence such as, "It's raining, but I don't believe that it is raining" or "It's raining but I believe that it is not raining." The first author to note this apparent absurdity was G. E. Moore.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
According to a hadith, there are at least 99 names of God in Islam, known as the (Beautiful Names of God).
A narrative or story is a report of connected events, real or imaginary, presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, or still or moving images, or both.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
Neil Postman (March 8, 1931 – October 5, 2003) was an American author, educator, media theorist and cultural critic, who is best known for his seventeen books, including Amusing Ourselves to Death (1985), Conscientious Objections (1988), ''Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology'' (1992), The Disappearance of Childhood (1994) and The End of Education: Redefining the Value of School (1995).
Niels Kaj Jerne, FRS (23 December 1911 – 7 October 1994) was a Danish immunologist.
Niyama (नियम) literally means positive duties or observances.
In social philosophy, objectification is the act of treating a person, or sometimes an animal, as an object or a thing.
In physics, an observable is a dynamic variable that can be measured.
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
On Certainty (Über Gewissheit, original spelling Über Gewißheit) is a philosophical book composed from the notes written by Ludwig Wittgenstein just prior to his death.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to knowledge: Knowledge – familiarity with someone or something, which can include facts, information, descriptions, and/or skills acquired through experience or education.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In Indian philosophy, Paroksha refers to mediate knowledge or indirect cognition, mediated by sensory-intellectual apparatus, in which thought systems psychological insights that have evolved in the context of two levels of realities, empirical and transcendental, are gained through both direct cognition and indirect cognition of things that exist in the universe.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
The Phaedrus (Phaidros), written by Plato, is a dialogue between Plato's protagonist, Socrates, and Phaedrus, an interlocutor in several dialogues.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature is a 1979 book by American philosopher Richard Rorty, in which the author attempts to dissolve modern philosophical problems instead of solving them by presenting them as pseudo-problems that only exist in the language-game of epistemological projects culminating in analytic philosophy.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
Piaget's theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Post-structuralism is associated with the works of a series of mid-20th-century French, continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to be known internationally in the 1960s and 1970s.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
Procedural knowledge, also known as imperative knowledge, is the knowledge exercised in the performance of some task.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Richard Ladd Kirkham (born June 18, 1955) is an American philosopher.
Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 – June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher.
Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher.
Sandra G. Harding (born 1935) is an American philosopher of feminist and postcolonial theory, epistemology, research methodology, and philosophy of science.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
The phrase "scientia potentia est" (or "scientia est potentia" or also "scientia potestas est") is a Latin aphorism meaning "knowledge is power".
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.
The Seven gifts of the Holy Spirit is an enumeration of seven spiritual gifts originating from patristic authors, later elaborated by five intellectual virtues and four other groups of ethical characteristics.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Simon Blackburn (born 12 July 1944) is an English academic philosopher known for his work in metaethics, where he defends quasi-realism, and in the philosophy of language; more recently, he has gained a large general audience from his efforts to popularise philosophy.
Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.
A skill is the ability to carry out a task with determined results often within a given amount of time, energy, or both.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
The Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (SDUK), was founded in 1826, mainly at the instigation of Lord Brougham, with the object of publishing information to people who were unable to obtain formal teaching, or who preferred self-education.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
In logic, the term statement is variously understood to mean either: In the latter case, a statement is distinct from a sentence in that a sentence is only one formulation of a statement, whereas there may be many other formulations expressing the same statement.
A subject is a being who has a unique consciousness and/or unique personal experiences, or an entity that has a relationship with another entity that exists outside itself (called an "object").
A symbolic linguistic representation is a representation of an utterance that uses symbols to represent linguistic information about the utterance, such as information about phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, or semantics.
Tacit knowledge (as opposed to formal, codified or explicit knowledge) is the kind of knowledge that is difficult to transfer to another person by means of writing it down or verbalizing it.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology is a book by Neil Postman published in 1992 that describes the development and characteristics of a "technopoly".
The Theaetetus (Θεαίτητος) is one of Plato's dialogues concerning the nature of knowledge, written circa 369 BC.
A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.
Theory of justification is a part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs.
Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).
The tree of the knowledge of good and evil is one of two specific trees in the story of the Garden of Eden in Genesis 2–3, along with the tree of life.
A tree structure or tree diagram is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form.
Trial and error is a fundamental method of problem solving.
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
Wisdom or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight, especially in a mature or utilitarian manner.
A priori and a posterior knowledge, Human knowledge, Know, KnowLedge, Knowers, Knowladge, Knowledgableness, Knowledge transference, Knowledgeable, Knowledgeableness, Knowledgeably, Knowledges, Knowlege, Known, Knows, Situated knowledge, Situated knowledges.