37 relations: Arabic, Arabs, Baggara, Cairo, Comprehensive Peace Agreement, Cotton, Darfur, Dinka people, Egypt, El-Obeid, Funj Sultanate, Gum arabic, Ignaz Pallme, Kababish tribe, Kadu languages, Kordofanian languages, Millet, Mudiriyah, Muhammad Ahmad, Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Nilotic peoples, North Kordofan, Nuba Mountains, Nuba peoples, Old Dongola, Peanut, Shilluk people, South Kordofan, South Sudan, States of Sudan, Sudan, Sudan People's Liberation Movement, Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile, United Kingdom, West Kordofan, Wilayah, William Hicks (British soldier).
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Baggāra are a grouping of Arab ethnic groups inhabiting the portion of Africa's Sahel mainly between Lake Chad and southern Kordofan, numbering over one million.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA, اتفاقية السلام الشامل, Ittifāqiyyah al-salām al-šāmil), also known as the Naivasha Agreement, was an accord signed on January 9, 2005, by the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the Government of Sudan.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Darfur (دار فور, Fur) is a region in western Sudan.
The Dinka people (Jiɛ̈ɛ̈ŋ) are a community, composed of many ethnic groups, inhabiting the East and West Banks of River Nile, from Mangalla to Renk, regions of Bahr el Ghazal, Upper Nile (former two of three Southern Provinces in Sudan) and Abyei Area of the Angok Dinka in South Khordofan of Sudan.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
El-Obeid (الأبيض), is the capital of the state of North Kurdufan, in Sudan.
The Funj Sultanate of Sennar (sometimes spelled Sinnar; also known as the Funj Monarchy, Funj Caliphate or Funj Kingdom; traditionally known in Sudan as the Blue Sultanate due to the Sudanese convention of referring to African peoples as blue) was a sultanate in what is now Sudan, northwestern Eritrea and western Ethiopia, named after the Funj ethnic group of its dynasty, or Sinnar (or Sennar) after its capital, which ruled a substantial area of northeast Africa between 1504 and 1821.
Gum arabic, also known as acacia gum, arabic gum, gum acacia, acacia, Senegal gum and Indian gum, and by other names, is a natural gum consisting of the hardened sap of various species of the acacia tree.
Ignaz Samuel Pallme (Steinschönau 1 February 1806 - Hainburg near Vienna 11 June 1877), a Bohemian by birth, undertook a journey to Kordofan in 1837, on commission, for a mercantile establishment at Cairo, in the hope of discovering new channels of traffic with central Africa.
The Kababish are a nomadic tribe of the northern Kordofan region of Sudan.
The Kadu languages, also known as Kadugli–Krongo or Tumtum, are a small language family of the Kordofanian geographic grouping, once included in Niger–Congo but since Thilo Schadeberg (1981) widely seen as Nilo-Saharan.
The Kordofanian languages are a geographic grouping of five language groups spoken in the Nuba Mountains of the Kurdufan, Sudan: Talodi–Heiban languages, Lafofa languages, Rashad languages, Katla languages and Kadu languages.
Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.
Mudiriyah (plural Mudiriyat), meaning "directorate" (from مدير mudir, meaning "director"), is an administrative subdivision also known in English as mudirate,Nachtigal, Gustav (1971) Sahara and Sudan: Wadai and Darfur (Volume 4 of Sahara and Sudan) Hurst, London,, and often translated as "province".
Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah (محمد أحمد ابن عبد الله; 12 August 1844 – 22 June 1885) was a religious leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, on 29 June 1881, proclaimed himself the Mahdi, the messianic redeemer of the Islamic faith.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.
The Nilotic peoples are peoples indigenous to the Nile Valley who speak Nilotic languages, which constitute a large sub-group of the Nilo-Saharan languages spoken in South Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, and northern Tanzania.
North Kordofan (شمال كردفان) is one of the 18 wilayat or states of Sudan.
The Nuba Mountains, also referred to as the Nuba Hills (جبال النوبة), is an area located in South Kordofan, Sudan.
Nuba is a collective term used for the various indigenous peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains of South Kordofan state in Sudan.
Old Dongola (Old Nubian: Tungul; دنقلا العجوز, Dunqulā al-ʿAjūz) is a deserted town in Sudan located on the east bank of the Nile opposite the Wadi Howar.
The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.
The Shilluk (Shilluk: Chollo) are a major Luo Nilotic ethnic group of Southern Sudan, living on both banks of the river Nile, in the vicinity of the city of Malakal.
South Kordofan (جنوب كردفان) is one of the 18 wilayat or provinces of Sudan.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
Below is a list of the 18 states of Sudan, organized by their original provinces during the period of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Logo of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement The Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) (الحركة الشعبية لتحرير السودان, Al-Ḥarakat ash-Shaʿbiyyat liTaḥrīr as-Sūdān) is a political party in South Sudan.
The Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile, also referred to by some media as the Third Sudanese Civil War, is an ongoing armed conflict in the Sudanese southern states of South Kordofan and Blue Nile between the Army of Sudan (SAF) and Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N), a northern affiliate of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) in South Sudan.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
West Kordofan (غرب كردفان) is one of the 18 wilayat or provinces of Sudan.
A wilayah (ولاية; Urdu and ولایت; vilayet) is an administrative division, usually translated as "state", "province", or occasionally as "governorate".
Colonel William Hicks (also known as Hicks Pasha, 1830–1883), British soldier, entered the Bombay Army in 1849, and served through the Indian mutiny, being mentioned in despatches for good conduct at the action of Sitka Ghaut in 1859.