103 relations: Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Athens, Attic Greek, Australian English, Baghdad, Basra, Bhojpuri language, Bokmål, Classical Arabic, Cockney, Colonialism, Creole language, Daniel Radcliffe, Dano-Norwegian, Dialect, Dialect continuum, Dialect levelling, Eastern Norway, English language, Estuary English, Fiji, Fiji Hindi, Friulian language, Gary Oldman, Gender, Generation, Greek language, Greeks, Guyana, Habbaniyah, Hardangerfjord, Hellenistic period, Hiberno-English, Hindi, Human migration, Human settlement, Indentured servitude, Interlanguage, Iran, Iraq, Iraqi Kurdistan, Jiangnan, Jilu, John C. Wells, Jude Law, Kate Winslet, Keira Knightley, Kentish dialect, ..., Kirkuk, Koine Greek, Korean dialects, Koryo-mar, Language, Language shift, Lingua franca, Linguistics, Maghrebi Arabic, Mandarin Chinese, Manding languages, Mauritius, Mediterranean Sea, Mixed language, Modern Hebrew, Mutual intelligibility, N'Ko alphabet, Ningbo dialect, Nochiya tribe, Norwegian dialects, Odda (town), Old Arabic, Orlando Bloom, Orthography, Peter Trudgill, Pidgin, Piraeus, Political sociology, Post-creole continuum, Quebec French, Received Pronunciation, Romansh language, Sørfjorden (Hardanger), Shanghainese, Social class, Social influence, South Africa, Southern England, Standard language, Suriname, Suzhou dialect, Taihu Wu, Tom Hardy, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Tyari, Tyssedal, Upper class, Urban area, Urmia, Western Norway, Working class, Wu Chinese. Expand index (53 more) » « Shrink index
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (ܣܘܪܝܬ, sūrët), or just simply Assyrian, is a Neo-Aramaic language within the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Attic Greek is the Greek dialect of ancient Attica, including the city of Athens.
Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.
Bhojpuri is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Northern-Eastern part of India and the Terai region of Nepal.
Bokmål (literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language, alongside Nynorsk.
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.
The term cockney has had several distinct geographical, social, and linguistic associations.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
Daniel Jacob Radcliffe (born 23 July 1989) is an English actor and producer best known for his role as Harry Potter in the film series of the same name.
Dano-Norwegian (Danish and Norwegian: dansk-norsk) is a koiné that evolved among the urban elite in Norwegian cities during the later years of the union between the Kingdoms of Denmark and Norway (1536/1537–1814).
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
Dialect levelling or dialect leveling is a process of assimilation, mixture and merging of certain dialects, often by language standardization.
Eastern Norway (Bokmål: Østlandet, Nynorsk: Austlandet) is the geographical region of the south-eastern part of Norway.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Estuary English is an English dialect or accent associated with South East England, especially the area along the River Thames and its estuary, centering around London.
Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.
Fiji Hindi (फ़िजी हिंदी) or Fijian Hindi, known locally as "Hindustani", is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by most Fijian citizens of Indian descent, though a small number speak other languages at home.
Friulian or Friulan (or, affectionately, marilenghe in Friulian, friulano in Italian, Furlanisch in German, furlanščina in Slovene; also Friulian) is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaeto-Romance family, spoken in the Friuli region of northeastern Italy.
Gary Leonard OldmanBirths, Marriages & Deaths Index of England & Wales, 1916–2005. (born 21 March 1958) is an English actor and filmmaker who has performed in theatre, film and television.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
A generation is "all of the people born and living at about the same time, regarded collectively." It can also be described as, "the average period, generally considered to be about thirty years, during which children are born and grow up, become adults, and begin to have children of their own." In kinship terminology, it is a structural term designating the parent-child relationship.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
Al Habbaniyah or Habbaniya (الحبانية) is a city in Al-Anbar Province, in central Iraq.
The Hardangerfjord (Hardanger Fjord) is the fourth longest fjord in the world, and the second longest fjord in Norway.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Hiberno‐English (from Latin Hibernia: "Ireland") or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland (including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.
In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live.
An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time.
An interlanguage is an idiolect that has been developed by a learner of a second language (or L2) which preserves some features of their first language (or L1), and can also overgeneralize some L2 writing and speaking rules.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.
Jiangnan or Jiang Nan (sometimes spelled Kiang-nan, literally "South of the river") is a geographic area in China referring to lands immediately to the south of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, including the southern part of its delta.
Jīlū was a district located in the Hakkari region of upper Mesopotamia in modern-day Turkey.
John Christopher Wells (born 11 March 1939 in Bootle, Lancashire) is a British phonetician and Esperantist.
David Jude Heyworth Law (born 29 December 1972) is an English actor.
Kate Elizabeth Winslet, (born 5 October 1975) is an English actress.
Keira Christina Knightley, OBE (born 26 March 1985) is an English actress.
The Kentish dialect is a dialect of English spoken in and around the county of Kent in southeast England.
Kirkuk (كركوك; کەرکووک; Kerkük) is a city in Iraq, serving as the capital of the Kirkuk Governorate, located north of Baghdad.
A number of Korean dialects are spoken in the Korean Peninsula.
Koryo-mal, Goryeomal, or Koryŏmal (고려말, Корё мар) is the dialect of the Korean language spoken by Koryo-saram, ethnic Koreans in the former Soviet Union.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Maghrebi Arabic (Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern Arabic or Mashriqi Arabic) is an Arabic dialect continuum spoken in the Maghreb region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
The Manding languages (sometimes spelt Manden) are mutually intelligible dialects or languages in West Africa of the Mande family.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Although every language is mixed to some extent, by virtue of containing loanwords, it is a matter of controversy whether a term mixed language can meaningfully distinguish the contact phenomena of certain languages (such as those listed below) from the type of contact and borrowing seen in all languages.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
N'Ko is both a script devised by Solomana Kante in 1949, as a writing system for the Manding languages of West Africa, and the name of the literary language written in that script.
The Ningbo dialect is a dialect of Wu Chinese, one subdivision of Chinese language.
The Nochiya (ܡܠܬ ܕܢܒܼܟ̰ܝܼܐ Millet D'Nochiya) is an Assyrian Christian tribe that was based in and around the district of Şemdinli (Beyyurdu and Öveç), in the province of Hakkari, Turkey.
The Norwegian dialects are commonly divided into 4 main groups, 'Northern Norwegian' (nordnorsk), 'Central Norwegian' (trøndersk), 'Western Norwegian' (vestlandsk), and 'Eastern Norwegian' (østnorsk).
Odda is a town in Odda municipality in Hordaland county, Norway.
Old Arabic is the earliest attested stage of the Arabic language, beginning with the first attestation of personal names in the 9th century BC, and culminating in the codification of Classical Arabic beginning in the 7th century AD.
Orlando Jonathan Blanchard Bloom (born 13 January 1977) is an English actor.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Peter Trudgill, FBA (born 7 November 1943) is a sociolinguist, academic and author.
A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages.
Piraeus (Πειραιάς Pireás, Πειραιεύς, Peiraieús) is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece.
Political sociology is concerned with the sociological analysis of political phenomena ranging from the State, to civil society, to the family, investigating topics such as citizenship, social movements, and the sources of social power.
A post-creole continuum or simply creole continuum is a dialect continuum of varieties of a creole language between those most and least similar to the superstrate language (that is, a closely related language whose speakers assert dominance of some sort).
Québec French (français québécois; also known as Québécois French or simply Québécois) is the predominant variety of the French language in Canada, in its formal and informal registers.
Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.
Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.
Sørfjorden is a long fjord that is one of the innermost branches of the main Hardangerfjorden in Hordaland county, Norway.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
Social influence occurs when a person's emotions, opinions, or behaviors are affected by others.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, refers roughly to the southern counties of England.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
The Suzhou dialect (Suzhounese: Sou-tsøʏ ghé-ghô 蘇州閒話), also known as Suzhounese, is the variety of Chinese traditionally spoken in the city of Suzhou in Jiangsu Province, China.
Taihu Wu (吳語太湖片) or Northern Wu dialects (北部吳語) are a group of Wu dialects spoken over much of southern part of Jiangsu province, including Suzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou, the southern part of Nantong, Jingjiang and Danyang; the municipality of Shanghai; and the northern part of Zhejiang province, including Hangzhou, Shaoxing, Ningbo, Huzhou, and Jiaxing.
Edward Thomas Hardy, CBE (born 15 September 1977) is an English actor and producer.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Ţyāré (ܛܝܪܐ) is an Assyrian tribe of ancient origins, and a historical district within Hakkari, Turkey.
Tyssedal is a village in Odda municipality in Hordaland county, Norway.
The upper class in modern societies is the social class composed of people who hold the highest social status, and usuall are also the wealthiest members of society, and also wield the greatest political power.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Urmia (Urmiya, اورمیه; ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; ارومیه (Variously transliterated as Oroumieh, Oroumiyeh, Orūmīyeh and Urūmiyeh); Ûrmiye, ورمێ) is the largest city in West Azerbaijan Province of Iran and the capital of Urmia County.
Western Norway (Vestlandet, Vest-Norge, Vest-Noreg) is the region along the Atlantic coast of southern Norway.
The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.
Wu (Shanghainese:; Suzhou dialect:; Wuxi dialect) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole Zhejiang province, city of Shanghai, and the southern half of Jiangsu province, as well as bordering areas.