88 relations: Aelius Herodianus, Aeolic Greek, Alexander the Great, Alexandria, Anatolia, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek accent, Ancient Greek dialects, Ancient Greek phonology, Antoine Meillet, Apollonius Dyscolus, Aramaic language, Arcadocypriot Greek, Argos, Aspirated consonant, Assimilation (phonology), Attic Greek, Atticism, Bible translations into Greek, Biblical Hebrew, Boeotia, Byzantine Empire, Cappadocian Greek, Church Fathers, Classical Greece, Constantine the Great, Constantinople, Corinth, Cyprus, Development of the Hebrew Bible canon, Dialect levelling, Dodecanese, Doric Greek, Early Christianity, Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, Galilee, Georgios Hatzidakis, Gospel of John, Grammar, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Greek New Testament, Greek Orthodox Church, Hellenic languages, Hellenistic Judaism, Hellenistic period, International Phonetic Alphabet, Ionia, Ionic Greek, Iotacism, ..., Judea (Roman province), Koiné language, Language of the New Testament, Late antiquity, Lesbos, Lingua franca, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Medieval Greek, Mesopotamia, Modern Greek, Modern Greek phonology, Monophthong, Morphology (linguistics), New Testament, Old Testament, Papyrus, Paul Kretschmer, Phonology, Phrynichus Arabius, Plutarch, Polybius, Pontic Greek, Pontus (region), Proto-Greek language, Psilosis, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Roman Empire, Rough breathing, Seleucid Empire, Semitic languages, Septuagint, State church of the Roman Empire, Stress (linguistics), Tanakh, Tsakonian language, Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Vocabulary, Voicelessness. Expand index (38 more) » « Shrink index
Aelius Herodianus (Αἴλιος Ἡρωδιανός) or Herodian (fl. 2nd century CE) was one of the most celebrated grammarians of Greco-Roman antiquity.
In linguistics, Aeolic Greek (also Aeolian, Lesbian or Lesbic dialect) is the set of dialects of Ancient Greek spoken mainly in Boeotia (a region in Central Greece); Thessaly, in the Aegean island of Lesbos; and the Greek colonies of Aeolis in Anatolia and adjoining islands.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient Greek had a pitch accent.
Ancient Greek in classical antiquity, before the development of the κοινή (koiné) "common" language of Hellenism, was divided into several dialects.
Ancient Greek phonology is the description of the reconstructed phonology or pronunciation of Ancient Greek.
Paul Jules Antoine Meillet (11 November 1866, Moulins, France – 21 September 1936, Châteaumeillant, France) was one of the most important French linguists of the early 20th century.
Apollonius Dyscolus (Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Δύσκολος; fl. 2nd century AD) is considered one of the greatest of the Greek grammarians.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Arcadocypriot, or southern Achaean, was an ancient Greek dialect spoken in Arcadia in the central Peloponnese and in Cyprus.
Argos (Modern Greek: Άργος; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος) is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
Attic Greek is the Greek dialect of ancient Attica, including the city of Athens.
Atticism (meaning "favouring Attica", the region that includes Athens in Greece) was a rhetorical movement that began in the first quarter of the 1st century BC; it may also refer to the wordings and phrasings typical of this movement, in contrast with various contemporary forms of Koine Greek (both literary and vulgar), which continued to evolve in directions guided by the common usages of Hellenistic Greek.
While the Old Testament portion of the Bible was written in Hebrew, the New Testament was originally written in Koine Greek.
Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.
Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (Βοιωτία,,; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cappadocian, also known as Cappadocian Greek or Asia Minor Greek, is a mixed language spoken in Cappadocia (Central Turkey).
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Corinth (Κόρινθος, Kórinthos) is an ancient city and former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese, which is located in south-central Greece.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Rabbinic Judaism recognizes the 24 books of the Masoretic Text, commonly called the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, as authoritative.
Dialect levelling or dialect leveling is a process of assimilation, mixture and merging of certain dialects, often by language standardization.
The Dodecanese (Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa, literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor (Turkey), of which 26 are inhabited.
Doric, or Dorian, was an Ancient Greek dialect.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, FBA (14 September 1856 – 9 January 1924) was a British orientalist, Fellow of University College, Oxford, and Professor of Theology at the University of Oxford.
Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.
Georgios Nicolaou Hatzidakis (Γεώργιος Νικολάου Χατζιδάκις;, in Myrthios, Ottoman Crete – 28 June 1941, in Athens) was a Greek philologist, who is regarded as the father of linguistics in Greece.
The Gospel According to John is the fourth of the canonical gospels.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Greek New Testament is the original form of the books that make up the New Testament as they appeared in Koine Greek, the common dialect from 300 BC to 300 AD.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
Hellenic is the branch of the Indo-European language family whose principal member is Greek.
Hellenistic Judaism was a form of Judaism in the ancient world that combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.
Ionic Greek was a subdialect of the Attic–Ionic or Eastern dialect group of Ancient Greek (see Greek dialects).
Iotacism (ιωτακισμός, iotakismos) is the process by which a number of vowels and diphthongs in Ancient Greek converged in pronunciation so they all now sound like iota in Modern Greek.
The Roman province of Judea (יהודה, Standard Tiberian; يهودا; Ἰουδαία; Iūdaea), sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Iudæa or Iudaea to distinguish it from the geographical region of Judea, incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.
In linguistics, a koiné language, koiné dialect, or simply koiné (Ancient Greek κοινή, "common ") is a standard language or dialect that has arisen as a result of contact between two or more mutually intelligible varieties (dialects) of the same language.
The New Testament was written in a form of Koine Greek, which was the common language of the Eastern Mediterranean from the Conquests of Alexander the Great (335–323 BC) until the evolution of Byzantine Greek (c. 600).
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Lesbos (Λέσβος), or Lezbolar in Turkish sometimes referred to as Mytilene after its capital, is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
This article deals with the phonology and phonetics of Standard Modern Greek.
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
Paul Kretschmer (2 May 1866 – 9 March 1956) was a German linguist who studied the earliest history and interrelations of the Indo-European languages and showed how they were influenced by non-Indo-European languages, such as Etruscan.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Phrynichus Arabius (Φρύνιχος ὁ Ἀράβιος) or Phrynichus of Bithynia (Φρύνιχος ὁ Βιθυνός) was a Greek grammarian who flourished in 2nd century Bithynia, writing works on proper Attic usage.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.
Pontic Greek (ποντιακά, pontiaká) is a Greek language originally spoken in the Pontus area on the southern shores of the Black Sea, northeastern Anatolia, the Eastern Turkish/Caucasus province of Kars, southern Georgia and today mainly in northern Greece.
Pontus (translit, "Sea") is a historical Greek designation for a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.
The Proto-Greek language (also known as Proto-Hellenic) is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean Greek, the subsequent ancient Greek dialects (i.e., Attic, Ionic, Aeolic, Doric, Ancient Macedonian and Arcadocypriot) and, ultimately, Koine, Byzantine and Modern Greek.
Psilosis is the sound change in which Greek lost the consonant sound /h/ during antiquity.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
In the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek, the rough breathing (dasỳ pneûma or δασεῖα daseîa; δασεία dasía; Latin spīritus asper), is a diacritical mark used to indicate the presence of an sound before a vowel, diphthong, or after rho.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
Nicene Christianity became the state church of the Roman Empire with the Edict of Thessalonica in 380 AD, when Emperor Theodosius I made it the Empire's sole authorized religion.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Tsakonian (also Tsaconian, Tzakonian or Tsakonic; Tsakonian: τσακώνικα, α τσακώνικα γρούσσα; Greek: τσακώνικα) is a modern Hellenic language which is both highly divergent from other spoken varieties of Modern Greek and, from a philological standpoint, is also linguistically classified separately from them.
Enno Friedrich Wichard Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (22 December 1848 – 25 September 1931) was a German classical philologist.
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
Alexandrian dialect, Biblical Greek, Biblical Greek language, Common Attic, Common Greek, Common greek, Ecclesiastical Greek, Hellenistic Greek, Hellenistic Greek language, Hellenistic Koine, Koine, Koine Greek dialect, Koine Greek language, Koine greek, Koiné Greek, Koinē Greek, Koinē Greek language, Koinḗ Greek, New Testament Greek, Patristic Greek, Patristic Greek language, Κοινή, Κοινῆς Ελληνικῆς.