129 relations: Abdul Hamid II, Administrative divisions of Greece, Administrative regions of Greece, Adrianople Vilayet, Aigeiros, Alexandroupoli, Anatolia, Andronikos III Palaiologos, Apostolos Grozos, Archaeological Museum of Komotini, Archbishop Chrysanthus of Athens, Armenia, Armenian Genocide, Arriana, Association football, Athens, Boleron, Byzantine civil war of 1321–1328, Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347, Byzantine Empire, Caravanserai, Cavit Çağlar, Communist Party of Greece, Constantinople, Democritus University of Thrace, Durrës, East Thrace, Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, Egnatia Odos (modern road), Environmental studies, Environmentally friendly, Epirus, ERT3, European Regional Development Fund, European route E90, Evliya Çelebi, Evrenos, Evripidis Stylianidis, Filiki Eteria, First Balkan War, Frangoulis Frangos, George Petalotis, Georgia (country), German Archaeological Institute, Gortynia, Gratini, Greece, Greece in the Roman era, Greek refugees, Greek War of Independence, ..., Greeks, Hamza Hamzaoğlu, Hellenic Army, Hellenic Army General Staff, Hellenic Railways Organisation, Iasmos, Imaret, Istanbul, Iznik pottery, Jama Masjid, John V Palaiologos, John VI Kantakouzenos, Kaloyan of Bulgaria, Karabiga, Kavala, Kazakhstan, Komotini Municipal Stadium, List of Ottoman Ministers of Finance, Macedonia (region), Macedonia (theme), Madrasa, Mahalle, Maktab, Maroneia, Mehmet Müezzinoğlu, Minister for National Defence (Greece), Ministry of the Interior and Administrative Reconstruction, Momchil, Mosynopolis, Muslim, Muslim minority of Greece, Nasuh Pasha, National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Neo Sidirochori, Nikolaos Kaltsas (archaeologist), Organi, Ottoman Empire, Panthrakikos F.C., Paul Soulikias, Plovdiv, Pomaks, Pontic Greeks, Population exchange between Greece and Turkey, Provinces of Greece, Provisional Government of Western Thrace, Residential area, Rhodope (regional unit), Rhodope Mountains, Rhodope-Evros Super-prefecture, Romani people, Russia, Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), Sadik Achmet, Sanjak, Second Balkan War, Second Bulgarian Empire, Sephardi Jews, Serbian Empire, Smyrna, Soviet Union, Stara Zagora, Super-prefectures of Greece, Theodosius I, Thessaloniki, Thrace, Thracians, Toponymy, Treaty of Bucharest (1913), Treaty of Lausanne, Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine, Tsardom of Bulgaria, Turkish bath, Turkish people, Turks of Western Thrace, Umur of Aydın, Via Egnatia, Waqf, World War I, Zawiya (institution). Expand index (79 more) » « Shrink index
Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; İkinci Abdülhamit; 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.
Following the implementation on 1 January 2011 of the Kallikratis Plan, the administrative divisions of Greece consist of two main levels: the regions and the municipalities.
The administrative regions of Greece (περιφέρειες, peripheries) are the country's thirteen first-level administrative entities, each comprising several second-level units, originally prefectures and, since 2011, regional units.
The Vilayet of Adrianople or Vilayet of Edirne (Ottoman Turkish:, Vilâyet-i Edirne) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire.
Aigeiros (Αίγειρος; Kavaklı) is a village and a former municipality in the Rhodope regional unit, East Macedonia and Thrace, Greece.
Alexandroupoli (Αλεξανδρούπολη) or Alexandroupolis is a city in Greece and the capital of the Evros regional unit in East Macedonia and Thrace.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Andronikos III Palaiologos (Ανδρόνικος Γʹ Παλαιολόγος; 25 March 1297 – 15 June 1341), commonly Latinized as Andronicus III Palaeologus, was Byzantine emperor from 1328 to 1341.
Apostolos Grozos (Απόστολος Γκρόζος; 12 June 1892 – 22 June 1981) was a leader of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE).
The Archaeological Museum of Komotini is a museum on Symenonidi Street in Komotini in Greece.
Archbishop Chrysanthus of Athens (Αρχιεπίσκοπος Χρύσανθος; 1881 – 28 September 1949), born Charilaos Filippidis (Χαρίλαος Φιλιππίδης), was the Archbishop of Athens and all Greece between 1938 and 1941.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
Arriana (Αρριανά, Kozlubekir) is a municipality in the Rhodope regional unit, Greece.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Boleron (Βολερόν) was the name of a region and a Byzantine province in southwestern Thrace during the Middle Ages.
The Byzantine civil war of 1321–1328 was a series of conflicts fought in the 1320s between the Byzantine emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos and his grandson Andronikos III Palaiologos over control of the Byzantine Empire.
The Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347, sometimes referred to as the Second Palaiologan Civil War, was a conflict that broke out in the Byzantine Empire after the death of Andronikos III Palaiologos over the guardianship of his nine-year-old son and heir, John V Palaiologos.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
A caravanserai was a roadside inn where travelers (caravaners) could rest and recover from the day's journey.
Cavit Çağlar (born on 1944, Komotini, Greece) is a Turkish businessman and politician.
The Communist Party of Greece (Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας; Kommounistikó Kómma Elládas, KKE) is a Marxist–Leninist political party in Greece.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Democritus University of Thrace (DUTH; Δημοκρίτειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θράκης), established in July 1973, is based in Komotini, Greece and has campuses in the Thracian cities of Xanthi, Komotini, Alexandroupoli and Orestiada.
Durrës (Durazzo,, historically known as Epidamnos and Dyrrachium, is the second most populous city of the Republic of Albania. The city is the capital of the surrounding Durrës County, one of 12 constituent counties of the country. By air, it is northwest of Sarandë, west of Tirana, south of Shkodër and east of Rome. Located on the Adriatic Sea, it is the country's most ancient and economic and historic center. Founded by Greek colonists from Corinth and Corfu under the name of Epidamnos (Επίδαμνος) around the 7th century BC, the city essentially developed to become significant as it became an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. The Via Egnatia, the continuation of the Via Appia, started in the city and led across the interior of the Balkan Peninsula to Constantinople in the east. In the Middle Ages, it was contested between Bulgarian, Venetian and Ottoman dominions. Following the declaration of independence of Albania, the city served as the capital of the Principality of Albania for a short period of time. Subsequently, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany in the interwar period. Moreover, the city experienced a strong expansion in its demography and economic activity during the Communism in Albania. Durrës is served by the Port of Durrës, one of the largest on the Adriatic Sea, which connects the city to Italy and other neighbouring countries. Its most considerable attraction is the Amphitheatre of Durrës that is included on the tentative list of Albania for designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once having a capacity for 20,000 people, it is the largest amphitheatre in the Balkan Peninsula.
East Thrace, or Eastern Thrace (Doğu Trakya or simply Trakya; Ανατολική Θράκη, Anatoliki Thraki; Източна Тракия, Iztochna Trakiya), also known as Turkish Thrace or European Turkey, is the part of the modern Republic of Turkey that is geographically part of Southeast Europe.
Eastern Macedonia and Thrace (Ανατολική Μακεδονία και Θράκη) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece.
Egnatia Odos or Egnatia Motorway (Εγνατία Οδός, often translated as Via Egnatia, code: A2) is the Greek part of European route.
Environmental studies is a multidisciplinary academic field which systematically studies human interaction with the environment in the interests of solving complex problems.
Environmentally friendly or environment-friendly, (also referred to as eco-friendly, nature-friendly, and green) are sustainability and marketing terms referring to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies that claim reduced, minimal, or no harm upon ecosystems or the environment.
Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania.
ERT3 (ΕΡΤ3), formerly ET3 (short for Ellinikí Tileórasi 3; Ελληνική Τηλεόραση 3), is the third television channel of the Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation (ERT), the public broadcaster of Greece.
The European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) is a fund allocated by the European Union.
European route E 90 is an A-Class West–East European route, extending from Lisbon in Portugal in the west to the Turkish–Iraqi border in the east.
Mehmed Zilli (25 March 1611 – 1682), known as Evliya Çelebi (اوليا چلبى), was an Ottoman explorer who travelled through the territory of the Ottoman Empire and neighboring lands over a period of forty years, recording his commentary in a travelogue called the Seyahatname ("Book of Travel").
Evrenos or Evrenuz (Gazi Hadji Evrenos Bey; died 17 November 1417 in Yenice-i Vardar) was an Ottoman military commander, with an unlikely long-lived career and lifetime.
Evripidis Stylianidis (Ευριπίδης Στυλιανίδης, also transliterated Evripidis Stilianides) is a Greek politician who has served as Minister for the Interior, Minister for Education and Minister for Transport and Communications.
Filiki Eteria or Society of Friends (Φιλική Εταιρεία or Εταιρεία των Φιλικών) was a secret 19th-century organization whose purpose was to overthrow the Ottoman rule of Greece and establish an independent Greek state.
The First Balkan War (Балканска война; Αʹ Βαλκανικός πόλεμος; Први балкански рат, Prvi Balkanski rat; Birinci Balkan Savaşı), lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and comprised actions of the Balkan League (the kingdoms of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro) against the Ottoman Empire.
General Frangoulis Frangos (Φραγκούλης Φράγκος, born Komotini 1951) is a retired Greek Army officer, former chief of the Hellenic Army General Staff and former Minister for National Defence.
George S. Petalotis (Γεώργιος Σ. Πεταλωτής, born 11 March 1964 in Komotini, Greece) is a Greek politician of the Movement of Democratic Socialists.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The German Archaeological Institute (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, DAI) is an institution of research within the field of archaeology (and related fields), and a "scientific corporation", under the auspices of the federal Foreign Office of Germany.
Gortynia (Γορτυνία) is a municipality in the Arcadia regional unit, Peloponnese, Greece.
Gratini (Γρατινή) is a village of Rhodope regional unit in northern Greece, some 13 km north of Komotini.
Greece in the Roman era describes the period of Greek history when it was dominated by the Roman republic, the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire (collectively, the Roman era).
Greek refugees is a collective term used to refer to the nearly one million Greek Orthodox natives of Asia Minor, Thrace and the Black Sea areas who fled during the Greek genocide (1914-1922) and Greece's later defeat in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922), as well as remaining Greek Orthodox inhabitants of Turkey who were required to leave their homes for Greece shortly thereafter as part of the population exchange between Greece and Turkey, which formalized the population transfer and barred the return of the refugees.
The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution (Ελληνική Επανάσταση, Elliniki Epanastasi, or also referred to by Greeks in the 19th century as the Αγώνας, Agonas, "Struggle"; Ottoman: يونان عصياني Yunan İsyanı, "Greek Uprising"), was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1830.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Hamza Hamzaoğlu (born 1 July 1970) is a Turkish football manager and former player.
The Hellenic Army (Ελληνικός Στρατός, Ellinikós Stratós, sometimes abbreviated as ΕΣ), formed in 1828, is the land force of Greece (with Hellenic being a synonym for Greek).
The Hellenic Army General Staff (Γενικό Επιτελείο Στρατού, abbrev.) is the general staff of the Hellenic Army, the terrestrial component of the Greek Armed Forces.
The Hellenic Railways Organisation or OSE (italic or Ο.Σ.Ε.) is the Greek national railway company which owns, maintains and operates all railway infrastructure in Greece with the exception of Athens' rapid transit lines.
Iasmos (Ίασμος, Yassıköy) is a town and a municipality in the Rhodope regional unit of Thrace, Greece.
Imaret is one of a few names used to identify the public soup kitchens built throughout the Ottoman Empire from the 14th to the 19th centuries.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Iznik pottery, or Iznik ware, named after the town of İznik in western Anatolia where it was made, is a decorated ceramic that was produced from the last quarter of the 15th century until the end of the 17th century.
Jama Masjid (جَامع مَسجد|Jāma‘ Masjid, also spelt Jame Mosque, Jami Masjid, Jameh Mosque, Jamia Masjid, or Jomeh Mosque) refers to the main mosque of a town, city or village, and is usually the place of gathering for Eid prayers and Friday prayers.
John V Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Ίωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs V Palaiologos; 18 June 1332 – 16 February 1391) was a Byzantine emperor, who succeeded his father in 1341 at age of eight.
John VI Kantakouzenos, Cantacuzenus, or Cantacuzene (Ἰωάννης ΣΤʹ Καντακουζηνός, Iōannēs ST′ Kantakouzēnos; Johannes Cantacuzenus; – 15 June 1383) was a Greek nobleman, statesman, and general.
Kaloyan, also known as Kalojan, Johannitsa or Ioannitsa (Калоян; 1170 – October 1207) was emperor (or tsar) of Bulgaria from 1196 to 1207.
Karabiga (Karabuga) is a town in Biga District, Çanakkale Province, in the Marmara region of Turkey.
Kavala (Καβάλα) is a city in northern Greece, the principal seaport of eastern Macedonia and the capital of Kavala regional unit.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The Municipal Athletic Centre of Komotini is a multi-purpose stadium in the administrative capital of North-eastern Greece, the city of Komotini.
This is a list of the top officials in charge of the finances of the Ottoman Empire, called Defterdar (Turkish for bookkeepers; from the Persian دفتردار daftardâr, دفتر daftar + دار dâr) between the 14th and 19th centuries and Maliye Naziri (Minister of Finance) between 19th and 20th centuries.
Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe.
The Theme of Macedonia (θέμα Μακεδονίας) was a military-civilian province (theme) of the Byzantine Empire established between the late 8th century and the early 9th century.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
Mahalle (محلة maḥallä, محله maḥallä) (abbreviated mh. or mah.) is an Arabic word, adopted into Turkish (mahalle), Albanian (mahallë, or mëhallë or mëhalla) and Romanian (mahala), which is variously translated as district, quarter, ward, or "neighborhood." It is an official administrative unit in many Middle Eastern countries.
Maktab (مكتب) or Maktabeh (مكتبة) or Maktabkhaneh (مکتبخانه) (other transliterations include makteb, mekteb, mektep, meqteb, maqtab), also called a Kuttab (الكتَّاب) “school” is an Arabic word meaning elementary schools.
Maroneia (Μαρώνεια, Марония, Maronya) is a village and a former municipality in the Rhodope regional unit, East Macedonia and Thrace, Greece.
Mehmet Müezzinoğlu (born January 9, 1955) is a Turkish physician and politician, who served as the Minister of Labour and Social Security between 2016 and 2017, and the Minister of Health from 2013 to 2016.
The Minister for National Defence of Greece (Υπουργός Εθνικής Άμυνας) is a government minister responsible for the running of the Ministry of National Defence.
The Ministry of the Interior and Administrative Reconstruction (Υπουργείο Εσωτερικών και Διοικητικής Ανασυγκρότησης) is a government department of Greece.
Momchil (Момчил, Μομτζίλος or Μομιτζίλας, Момчило / Momčilo; c. 1305 – 7 July 1345) was a 14th-century Bulgarian brigand and local ruler.
Mosynopolis (Μοσυνόπολις), of which only ruins now remain in Greek Thrace, was a city in the Roman province of Rhodope, which was known until the 9th century as Maximianopolis (Μαξιμιανούπολις) or, to distinguish it from other cities of the same name, as Maximianopolis in Rhodope.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Muslim minority of Greece is the only explicitly recognized minority in Greece.
Nasuh Pasha was an Ottoman statesman of Albanian origin.
The National Archaeological Museum (Εθνικό Αρχαιολογικό Μουσείο) in Athens houses some of the most important artifacts from a variety of archaeological locations around Greece from prehistory to late antiquity.
Neo Sidirochori (Νέο Σιδηροχώρι) is a village and a former municipality in the Rhodope regional unit, East Macedonia and Thrace, Greece.
Nikolaos Kaltsas (Νικόλαος Καλτσάς; born in Dialambi, Rhodope) is a Greek classical archaeologist.
Organi (Οργάνη, Hemetli) is a village and a former community in the Rhodope regional unit, East Macedonia and Thrace, Greece.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Panthrakikos Football Club is a football club based in Komotini, Thrace in North Eastern Greece founded in 1963.
Paul Soulikias, Institut des artists figuratifs (I.A.F.) (born October 13, 1926) is a Greek-Canadian artist painter, known primarily for his Canadian landscape scenes.
Plovdiv (Пловдив) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria, with a city population of 341,000 and 675,000 in the greater metropolitan area.
Pomaks (Помаци/Pomatsi, Πομάκοι/Pomákoi, Pomaklar) is a term used for Slavic Muslims inhabiting Bulgaria, northeastern Greece and northwestern Turkey, mainly referring to the ca.
The Pontic Greeks, also known as Pontian Greeks (Πόντιοι, Ελληνοπόντιοι, Póntioi, Ellinopóntioi; Pontus Rumları, Karadeniz Rumları, პონტოელი ბერძნები, P’ont’oeli Berdznebi), are an ethnically Greek group who traditionally lived in the region of Pontus, on the shores of the Black Sea and in the Pontic Mountains of northeastern Anatolia.
The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey (Ἡ Ἀνταλλαγή, Mübâdele) stemmed from the "Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations" signed at Lausanne, Switzerland, on 30 January 1923, by the governments of Greece and Turkey.
The provinces of Greece (επαρχία, "eparchy") were sub-divisions of some the country's prefectures.
The Provisional Government of Western ThraceInternational Affairs Agency Turkish Dossier Program, The Western Thrace Turks issue in Turkish-Greek relations, International Affairs Agency, 1992, p. 105.
A residential area is a land used in which housing predominates, as opposed to industrial and commercial areas.
Rhodope (Ροδόπη, Rodópi) is one of the regional units of Greece.
The Rhodopes (Родопи, Rodopi; Ροδόπη, Rodopi; Rodoplar) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece.
Rhodope-Evros Super-prefecture was one of three super-prefectures of Greece.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
Sadik Achmet (Σαδίκ Αχμέτ, Sâdık Ahmet) (born on 1 January 1947 in Komotini, Greece; died 25 July 1995 in Komotini, Greece) was a Greek professor of Turkish descent.
Sanjaks (سنجاق, modern: Sancak) were administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire.
The Second Balkan War was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on 16 (O.S.) / 29 (N.S.) June 1913.
The Second Bulgarian Empire (Второ българско царство, Vtorо Bălgarskо Tsarstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed between 1185 and 1396.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
The Serbian Empire (Српско царство/Srpsko carstvo) is a historiographical term for the empire in the Balkan peninsula that emerged from the medieval Serbian Kingdom.
Smyrna (Ancient Greek: Σμύρνη, Smýrni or Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Stara Zagora (Стара Загора) is the fifth-largest city in Bulgaria, and the administrative capital of the homonymous Stara Zagora Province.
The super-prefectures of Greece (υπερνομαρχίες, sing. υπερνομαρχία) were a second-degree organization of local self-government and an administrative division between the regions and the prefectures.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
The Treaty of Bucharest (Tratatul de la Bucureşti; Bukureštanski mir/ Букурештански мир; Договорът от Букурещ; Συνθήκη του Βουκουρεστίου) was concluded on 10 August 1913, by the delegates of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece.
The Treaty of Lausanne (Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in the Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.
The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine required Bulgaria to cede various territories, after Bulgaria had been one of the Central Powers defeated in World War I. The treaty was signed on 27 November 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France.
The Tsardom of Bulgaria, was the name of the Bulgarian state from Simeon's assumption of the title of Tsar in 913 until the Fatherland Front's foundation of the People's Republic of Bulgaria in 1946.
A Turkish bath (hamam, translit) is a type of public bathing associated with the culture of the Ottoman Empire and more widely the Islamic world.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
Turks of Western Thrace (Batı Trakya Türkleri, Τούρκοι της Δυτικής Θράκης) are ethnic Turks who live in Western Thrace, in the province of East Macedonia and Thrace in Northern Greece.
Umur Ghazi, Ghazi Umur, or Umur The LionDonald MacGillivray Nicol, The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261-1453, Cambridge University Press, 1993,, (Modern Turkish: Aydınoğlu Umur Bey, c. 1309 - 1348), also known as Umur Pasha was the second Emir of Aydin, on the Aegean cost of Anatolia, from 1334 to 1348.
The Via Egnatia (Greek: Ἐγνατία Ὁδός) was a road constructed by the Romans in the 2nd century BC.
A waqf (وقف), also known as habous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
A zaouia or zawiya (زاوية zāwiyah; "assembly" "group" or "circle", also spelled zawiyah, zawiyya, zaouiya, zaouïa and zwaya) is an Islamic religious school or monastery.
Byzantine Museum of Komotini, Goumoutzina, Guemuelcine, Gumulcine, Gyumyurdzhina, Gümülcine, History of Komotini, Komotini Byzantine Museum, Komotini Province, Komotini, Greece, Komotiní, Komotíni, Komotíni, Greece.