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ABB (ASEA Brown Boveri) is a Swedish-Swiss multinational corporation headquartered in Zurich, Switzerland, operating mainly in robotics, power, heavy electrical equipments, and automation technology areas.
The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
Academy of Learning (Akademia Umiejętności; AU) was a primary Polish scientific institution during the annexation of Poland established in 1871.
The Academy of Music in Kraków (Akademia Muzyczna w Krakowie) is a conservatory located in central Kraków, Poland.
Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (24 December 179826 November 1855) was a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist.
AGH University of Science and Technology (Polish Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im. Stanisława Staszica) is a technical university in Poland, located in Kraków.
Agnieszka Roma Radwańska (nicknamed Aga, born 6 March 1989) is a Polish professional tennis player.
The Agricultural University of Kraków (Polish: Uniwersytet Rolniczy w Krakowie), located in Kraków, Poland, became an independent university by decree of the Council of Ministers as of 28 September 1972.
Akamai Technologies, Inc. is an American content delivery network (CDN) and cloud service provider headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the United States.
Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528)Müller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers, Walter de Gruyter.
Aliyah (עֲלִיָּה aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel in Hebrew).
Almanach cracoviense ad annum 1474 (Cracovian Almanac for the Year 1474) is a broadside astronomical wall calendar for the year 1474, and Poland's oldest known print.
An altarpiece is an artwork such as a painting, sculpture or relief representing a religious subject made for placing behind the altar of a Christian church.
Altria Group, Inc. (renamed from Philip Morris Companies Inc. on January 27, 2003) is an American corporation and one of the world's largest producers and marketers of tobacco, cigarettes and related products.
In real estate and lodging, an amenity is something considered to benefit a property and thereby increase its value.
The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, also known as the Joint or the JDC, is a Jewish relief organization based in New York City.
An amphitheatre or amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports.
Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski (Andreas Fricius Modrevius) (ca. September 20, 1503 – autumn, 1572) was a Polish Renaissance scholar, humanist and theologian, called "the father of Polish democracy".
Andrzej Witold Wajda (6 March 1926 – 9 October 2016) was a Polish film and theatre director.
Aon plc is a global professional services firm headquartered in London that provides risk, retirement and health consulting.
Aptiv PLC (stylised as •APTIV•, formerly known as Delphi Automotive PLC) is a global technology company headquartered in Dublin, Ireland.
The Archbishop of Kraków is the head of the archdiocese of Kraków.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Association of Law Students’ Library of the Jagiellonian University (pol. Towarzystwo Biblioteki Słuchaczów Prawa Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego – TBSP UJ) is the oldest and one of the biggest student scientific associations in Poland.
AST National Academy of Theatre Arts in Kraków (Polish: Akademia Sztuk Teatralnych im. Stanisława Wyspiańskiego w Krakowie, often shortened to AST, formerly: Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Teatralna im. Ludwika Solskiego, shortened to PWST), located in Kraków, Poland, was founded in 1946 by a well-known Polish actor, Juliusz Osterwa, who took the initial steps leading to the establishment of the Academy through the amalgamation of three local studios, the Theatre Actors' Studio at Stary Teatr, the Słowacki Theatre Actors' Studio, and Iwo Gall's Dramatic Studio connected with Juliusz Osterwa's Reduta Theatre.
The term Augustinians, named after Augustine of Hippo (354–430), applies to two distinct types of Catholic religious orders, dating back to the first millennium but formally created in the 13th century, and some Anglican religious orders, created in the 19th century, though technically there is no "Order of St.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
The Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum (Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau w Oświęcimiu (Teren Niemiecki zabrany Polsce) is a memorial and museum in Oświęcim (German: Auschwitz), Poland, which includes the Nazi concentration camps Auschwitz I and Auschwitz II-Birkenau. It is devoted to the memory of the victims who died at both camps during World War II. The museum performs several tasks, including Holocaust research.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, or the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.
Łagiewniki-Borek Fałęcki is one of 18 districts of Kraków, located in the southern part of the city.
The Balthasar Behem Codex, also known as Codex Picturatus, is a collection of the charters, privileges and statutes of the burghers of the city of Kraków.
Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church.
The Polish Baroque lasted from the early 17th to the mid-18th century.
The Battle of Racławice was one of the first battles of the Polish Kościuszko Uprising against Russia.
Błonia Park is a vast meadow with an area of 48 hectares directly adjacent to the historic centre of the city of Kraków, Poland.
Bełżec (in Belzec) was a Nazi German extermination camp built by the SS for the purpose of implementing the secretive Operation Reinhard, the plan to eradicate Polish Jewry, a key part of the "Final Solution" which entailed the murder of some 6 million Jews in the Holocaust.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
A bicycle-sharing system, public bicycle system, or bike-share scheme, is a service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a short term basis for a price or free.
Bieńczyce is one of 18 districts of Kraków, located in the northern part of the city.
Bieżanów-Prokocim is one of 18 districts of Kraków, located in the southeast part of the city.
Bielany, originally a village near Kraków (Poland), since 1941 one of its neighbourhoods, located some west of the city centre.
Bielany-Tyniec Landscape Park (Bielańsko-Tyniecki Park Krajobrazowy) is a protected area (Landscape Park) in southern Poland, established in 1981, covering an area of.
The Biuletyn Informacji Publicznej BIP (or, the Bulletin of Public Information), is a Polish system of unified public records online, consisting of an array of standardized pages created with the general public in mind.
Bohdan Urbankowski (born 19 May 1943 in Warsaw) is a Polish writer, poet and philosopher.
Bolesław V the Chaste (Bolesław Wstydliwy; 21 June 1226 – 7 December 1279) was a Duke of Sandomierz in Lesser Poland from 1232 and High Duke of Poland from 1243 until his death, as the last male representant of the Piast Lesser Poland branch.
Boleslaus I the Cruel, also called Boleslav I (Boleslav I. Ukrutný) (– 15 July, 967 or 972), a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was ruler (kníže, "duke" or "prince") of the Duchy of Bohemia from 935 to his death.
Bombardier Transportation is the rail equipment division of the Canadian firm Bombardier Inc. Bombardier Transportation is one of the world's largest companies in the rail vehicle and equipment manufacturing and servicing industry.
In investment, the bond credit rating represents the credit worthiness of corporate or government bonds.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
The Botanic Garden of the Jagiellonian University is a botanical garden, founded in 1783 in Kraków.
Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.
Bronowice is one of 18 districts of Kraków, located in the western part of the city.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
A budget is a financial plan for a defined period of time, usually a year.It may also include planned sales volumes and revenues, resource quantities, costs and expenses, assets, liabilities and cash flows.
A bugle call is a short tune, originating as a military signal announcing scheduled and certain non-scheduled events on a military installation, battlefield, or ship.
A cadre is the complement of commissioned officers and non-commissioned officers of a military unit responsible for training the rest of the unit.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
Capella Cracoviensis is a professional music ensemble and mixed symphonic choir based in Kraków, Poland.
Capgemini SE is a French multinational professional services and business consulting corporation headquartered in Paris, France.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Casimir III the Great (Kazimierz III Wielki; 30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370) reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370.
Casimir IV KG (Kazimierz IV Andrzej Jagiellończyk; Kazimieras Jogailaitis; 30 November 1427 – 7 June 1492) of the Jagiellonian dynasty was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440 and King of Poland from 1447, until his death.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
Chris Hann (born 4 August 1953) is a British social anthropologist who has done field research in socialist and post-socialist Eastern Europe (especially in Hungary and Poland) and the Turkic-speaking world (Black Sea coast and Xinjiang, N-W China).
A church bell in the Christian tradition is a bell which is rung in a church for a variety of church purposes, and can be heard outside the building.
The Church of St.
The history of cinema in Poland is almost as long as history of cinematography, and it has universal achievements, even though Polish movies tend to be less commercially available than movies from several other European nations.
Cisco Systems, Inc. is an American multinational technology conglomerate headquartered in San Jose, California, in the center of Silicon Valley, that develops, manufactures and sells networking hardware, telecommunications equipment and other high-technology services and products.
UNESCO's City of Literature programme is part of a wider Creative Cities Network which was launched in 2004 and is currently made up of 180 UNESCO Creative Cities globally.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
College and university rankings are rankings of institutions in higher education which have been ranked on the basis of various combinations of various factors.
The Collegium Novum (Latin: "New College") is the Neo-Gothic main building of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland, built in 1873-1887.
Comarch is a Polish multinational software house and systems integrator based in Kraków, Poland.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
Coordination of Information on the Environment (CORINE) is a European programme initiated in 1985 by the European Commission, aimed at gathering information relating to the environment on certain priority topics for the European Union (air, water, soil, land cover, coastal erosion, biotopes, etc.). Since 1994, the European Environment Agency (EEA) integrated CORINE in its work programme.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
A court painter was an artist who painted for the members of a royal or noble family, sometimes on a fixed salary and on an exclusive basis where the artist was not supposed to undertake other work.
A courtyard or court is a circumscribed area, often surrounded by a building or complex, that is open to the sky.
The Cracovia Marathon (Polish: Cracovia Maraton) is an annual marathon held in the city of Kraków, Poland, usually in May.
The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), commonly known as the Polish Crown or simply the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland proper.
The culture of medieval Poland was closely linked to the Catholic Church and its involvement in the country's affairs, especially during the first centuries of the Polish state's history.
Curitiba (Tupi: "Pine Nut Land") is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Paraná.
Cusco (Cuzco,; Qusqu or Qosqo), often spelled Cuzco, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.
Częstochowa,, is a city in southern Poland on the Warta River with 240,027 inhabitants as of June 2009.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Czesław Miłosz (30 June 1911 – 14 August 2004) was a Polish poet, prose writer, translator and diplomat.
Czyżyny is one of 18 districts of Kraków, located in the central part of the city.
Dachau concentration camp (Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners.
Dębniki is one of 18 districts of Kraków, located in the southwest part of the city.
Dłubnia Landscape Park (Dłubniański Park Krajobrazowy) is a protected area (Landscape Park) in southern Poland, established in 1981, covering an area of.
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) is the seminal work on the heliocentric theory of the Renaissance astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543).
The city of Kraków is divided into 18 administrative districts, each with a degree of autonomy within the municipal government.
Doctor of Science (Latin: Scientiae Doctor), usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries throughout the world.
A dragon is a large, serpent-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures around the world.
The Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo Warszawskie, Duché de Varsovie, Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
In the Polish system of local administration, a dzielnica (Polish plural dzielnice) is an administrative subdivision or quarter of a city or town.
Dziennik Polski is a Polish newspaper.
Early music generally comprises Medieval music (500–1400) and Renaissance music (1400–1600), but can also include Baroque music (1600–1760).
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
Eric Philbrook Kelly (March 16, 1884 – January 3, 1960) was an American journalist, academic and author of children's books.
The International Film Festival Etiuda&Anima (Międzynarodowy Festiwal Filmowy Etiuda&Anima), is the leading animation film festival in Poland organized in Kraków continuously since 1994, and catering to independent producers, animation films professionals, and students of film and art schools from all over the world.
The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union (EU) for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong pan-European dimension.
The European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) is the research and development agency of the European Union, headquartered in Budapest, Hungary.
European studies is a field of study offered by many academic colleges and universities that focuses on current developments in European integration.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").
Fez (فاس, Berber: Fas, ⴼⴰⵙ, Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fas-Meknas administrative region.
Fin de siècle is a French term meaning end of the century, a term which typically encompasses both the meaning of the similar English idiom turn of the century and also makes reference to the closing of one era and onset of another.
In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from applied art, which also has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork.
The First Cadre Company (Pierwsza Kompania Kadrowa) was a Polish military formation created in the Austro-Hungarian Army at the outbreak of World War I. The company was founded by Józef Piłsudski on August 3, 1914 in Cracow.
The Mongol Invasion of Poland from late 1240 to 1241 culminated in the battle of Legnica, where the Mongols defeated an alliance which included forces from fragmented Poland and their allies, led by Henry II the Pious, the Duke of Silesia.
The Flemish or Flemings are a Germanic ethnic group native to Flanders, in modern Belgium, who speak Dutch, especially any of its dialects spoken in historical Flanders, known collectively as Flemish Dutch.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Floriańska Street or St.
A föhn or foehn is a type of dry, warm, down-slope wind that occurs in the lee (downwind side) of a mountain range.
A football team is a group of players selected to play together in the various team sports known as football.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
Franciszek Mączyński (21 September 1874 in Wadowice – 28 June 1947 in Kraków) was a Polish Art Nouveau architect.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
The Free, Independent, and Strictly Neutral City of CracowThe Polish variant of Kraków is occasionally retroactively applied in English to the historical Free City.
Futsal is a variant of association football played on a hard court, smaller than a football pitch, and mainly indoors.
Galeria Krakowska is a shopping mall in Kraków, Poland, located adjacent to the city's main railway station.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
RKS Garbarnia Kraków is a Polish football and sports club from Districts of Kraków#Dębniki Ludwinów – a historical district of the city of Kraków.
Gazeta Wyborcza (meaning Electoral Newspaper in English) is a newspaper published in Warsaw, Poland.
Gdynia (Gdingen, Gdiniô) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and a seaport of Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea.
Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.
Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank that studies the relationships between world cities in the context of globalization.
The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (chrýseon génos) lived.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
Gothenburg (abbreviated Gbg; Göteborg) is the second-largest city in Sweden and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
The Grand Duchy of Kraków (Großherzogtum Krakau, Wielkie Księstwo Krakowskie) was created after the incorporation of the Free City of Cracow into Austria on 16 November 1846.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
A category of fine art, graphic art covers a broad range of visual artistic expression, typically two-dimensional, i.e. produced on a flat surface.
A green belt or greenbelt is a policy and land use designation used in land use planning to retain areas of largely undeveloped, wild, or agricultural land surrounding or neighbouring urban areas.
Grozny (p; Соьлжа-ГӀала) is the capital city of the Chechen Republic, Russia.
Grzegórzki is one of 18 districts of Kraków, located in the central part of the city.
Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara.
A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.
The Gutenberg-Jahrbuch is an annual periodical publication covering the history of printing and the book.
Habilitation defines the qualification to conduct self-contained university teaching and is the key for access to a professorship in many European countries.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Halny is a foehn wind that blows in southern Poland and in Slovakia in the Tatra Mountains of the Carpathians.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hans Dürer (born February 21, 1490 in Nuremberg - ca. 1538 in Kraków), was a German Renaissance painter, illustrator, and engraver.
Hans Michael Frank (23 May 1900 – 16 October 1946) was a German war criminal and lawyer who worked for the Nazi Party during the 1920s and 1930s, and later became Adolf Hitler's personal lawyer.
Hans Suess, known as Hans von Kulmbach, was a German artist.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism (hasidut,; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
Henry III (19 September 1551 – 2 August 1589; born Alexandre Édouard de France, Henryk Walezy, Henrikas Valua) was King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1573 to 1575 and King of France from 1574 until his death.
Henryk Jordan (23 July 1842, Przemyśl – 16 May 1907, Kraków), was a Polish philanthropist, physician and pioneer of physical education in Poland.
The history of Poland from 1945 to 1989 spans the period of Soviet dominance and communist rule imposed after the end of World War II over Poland, as reestablished within new borders.
In 1989–1991, Poland engaged in a democratic transition which put an end to the Polish People's Republic and led to the foundation of a democratic government, known as the Third Polish Republic (following the First and Second Polish Republics).
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
() is a Japanese multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan.
The Holy War (Święta Wojna, also Derby Krakowa) is a rivalry in Polish football between Wisła Kraków and KS Cracovia, the two biggest clubs in Kraków and reportedly the oldest in Poland, both founded in 1906.
The Home Army (Armia Krajowa;, abbreviated AK) was the dominant Polish resistance movement in Poland, occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, during World War II.
The House of Vasa (Vasaätten, Wazowie, Vaza) was an early modern royal house founded in 1523 in Sweden, ruling Sweden 1523–1654, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1587–1668, and the Tsardom of Russia 1610–1613 (titular until 1634).
HSBC Holdings plc is a British multinational banking and financial services holding company, tracing its origin to a hong in Hong Kong.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
KS Hutnik Nowa Huta, Polish pronunciation:; also commonly known as Hutnik Kraków is a Polish football club from the Nowa Huta district of Kraków.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
Innsbruck is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
An institute of technology (also: university of technology, polytechnic university, technikon, and technical university) is a type of university which specializes in engineering, technology, applied science, and sometimes natural sciences.
Epitaph for heart of Frédéric Chopin in the Holy Cross Church, Warsaw The International Chopin Piano Competition (Polish: Międzynarodowy Konkurs Pianistyczny im. Fryderyka Chopina), often referred to as the Chopin Competition, is a piano competition held in Warsaw, Poland.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
Józef Bednarski (born January 21, 1941) is a Polish-American former professional wrestler and bodybuilder, best known by the ring name Ivan Putski.
Ivo Andrić (Иво Андрић,; born Ivan Andrić; 9 October 1892 – 13 March 1975) was a Yugoslav novelist, poet and short story writer who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1961.
Jean Paul Getty (December 15, 1892 – June 6, 1976) was an American-British industrialist, and the patriarch of the Getty family.
The Jagiellonian dynasty was a royal dynasty, founded by Jogaila (the Grand Duke of Lithuania, who in 1386 was baptized as Władysław, married Queen regnant (also styled "King") Jadwiga of Poland, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. The dynasty reigned in several Central European countries between the 14th and 16th centuries. Members of the dynasty were Kings of Poland (1386–1572), Grand Dukes of Lithuania (1377–1392 and 1440–1572), Kings of Hungary (1440–1444 and 1490–1526), and Kings of Bohemia (1471–1526). The personal union between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (converted in 1569 with the Treaty of Lublin into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) is the reason for the common appellation "Poland–Lithuania" in discussions about the area from the Late Middle Ages onward. One Jagiellonian briefly ruled both Poland and Hungary (1440–44), and two others ruled both Bohemia and Hungary (1490–1526) and then continued in the distaff line as a branch of the House of Habsburg. The Polish "Golden Age", the period of the reigns of Sigismund I and Sigismund II, the last two Jagiellonian kings, or more generally the 16th century, is most often identified with the rise of the culture of Polish Renaissance. The cultural flowering had its material base in the prosperity of the elites, both the landed nobility and urban patriciate at such centers as Kraków and Gdańsk.
Jagiellonian Library (Biblioteka Jagiellońska, popular nickname Jagiellonka) is the library of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków and with almost 6.7 million volumes, one of the biggest libraries in Poland, serving as a public library, university library and part of the Polish national library system.
The Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet Jagielloński; Latin: Universitas Iagellonica Cracoviensis, also known as the University of Kraków) is a research university in Kraków, Poland.
Jan Długosz (1 December 1415 – 19 May 1480), also known as Ioannes, Joannes, or Johannes Longinus or Dlugossius, was a Polish priest, chronicler, diplomat, soldier, and secretary to Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków.
Jan Kochanowski (1530 – 22 August 1584) was a Polish Renaissance poet who established poetic patterns that would become integral to the Polish literary language.
Jan Alojzy Matejko (also known as Jan Mateyko; June 24, 1838 – November 1, 1893) was a Polish painter known for paintings of notable historical Polish political and military events.
The Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts, or the Kraków Academy of Fine Arts (Akademia Sztuk Pięknych w Krakowie im., usually abbreviated to ASP), is a public institution of higher learning located in downtown Kraków, Poland.
Jasná is a small village situated in central Slovakia, in the Low Tatras mountains.
Józef Mehoffer (19 March 1869 – 8 July 1946) was a Polish painter and decorative artist, one of the leading artists of the Young Poland movement and one of the most revered Polish artists of his time.
Józef Klemens Piłsudski (5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935) was a Polish statesman; he was Chief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal of Poland" (from 1920), and de facto leader (1926–35) of the Second Polish Republic as the Minister of Military Affairs.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
The Jewish Culture Festival in Kraków (Festiwal Kultury Żydowskiej w Krakowie, ייִדישער קולטור־פֿעסטיוואַל אין קראָקע) is an annual cultural event organized since 1988 in the once Jewish district of Kazimierz (part of Kraków) by the Jewish Culture Festival Society headed by Janusz Makuch, a self-described meshugeneh, fascinated with all things Jewish.
Johann Haller or Jan HallerNorman Davies, (1463–1525) is considered one of the first commercial printers in Poland.
Saint John Cantius (Joannis Cantii, Jan z Kęt or Jan Kanty; 23 June 1390 – 24 December 1473) was a Polish priest, scholastic philosopher, physicist and theologian.
John I Albert (Jan I Olbracht) (27 December 1459 – 17 June 1501) was King of Poland (1492–1501) and Duke of Głogów (1491–1498).
John III Sobieski (Jan III Sobieski; Jonas III Sobieskis; Ioannes III Sobiscius; 17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696), was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death, and one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
John Paul II International Airport Kraków–Balice (Kraków Airport im. since 4 September 2007; earlier in Międzynarodowy Port Lotniczy im.) is an international airport located near Kraków, in the village of Balice, west of the city centre, in southern Poland.
Jordan Park, also known as Jordan's Garden or Park Jordana, was established in 1889 as the first public playground in Kraków, Poland, and the first of its kind in Europe.
Joseph II (Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to his death.
A Judenrat ("Jewish council") was a World War II Jewish-German-collaborative administrative agency imposed by Germany, principally within the ghettos of occupied Europe, including those of German-occupied Poland.
Juliusz Słowacki Theatre in Kraków, Poland, (Teatr im.), erected in 1893, was modeled after some of the best European Baroque theatres such as the Paris Opera designed by Charles Garnier, and named after Polish poet Juliusz Słowacki in 1909.
Juvenia Kraków is a Polish rugby union club based in Kraków, Poland.
Kasper Straube (also Kaspar or Caspar, also known as The Printer of the Turrecrematas) was a German 15th century printer from Bavaria.
Katowice (Katowicy; Kattowitz; officially Miasto Katowice) is a city in southern Poland, with a population of 297,197 and the center of the Silesian Metropolis, with a population of 2.2 million.
Katowice International Airport (Międzynarodowy Port Lotniczy Katowice) is an international airport, located in Pyrzowice, north of Katowice, Poland.
Kazimierz (Casimiria; קוזמיר Kuzimyr) is a historical district of Kraków and Kraków Old Town, Poland.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
The Kehilla (pl. Kehillot) is the local Jewish communal structure that was reinstated in the early twentieth century as a modern, secular, and religious sequel of the Qahal in Central and Eastern Europe, more particularly in Poland's Second Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukrainian People's Republic, during the interwar period (1918–1940), in application of the national personal autonomy.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
The Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania joined in a personal union established by the Union of Krewo (1385).
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Kleparz is a neighbourhood in Kraków, Poland, situated directly to the north of the Old Town, marking the beginning of the Royal Road.
The Kościuszko Uprising was an uprising against Imperial Russia and the Kingdom of Prussia led by Tadeusz Kościuszko in the Commonwealth of Poland and the Prussian partition in 1794.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
The Kraków Barbican (barbakan krakowski) is a barbican – a fortified outpost once connected to the city walls.
Kraków 2022 was a bid by the Polish Olympic Committee to hold the 2022 Winter Olympics in Kraków.
The Kraków Cloth Hall (Sukiennice) in Lesser Poland, dates to the Renaissance and is one of the city's most recognizable icons.
Kraków County (powiat krakowski) is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, southern Poland.
Kraków District (German: Distrikt Krakau, Polish: Dystrykt krakowski) was one of the original four administrative districts set up by the Nazis after the German occupation of Poland during the years of 1939-1945.
The Kraków Film Festival (Krakowski Festiwal Filmowy) is one of Europe's oldest events dedicated to documentary, animation and other short film forms.
Kraków Główny Osobowy (commonly called Dworzec Główny, Polish for Main station) is the largest and the most centrally located railway station in Kraków.
The Kraków Ghetto was one of 5 major, metropolitan Jewish Ghettos created by Nazi Germany in the new General Government territory during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.
Kraków Old Town is the historic central district of Kraków, Poland.
The Kraków Philharmonic (Filharmonia Krakowska), is the primary concert hall in Kraków, Poland.
The Kraków Philharmonic Orchestra or the Symphony Orchestra of the Karol Szymanowski Philharmonic (Orkiestra Symfoniczna Filharmonii im.) is a professional symphony orchestra based in Kraków, Poland.
A referendum over four questions was held in Kraków on 25 May 2014.
The Kraków Society of Friends of Fine Arts (Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Sztuk Pięknych w Krakowie, TPSP), is a social group of artists, artisans and their supporters founded in Kraków in 1854, under the Austrian Partition of Poland.
Kraków University of Economics or Cracow University of Economics (KUE or CUE; Polish: Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie) is one of the five Polish public economics universities.
The Kraków Uprising of February 1846 was an attempt, led by Polish insurgents such as Jan Tyssowski and Edward Dembowski, to incite a fight for national independence.
Kraków Valleys Landscape Park (Park Krajobrazowy Dolinki Krakowskie) is a protected area (Landscape Park) in southern Poland, covering an area of.
Kraków Voivodeship, (Województwo krakowskie) refers to several historical Voivodeships of Poland in the surrounding regions, with the city of Kraków as its capital.
The Kraków-Częstochowa Upland, also known as the Polish Jurassic Highland or Polish Jura (Jura Krakowsko-Częstochowska), is part of the Jurassic System of south–central Poland, stretching between the cities of Kraków, Częstochowa and Wieluń.
The Płaszów or Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp (Konzentrationslager Plaszow) was a Nazi German labour and concentration camp built by the SS in Płaszów, a southern suburb of Kraków (now part of Podgórze district), soon after the German invasion of Poland and the subsequent creation of the semi-colonial General Government district across occupied south-central Poland.
Krakus, Krak or Grakch was a Polish prince, first real king and founder of Kraków, the ruler of the tribe of Lechitians (Poles).
Krowodrza is one of 18 districts of Kraków, located in the western part of the city.
Krzysztof Eugeniusz Penderecki (born 23 November 1933) is a Polish composer and conductor.
KS Cracovia, commonly known simply as Cracovia, is a Polish sports club based in Kraków.
MKS Cracovia SSA, commonly referred to as Cracovia Kraków and currently playing as ComArch Cracovia for sponsorship reasons, is an ice hockey team in Kraków, Poland.
La Serena is a city and commune in northern Chile, capital of the Coquimbo Region.
Lanham is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Prince George's County, Maryland.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latter Day Saint movement (also called the LDS movement, LDS restorationist movement, or Smith–Rigdon movement) is the collection of independent church groups that trace their origins to a Christian primitivist movement founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s.
Lechites, or Lekhites, is a name given to certain West Slavic peoples, including the ancestors of modern Poles and the historical Pomeranians and Polabians, speakers of the Lechitic languages.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is a historical region (dzielnica) of Poland; its capital is the city of Kraków.
Lesser Poland Voivodeship or Lesser Poland Province (in Polish, województwo małopolskie), also known as Małopolska Voivodeship or Małopolska Province, is a voivodeship (province), in southern Poland.
Leuven or Louvain (Louvain,; Löwen) is the capital of the province of Flemish Brabant in Belgium.
This page contains a list of cities and towns in Poland, preceded by a table of major Polish cities.
The Nobel Prizes (Nobelpriset, Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.
This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.
This article contains a list of the oldest existing universities in continuous operation in the world.
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
Note: Names that cannot be confirmed in Wikipedia database nor through given sources are subject to removal.
The following is a list of youth organizations.
The following are lists of World Heritage Sites in Europe.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.
Each president of the city of Kraków (known as the Mayor) fulfills his duties with the help of the City Council, city managers and the city inspectors.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.
The Ludowy Theatre (literally: People's Theatre, Teatr Ludowy) in Kraków, located at Osiedle Teatralne housing development in district Nowa Huta, opened on 3 December 1955.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
The Małopolska Institute of Culture (Polish: Małopolski Instytut Kultury) is a regional cultural institution engaged in promoting and supporting the culture of Małopolska (Lesser Poland).
Magdeburg rights (Magdeburger Recht; also called Magdeburg Law) were a set of town privileges first developed by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor (936–973) and based on the Flemish law, which regulated the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages, granted by the local ruler.
The main square (Rynek Główny) of the Old Town of Kraków, Lesser Poland, is the principal urban space located at the center of the city.
MAN SE (abbreviation of Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg), formerly MAN AG, is a German mechanical engineering company and parent company of the MAN Group.
Manggha (full name: Manggha Museum of Japanese Art and Technology, until 2007: Manggha Centre of Japanese Art and Technology) is a museum in Kraków, Poland.
Maria Curie-Skłodowska University (Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, UMCS) was founded October 23, 1944 in Lublin.
The Mariański Choir (Chór Mariański), also known as the Maryan Choir, is a mixed choir based at the Lazarite Church of the Holy Virgin Mary of Lourdes in Kraków, Poland.
The Mariavite Church was an independent Christian church that emerged from the Catholic Church of Poland at the turn of the 20th century.
Members of Polish national Parliament (Sejm) elected from Kraków constituency (2005 election) include.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
Michael J. Mikos is a professor of foreign languages and literature at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mieszko I (– 25 May 992) was the ruler of the Polans from about 960 until his death.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy.
Ministry of Culture and National Heritage of the Republic of Poland (Ministerstwo Kultury i Dziedzictwa Narodowego) is a governmental administration office concerned with various aspects of Polish culture.
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
Mistrzejowice is one of the 18 districts of Kraków; known as Dzielnica XV (District 15), located in the northern part of the city.
Mittal Steel Company N.V. was one of the world's largest steel producers by volume, and also one of the largest in turnover.
Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois.
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.
A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs.
The Music of Poland covers diverse aspects of music and musical traditions which have originated, and are practiced in Poland.
A music school is an educational institution specialized in the study, training, and research of music.
The Museum of Municipal Engineering in Kraków or the Muzeum Inżynierii Miejskiej w Krakowie is a municipal museum in Kraków, Poland; located at ul.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Museum in Kraków (Muzeum Narodowe w Krakowie), popularly abbreviated as MNK, established in 1879, is the main branch of Poland's National Museum, which has several independent branches with permanent collections around the country.
A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.
A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The John Newbery Medal is a literary award given by the Association for Library Service to Children, a division of the American Library Association (ALA).
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Nowa Huta (literally The New Steel Mill) is the easternmost district of Kraków, Poland.
The Nowa Huta.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
Ojców National Park (Ojcowski Park Narodowy) is a national park in Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland, established in 1956.
The Opera Krakowska (Kraków Opera) active today, was founded in 1954 in postwar Kraków, Poland, although the tradition of opera in the city dates back to 1628 when the first ever full libretto in Polish was released by the local publishing house, followed by the first fully-fledged opera performance in the city in March 1782.
Operation Reinhard in Kraków, often referred to by its original codename in German as Aktion Krakau, was a major 1942 German Nazi operation against the Jews of Kraków, Poland.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres (69 miles) southwest of Paris.
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.
Oskar Schindler (28 April 1908 – 9 October 1974) was a German industrialist and a member of the Nazi Party who is credited with saving the lives of 1,200 Jews during the Holocaust by employing them in his enamelware and ammunitions factories in occupied Poland and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
Park Krakowski is a city park located in Kraków, in southern Poland.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Pécs (known by alternative names) is the fifth largest city of Hungary, located on the slopes of the Mecsek mountains in the south-west of the country, close to its border with Croatia.
The Pedagogical University of Kraków (Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im., often shortened to Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny), was named after the Commission of National Education created by King Stanisław August Poniatowski.
Pedestrian zones (also known as auto-free zones and car-free zones, and as pedestrian precincts in British English) are areas of a city or town reserved for pedestrian-only use and in which most or all automobile traffic may be prohibited.
"People's Republic" is a title used by some sovereign states with republican constitutions.
The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland.
Pieskowa Skała (Polish for Little Dog's Rock), is a limestone cliff in the valley of river Prądnik, Poland, best known for its Renaissance castle.
Pieter Brueghel the Younger or Pieter Bruegel the Younger (before 1616 he signed his name as 'Brueghel' and after 1616 as 'Breughel') at the Netherlands Institute for Art History (between 23 May and 10 October 1564 – between March and May 1638) was a Flemish painter, known for numerous copies after his father Pieter Bruegel the Elder's work as well as his original compositions.
Planty is one of the largest city parks in Kraków, Poland.
Plattenbau (plural: Plattenbauten, Platte: panel/ slab; Bau: building/ construction) is a building constructed of large, prefabricated concrete slabs.
Podgórze is a district of Kraków, Poland, situated on the right (southern) bank of the Vistula River, at the foot of Lasota Hill.
Podgórze Duchackie is one of 18 districts of Kraków, located in the southern part of the city.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish Aviation Museum (Muzeum Lotnictwa Polskiego w Krakowie) is a large museum of old aircraft and aircraft engines in Kraków, Poland.
Polish Copernicus Society of Naturalists (Polskie Towarzystwo Przyrodników im.) is a Polish scientific society for natural sciences researchers.
The Polish government-in-exile, formally known as the Government of the Republic of Poland in exile (Rząd Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej na uchodźstwie), was the government in exile of Poland formed in the aftermath of the Invasion of Poland of September 1939, and the subsequent occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, which brought to an end the Second Polish Republic.
The Polish Legions (Legiony Polskie) was a name of the Polish military force (the first active Polish army in generations) established in August 1914 in Galicia soon after World War I erupted between the opposing alliances of the Triple Entente on one side (including the British Empire, the French Republic and the Russian Empire); and the Central Powers on the other side, including the German Empire and Austria-Hungary.
The Polish Liquidation Committee (Polska Komisja Likwidacyjna Galicji i Śląska Cieszyńskiego), a temporary Polish government body, operated in Galicia at the end of World War I. Created on October 28, 1918, with its seat in Kraków, the Committee was headed by Wincenty Witos and Ignacy Daszyński.
The Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church, commonly known as the Polish Orthodox Church (Polski Autokefaliczny Kościół Prawosławny), or (Orthodox) Church of Poland is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches in full communion.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
The złoty (pronounced; sign: zł; code: PLN), which is the masculine form of the Polish adjective 'golden', is the currency of Poland.
The Polish Catholic Church (Kościół Polskokatolicki w Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is a Polish-Catholic Church in Poland which is part of the Union of Utrecht.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The Polish–Swedish Wars were a series of wars between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden.
A political agenda is a list of subjects or problems to which government officials as well as individuals outside the government are paying serious attention at any given time.
Polityka (Politics) is a centre-left weekly newsmagazine in Poland.
The Pontifical Academy of Theology (Pontificia Accademia di Teologia) is a learned society founded in 1718, and is a Pontifical Academy.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
A possessive form (abbreviated) is a word or grammatical construction used to indicate a relationship of possession in a broad sense.
A powiat (pronounced; Polish plural: powiaty) is the second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture (LAU-1, formerly NUTS-4) in other countries.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Prądnik Biały is one of 18 districts of Kraków, located in the northwest part of the city.
Prądnik Czerwony is one of 18 districts of Kraków; known as Dzielnica III (District 3), located in the northern part of the city.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
Protected areas of Poland include the following categories, as defined by the Act on Protection of Nature (Ustawa o ochronie przyrody) of 16 April 2004,, 2004, published by the Polish Parliament by the Polish Parliament.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.
Public art is art in any media that has been planned and executed with the intention of being staged in the physical public domain, usually outside and accessible to all.
Public security is the function of governments which ensures the protection of citizens, persons in their territory, organizations, and institutions against threats to their well-being – and to the prosperity of their communities.
Quito (Kitu; Kitu), formally San Francisco de Quito, is the capital city of Ecuador, and at an elevation of above sea level, it is the second-highest official capital city in the world, after La Paz, and the one which is closest to the equator.
Rakowicki Cemetery (Cmentarz Rakowicki) is a cemetery in Poland, located in the centre of Kraków.
A ratusz (Rathaus; Ратуша, Ratusha) is a historic administrative building in countries that adopted the Magdeburg rights such as the Holy Roman Empire, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and others.
Real estate development, or property development, is a business process, encompassing activities that range from the renovation and re-lease of existing buildings to the purchase of raw land and the sale of developed land or parcels to others.
Reform Judaism (also known as Liberal Judaism or Progressive Judaism) is a major Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and a belief in a continuous revelation not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 17th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.
The Renaissance in Poland (Renesans, Odrodzenie; literally: the Rebirth) lasted from the late 15th to the late 16th century and is widely considered to have been the Golden Age of Polish culture.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Richard Steves (born May 10, 1955) is an American travel writer, author, activist and television personality.
Robert Józef Kubica (born 7 December 1984) is a Polish racing driver who is currently test and reserve driver for the Williams F1 team.
Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York.
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.
Rajmund Roman Thierry Polański (born 18 August 1933) is a French-Polish film director, producer, writer, and actor.
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rowing is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oars in the water, displacing water, and propelling the boat forward.
In the history of Poland, a royal city or royal town (miasto królewskie) was an urban settlement within the crown lands (królewszczyzna).
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.
The Royal Road or Royal Route (Droga Królewska) in Kraków, Poland, begins at the northern end of the medieval Old Town and continues south through the centre of town towards Wawel Hill, where the old royal residence, Wawel Castle, is located.
Rudawa is a small river in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland; a tributary of the Vistula river.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Rzeczpospolita is a nationwide daily economic and legal newspaper and the only conservative-liberal newspaper in Poland.
Sabre Corporation is a travel technology company based in Southlake, Texas.
Sachsenhausen ("Saxon's Houses") or Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg was a Nazi concentration camp in Oranienburg, Germany, used primarily for political prisoners from 1936 to the end of the Third Reich in May 1945.
Sacred architecture (also known as religious architecture) is a religious architectural practice concerned with the design and construction of places of worship or sacred or intentional space, such as churches, mosques, stupas, synagogues, and temples.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
The Church of Saints Peter and Paul in the Old Town district of Kraków, Poland (Kościół ŚŚ Piotra i Pawła w Krakowie) is a Roman Catholic, Polish Baroque church located at ul.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre, (in the UK or Australia) a guildhall, a Rathaus (German), or (more rarely) a municipal building, is the chief administrative building of a city, town, or other municipality.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.
Shrubland, scrubland, scrub, brush, or bush is a plant community characterised by vegetation dominated by shrubs, often also including grasses, herbs, and geophytes.
The Royal Sigismund Bell (Królewski Dzwon Zygmunt or Dzwon Zygmunta) is the largest of the five bells hanging in the Sigismund Tower of the Wawel Cathedral in the Polish city of Kraków.
Sigismund I of Poland (Zygmunt I Stary, Žygimantas I Senasis; 1 January 1467 – 1 April 1548), of the Jagiellon dynasty, reigned as King of Poland and also as the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1506 until 1548.
Sigismund II Augustus (Zygmunt II August, Ruthenian: Żygimont II Awgust, Žygimantas II Augustas, Sigismund II.) (1 August 1520 – 7 July 1572) was the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, the only son of Sigismund I the Old, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548.
Sigismund III Vasa (also known as Sigismund III of Poland, Zygmunt III Waza, Sigismund, Žygimantas Vaza, English exonym: Sigmund; 20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he is known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 as a composite monarchy until he was deposed in 1599.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Church of St Michael the Archangel and St Stanislaus Bishop and Martyr and Pauline Fathers Monastery, Skałka, which means "a small rock" in Polish, is a small outcrop in Kraków where the Bishop of Kraków saint Stanislaus of Szczepanów was slain by order of Polish king Bolesław II the Bold in 1079.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and was imposed as the official style in that country between 1932 and 1988, as well as in other socialist countries after World War II.
Socialist realism in Poland (socrealizm) was a social, political, and esthetic doctrine enforced by the pro-Soviet communist government in the process of Stalinization of the postwar People's Republic of Poland.
Solaris Bus & Coach S.A. is a Polish multinational bus, coach, trolleybus and tram manufacturer based in Bolechowo near Poznań, Poland.
Solothurn (Solothurn; Soleure; Soletta; Soloturn) is a town, a municipality, and the capital of the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland.
Sonderaktion Krakau was the codename for a Nazi German operation against professors and academics of the Jagiellonian University and other universities in German occupied Kraków, Poland, at the beginning of World War II.
The Sopwith Camel was a British First World War single-seat biplane fighter aircraft introduced on the Western Front in 1917.
Split (see other names) is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia. It lies on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea and is spread over a central peninsula and its surroundings. An intraregional transport hub and popular tourist destination, the city is linked to the Adriatic islands and the Apennine peninsula. Home to Diocletian's Palace, built for the Roman emperor in 305 CE, the city was founded as the Greek colony of Aspálathos (Aσπάλαθος) in the 3rd or 2nd century BC. It became a prominent settlement around 650 CE when it succeeded the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona. After the Sack of Salona by the Avars and Slavs, the fortified Palace of Diocletian was settled by the Roman refugees. Split became a Byzantine city, to later gradually drift into the sphere of the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Croatia, with the Byzantines retaining nominal suzerainty. For much of the High and Late Middle Ages, Split enjoyed autonomy as a free city, caught in the middle of a struggle between Venice and the King of Hungary for control over the Dalmatian cities. Venice eventually prevailed and during the early modern period Split remained a Venetian city, a heavily fortified outpost surrounded by Ottoman territory. Its hinterland was won from the Ottomans in the Morean War of 1699, and in 1797, as Venice fell to Napoleon, the Treaty of Campo Formio rendered the city to the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1805, the Peace of Pressburg added it to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and in 1806 it was included in the French Empire, becoming part of the Illyrian Provinces in 1809. After being occupied in 1813, it was eventually granted to the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna, where the city remained a part of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia until the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and the formation of Yugoslavia. In World War II, the city was annexed by Italy, then liberated by the Partisans after the Italian capitulation in 1943. It was then re-occupied by Germany, which granted it to its puppet Independent State of Croatia. The city was liberated again by the Partisans in 1944, and was included in the post-war Socialist Yugoslavia, as part of its republic of Croatia. In 1991, Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia amid the Croatian War of Independence.
A sports club or sporting club, sometimes athletics club or sports society or sports association, is a group of people formed for the purpose of playing sports.
The Collegiate Church of St.
Church of Our Lady Assumed into Heaven (also known as Saint Mary's Church; Kościół Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny, Kościół Mariacki) is a Brick Gothic church adjacent to the Main Market Square in Kraków, Poland.
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
Stalinist architecture, also referred to as Stalinist Empire style or Socialist Classicism, is a term given to architecture of the Soviet Union under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, between 1933, when Boris Iofan's draft for Palace of the Soviets was officially approved, and 1955, when Nikita Khrushchev condemned "excesses" of the past decades and disbanded the Soviet Academy of Architecture.
Stanisław Rehman (1838–1899), was a city councillor in Kraków, Poland.
Stanisław Wyspiański (15 January 1869 – 28 November 1907) was a Polish playwright, painter and poet, as well as interior and furniture designer.
A steel mill or steelworks is an industrial plant for the manufacture of steel.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
The Gallery of 19th-Century Polish Art at Sukiennice (Galeria Sztuki Polskiej XIX wieku w Sukiennicach), is a division of the National Museum, Kraków, Poland.
Swoszowice is one of 18 districts of Kraków, located in the southern part of the city.
The city of Cracow uses a coat of arms, a seal, official colors, a flag, and a banner as its official symbols.
The synagogues of Kraków are an outstanding collection of monuments of Jewish sacred architecture unmatched anywhere in Poland.
Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.
Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kościuszko (Andrew Thaddeus Bonaventure Kosciuszko; February 4 or 12, 1746 – October 15, 1817) was a Polish-Lithuanian military engineer, statesman, and military leader who became a national hero in Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, and the United States.
Tadeusz Sendzimir Steelworks (Huta im.) is the second largest steel plant in Poland.
Tadeusz Trzmiel (born 1945) is the Polish politician who has been Deputy Mayor of Kraków since 2002, when Jacek Majchrowski was elected as a Mayor.
Tap water (running water, city water, town water, municipal water, etc.) is water supplied to a tap (valve).
Tapestry is a form of textile art, traditionally woven on a vertical loom.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
The Tatra Mountains, Tatras or Tatra (Tatry either in Slovak or in Polish- plurale tantum), is a mountain range that forms a natural border between Slovakia and Poland.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Tenczynek Landscape Park (Tenczyński Park Krajobrazowy) is a protected area (a Landscape Park) in southern Poland, established in 1981, and covering an area of.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
Old Synagogue is an Orthodox Jewish synagogue in the Kazimierz district of Kraków, Poland, in Yiddish it was referred to as the Alta Shul.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Trumpeter of Krakow, a young adult historical novel by Eric P. Kelly, won the Newbery Medal for excellence in American children's literature in 1929.
A thermophile is an organism—a type of extremophile—that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between.
The Third Partition of Poland (1795) was the last in a series of the Partitions of Poland and the land of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth among Prussia, the Austrian Empire, and the Russian Empire which effectively ended Polish–Lithuanian national sovereignty until 1918.
Thomas Cook (22 November 1808 – 18 July 1892) was an English businessman.
Thomas Cook Group plc is a British global travel company listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index.
Times Higher Education (THE), formerly The Times Higher Education Supplement (THES), is a weekly magazine based in London, reporting specifically on news and issues related to higher education.
Poland is a part of the global tourism market with constantly increasing number of visitors.
Town Hall Tower in Kraków, Poland (Wieża ratuszowa w Krakowie) is one of the main focal points of the Main Market Square in the Old Town district of Kraków.
A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.
Transport in Kraków is based around a fairly dense network of tramway and bus lines operated by a municipal company, supplemented by a number of private minibus operators.
Trees are significant in many of the world's mythologies and religions, and have been given deep and sacred meanings throughout the ages.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Tyniec is a historic village in Poland on the Vistula river, since 1973 a part of the city of Kraków (currently in the district of Dębniki).
UBS Group AG is a Swiss multinational investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The University of North Carolina is a multi-campus public university system composed of all 16 of North Carolina's public universities, as well as the NC School of Science and Mathematics, the nation's first public residential high school for gifted students.
Veit Stoss (also: Veit Stoß; Wit Stwosz; before 1450 – about 20 September 1533) was a leading German sculptor, mostly in wood, whose career covered the transition between the late Gothic and the Northern Renaissance.
The Altarpiece by Veit Stoss in Kraków (Ołtarz Wita Stwosza, Krakauer Hochaltar), also St.
Veliko Tarnovo (Велико Търново, "Great Tarnovo") is a city in north central Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
The Vistulans, or Vistulanians (Wiślanie), were an early medieval West Slavic tribe inhabiting western part of modern Lesser Poland.
Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.
A województwo (plural: województwa) is the highest-level administrative subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a "province" in many other countries.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Wawel is a fortified architectural complex erected over many centuries atop a limestone outcrop on the left bank of the Vistula river in Kraków, Poland, at an altitude of 228 metres above sea level.
The Wawel Castle is a castle residency located in central Kraków, Poland.
The Royal Archcathedral Basilica of Saints Stanislaus and Wenceslaus on the Wawel Hill (królewska bazylika archikatedralna śś.), also known as the Wawel Cathedral (katedra wawelska), is a Roman Catholic church located on Wawel Hill in Kraków, Poland.
The Wawel Dragon (Smok Wawelski), also known as the Dragon of Wawel Hill, is a famous dragon in Polish folklore.
Wawel Kraków is a Polish multisports club based in Kraków, Poland.
Which? is a brand name used by the Consumers' Association, a registered charity (No. 296072) and company limited by guarantee (No. 580128), which is based in the United Kingdom.
The Wieliczka Salt Mine (Kopalnia soli Wieliczka), located in the town of Wieliczka in southern Poland, lies within the Kraków metropolitan area.
Wisła Kraków is a Polish football club based in Kraków.
Maria Wisława Anna SzymborskaVioletta Szostak gazeta.pl, 2012-02-09.
The World Heritage Committee selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The looting of Polish cultural artifacts during World War II was carried out by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union side by side after the invasion of Poland of 1939.
World Youth Day (WYD) is an event for young people organized by the Catholic Church.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
Wzgórza Krzesławickie is one of 18 districts of Kraków, located in the northeast part of the city.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Young Poland (Młoda Polska) was a modernist period in Polish visual arts, literature and music, covering roughly the years between 1890 and 1918.
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
The 2014 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship was held in Poland from 30 August to 21 September 2014.
The 2016 EHF European Men's Handball Championship was the twelfth edition and was held for the first time in Poland from 15–31 January 2016.
The 2022 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXIV Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIVème Jeux olympiques d'hiver), and commonly known as Beijing 2022, is an international winter multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 4 to 20 February 2022, in Beijing and towns in the neighbouring Hebei province, People's Republic of China.
Budget of Krakow, Carrodunon, Carrodunum, Crackow, Cracov, Cracovie, Cracow, Cracow, Poland, Crakow, Kracow, Krakiv, Krakko, Krakkó, Krakov, Krakow, Krakow City Council, Krakow, Poland, Kraków, Poland, List of mayors of Krakow, List of mayors of Kraków, Mayor of Krakow, Mayor of Kraków, PLKRK, President of Krakow, President of Kraków, Stołeczne Królewskie Miasto Kraków, UN/LOCODE:PLKRK.