330 relations: Abakan, Adam Mickiewicz, Adam Naruszewicz, Allies of World War II, Andrzej Wajda, Anna Komorowska, Anna Seniuk, Anna Walentynowicz, Armenians, Artur Grottger, Ashmyany, Association "Polish Community", Association of Poles in Lithuania, Association of Polish Culture of the Lviv Land, Austria-Hungary, Świdnica, Švenčionys, Żagań, Żeligowski's Mutiny, Baborów, Belarusian language, Benedykt Dybowski, Berdychiv, Bernd Wegner, Białystok, Białystok Voivodeship (1919–1939), Bieszczady Mountains, Bishop of Wrocław, Bogdan Zdrojewski, Bolesław I the Brave, Bolesław I's intervention in the Kievan succession crisis, Borshchiv, Boryslav, Boxcar, Brest, Belarus, Brody, Bronisław Komorowski, Brzeg, Buchach, Bug River property, Bukovina, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Bytom, Cemetery of the Defenders of Lwów, Central Statistical Office (Poland), Centre for Public Opinion Research, Chełm, Chojna, Chojnów, Chortkiv, ..., Compulsory education, Crimean Karaites, Crimean Khanate, Curzon Line, Czechs, Czesław Miłosz, Czesław Niemen, Daniel Olbrychski, Dialects of Polish, Dnieper, Dniester, Drohobych, Dzyatlava District, Edward Rydz-Śmigły, Elections to the People's Assemblies of Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia, Eliza Orzeszkowa, Ernest Malinowski, Feliks Falk, Fire in the Steppe, Franciszek Żwirko, Fundacja Pomoc Polakom na Wschodzie, Gabriel Narutowicz, Gabriela Zapolska, Galicia (Eastern Europe), Gazeta Lwowska, Gazeta Wyborcza, Głubczyce, Gdańsk, General Government, Germans, Gliwice, Grodno, Henryk Gulbinowicz, Hetman, Hugo Kołłątaj, Hungarians, Hvizdets, Ignacy Domeyko, Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Interwar period, Invasion of Poland, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ivyanets, Jagiellonian University, Jan Potocki, January Uprising, Jarosław, Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz, Jasień, Lubusz Voivodeship, Jasna Góra Monastery, Jawor, Józef Piłsudski, Jerzy Kawalerowicz, Jews, John III Sobieski, Jolanta Kwaśniewska, Joseph Conrad, Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz, Juliusz Słowacki, Karol Szymanowski, Karta Polaka, Kaunas, Kazakhstan, Kaziuko mugė, Kędzierzyn-Koźle, Kiev, Kievan Rus', Kniefall von Warschau, Kożuchów, Kremenets, Krzemieniec Lyceum, Krzesimir Dębski, KS Polonia Vilnius, Kurier Wileński, Kuzmyno, Legnica, Lesser Poland, Lewin Brzeski, List of Leopolitans, List of people from Vilnius, Literacy, Lithuania, Lithuanian Academy of Sciences, Lithuanian language, Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic, Lithuanians, Lower Silesia, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Lubaczów, Lubin, Lubomierz, Lubusz Voivodeship, Lutsk, Lviv, Lwów Eaglets, Lwów subdialect, Lwów Voivodeship, Maciej Płażyński, Malbork, Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia, Masuria, Mazovia, Mazyr, Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki, Ministry of Culture and National Heritage (Poland), Minsk, Mirosław Hermaszewski, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Mrągowo, Nad Niemnem, Naujoji Vilnia, Navahrudak, Nazi Germany, Neman, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Nobel Prize, November Uprising, Nowa Sól, Nowogródek Voivodeship (1919–1939), Nysa, Poland, Oława, Oder, Oder–Neisse line, Olesko, Olsztyn, Open wagon, Opole, Opole Voivodeship, Osadnik, Ossolineum, Pacification of Ukrainians in Eastern Galicia, Pan Tadeusz, Pan-Germanism, Partitions of Poland, Paweł Kukiz, Peace of Riga, Pidhaitsi, Pinsk, Podolia, Pogoń Lwów (1904), Pokuttya, Poles in Belarus, Poles in Latvia, Poles in Lithuania, Poles in the Soviet Union, Poles in Ukraine, Polesia, Polesie Voivodeship, Polish census of 1931, Polish Committee of National Liberation, Polish diaspora, Polish government-in-exile, Polish historical regions, Polish language, Polish National District, Polish National-Territorial Region, Polish Operation of the NKVD, Polish People's Republic, Polish population transfers (1944–1946), Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish–Lithuanian War, Polish–Soviet War, Polish–Ukrainian War, Polonization, Pomerania, Potsdam Conference, Poznań, Prochowice, Przemyśl, Równe, Opole Voivodeship, Recovered Territories, Red Ruthenia, Reichskommissariat, Reichskommissariat Ostland, Reichskommissariat Ukraine, Rejowiec, Lublin Voivodeship, Repatriation of Poles (1955–59), Republic of Central Lithuania, Rivne, Romuald Traugutt, Russian Empire, Russians, Ruthenians, Ryszard Kapuściński, Rzeczpospolita (newspaper), Sambir, Sami swoi, Samuel Linde, Sanatorium Under the Sign of the Hourglass, Second Polish Republic, Self-Defence of Lithuania and Belarus (1918), Senate of Poland, Siberia, Silesia, Silesian University of Technology, Soviet invasion of Poland, Soviet repressions of Polish citizens (1939–1946), Soviet Union, Stanisław "Rewera" Potocki, Stanisław August Poniatowski, Stanisław Lem, Stanisław Maczek, Stanisław Moniuszko, Stanisławów Voivodeship, Suwałki, Suwałki Agreement, Sybirak, Sylwester Chęciński, Szczecin, Szprotawa, Tadeusz Łomnicki, Tadeusz Borowski, Tadeusz Czacki, Tadeusz Isakowicz-Zaleski, Tadeusz Kościuszko, Tadeusz Konwicki, Tarnopol Voivodeship, Tatars, Tehran Conference, Telšiai, Ternopil, Territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union, The Manuscript Found in Saragossa, Toruń, Trakai, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of Warsaw (1920), Trzcińsko-Zdrój, Tutejszy, TVP Polonia, TVP2, Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Ukrainian language, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Union of Lublin, Union of Poles in Belarus, University of Wrocław, Ustrzyki Dolne, Uważam Rze, Vilnius, Vilnius Region, Vilnius University, Voivodeship, Volhynia, Volhynia Experiment, Vowchyn, Vyshnivets, Wacław Rzewuski, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Warsaw, Władysław Gomułka, Wesoła Lwowska Fala, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, West Ukrainian People's Republic, Western Belorussia, Western Krai, Western Ukraine, Wiktor Thommée, Wilno Voivodeship (1926–1939), Wincenty Pol, With Fire and Sword, Wołów, Wołczyn, Wołyń Voivodeship (1921–1939), World War II, World War II evacuation and expulsion, World War III, Wrocław, Wschowa, Yalta Conference, Zakerzonia, Zalavas, Zamość, Zavosse, Zbigniew Cybulski, Zbigniew Gołąb, Zhytomyr, Zielona Góra, Zygmunt Gloger, 1951 Polish–Soviet territorial exchange. 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Abakan (p; Khakas: Ағбан or Абахан) is the capital city of the Republic of Khakassia, Russia, located in the central part of Minusinsk Depression, at the confluence of the Yenisei and Abakan Rivers.
Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (24 December 179826 November 1855) was a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist.
Adam Stanisław Naruszewicz (Adomas Naruševičius) (20 October 1733 – 8 July 1796) was a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman from an impoverished aristocratic family, poet, historian, dramatist, translator, publicist, Jesuit and titular Bishop of Smolensk (1775–1788 as suffragan bishop and 1788–1790 as full diocesan bishop) and bishop of Łuck (1790–1796).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Andrzej Witold Wajda (6 March 1926 – 9 October 2016) was a Polish film and theatre director.
Anna Julia Komorowska (born 11 May 1953) is a Polish classical philologist and former First Lady of Poland, as the wife of 5th President of Poland, Bronisław Komorowski.
Anna Seniuk (born 17 November 1942, in Stanisławów) is a Polish actress.
Anna Walentynowicz (15 August 1929 – 10 April 2010) was a Polish free trade union activist and co-founder of Solidarity, the first non-communist trade union in the Eastern Bloc.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Artur Grottger (11 November 1837 – 13 December 1867) was a Polish Romantic painter and graphic artist, one of the most prominent artists of the mid 19th century under the foreign partitions of Poland, despite a life cut short by incurable illness.
Ashmyany (Ашмя́ны; Łacinka: Ašmiany; Ошмя́ны; Ašmena; Oszmiana; אָשמענע, Oshmene) is a town in Grodno Region, Belarus, located at 50 km from Vilnius, capital of the Ashmyany raion.
Association "Polish Community" (Stowarzyszenie "Wspólnota Polska") is a Polish non-governmental and public benefit organization operating under the patronage of the Polish Senate; dedicated to strengthening the ties between Poland and Polonia - Poles and people of Polish origin living abroad.
The Association of Poles in Lithuania (Związek Polaków na Litwie; Lietuvos lenkų sąjunga) is an organization formed in 1989 to bring together members of Polish minority in Lithuania.
Association of the Polish Culture of the Lviv Land (Towarzystwo Kultury Polskiej Ziemi Lwowskiej) is a Polish minority association, active in Lviv Oblast (province) of western Ukraine.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Świdnica (Schweidnitz; Svídnice) is a city in southwestern Poland in the region of Silesia.
Švenčionys (known also by several alternative names) is a town located north of Vilnius in Lithuania.
Żagań (French and Sagan, Zahań, Zaháň, Saganum) is a town on the Bóbr river in western Poland, with 26,253 inhabitants (2010).
Żeligowski's Mutiny (bunt Żeligowskiego also żeligiada, Želigovskio maištas) was a Polish military operation led by General Lucjan Żeligowski in October 1920, which resulted in the creation of the Republic of Central Lithuania.
Baborów (Bauerwitz) is a small town in Poland near Głubczyce, Opole Voivodeship.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
Benedykt Tadeusz Dybowski (12 May 183331 January 1930) was a Polish naturalist and physician.
Berdychiv (Бердичів, Polish: Berdyczów, Bardichev, Berdichev) is a historic city in the Zhytomyr Oblast (province) of northern Ukraine.
Bernd Wegner (born 1949) is a German historian who specialised in military history and the history of Nazism.
Białystok (Bielastok, Balstogė, Belostok, Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship.
See also: Białystok Voivodeship (1945–1975) and Białystok Voivodeship (1975–1998) Białystok Voivodeship (Województwo białostockie) was an administrative unit of interwar Poland (1918–1939).
Bieszczady is a mountain range that runs from the extreme south-east of Poland through Ukraine and Slovakia.
Bishops of Wrocław/Breslau Bishopric, Prince-Bishopric (1290–1918), and Archdiocese (since 1930; see Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Wrocław/Breslau for details).
Bogdan Andrzej Zdrojewski (born 18 May 1957) is a Polish politician and local government leader.
Bolesław I the Brave (Bolesław I Chrobry, Boleslav Chrabrý; 967 – 17 June 1025), less often known as Bolesław I the Great (Bolesław I Wielki), was Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025, and the first King of Poland in 1025.
The intervention in the Kievan succession crisis of 1015–1019 by the Polish ruler Bolesław Chrobry was an episode in the struggle between Sviatopolk I Vladimirovich ("the Accursed") and his brother Yaroslav ("the Wise") for the rulership of Kiev and Kievan Rus'.
Borshchiv is a city in the Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine.
Boryslav (Борислав, Borysław) is a city located on the Tysmenytsia River (a tributary of the Dniester), in Lviv Oblast (region) of western Ukraine.
A boxcar is a North American railroad car that is enclosed and generally used to carry freight.
Brest (Брэст There is also the name "Berestye", but it is found only in the Old Russian language and Tarashkevich., Брест Brest, Берестя Berestia, בריסק Brisk), formerly Brest-Litoŭsk (Брэст-Лiтоўск) (Brest-on-the-Bug), is a city (population 340,141 in 2016) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet.
Brody (Броди; Brody; Brody; Brody; Brody) is a city in Lviv Oblast (region) of western Ukraine.
Bronisław Maria Komorowski (born 4 June 1952) is a Polish politician and historian who served as President of Poland from 2010 to 2015.
Brzeg (Latin: Alta Ripa, former German name: Brieg) is a town in southwestern Poland with 36,381 inhabitants (2016) and the capital of Brzeg County.
Buchach (Бучач; Buczacz; Betshotsh.or ביטשאטש (Bitshtosh); Buch'ach; Bucaş) is a town located on the Strypa River (a tributary of the Dniester) in Ternopil Oblast (province) of Western Ukraine.
The Bug River property (Mienie zabużańskie, "Trans-Bug property") is property which was within the territory of the interbellum Poland (Second Polish Republic) and was abandoned by Polish owners after 1945.
Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina, Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,Klaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 divided between Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.
The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; Belorusskaya SSR.), also commonly referred to in English as Byelorussia, was a federal unit of the Soviet Union (USSR).
Bytom (Polish pronunciation:; Silesian: Bytůń, Beuthen O.S.) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
The Cemetery of the Defenders of Lwów (Cmentarz Obrońców Lwowa, Cmentarz Orląt, Cemetery of Eaglets, Orlat Cemetery) is a memorial and a burial place for the Poles and their allies who died in Lviv (Lwów) during the hostilities of the Polish-Ukrainian War and Polish-Soviet War between 1918 and 1920.
The Central Statistical Office (Główny Urząd Statystyczny; GUS) is Poland's chief government executive agency charged with collecting and publishing statistics related to the country's economy, population, and society, at the national and local levels.
Centrum Badania Opinii Społecznej (CBOS) (Centre for Public Opinion Research) is an opinion polling institute in Poland, based in Warsaw.
Chełm (Kulm, Холм) is a city in eastern Poland with 63,949 inhabitants (2015).
Chojna (Königsberg in der Neumark; Czińsbarg; Regiomontanus Neomarchicus "King's Mountain in (the) New March") is a small town in western Poland in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship.
Chojnów (Haynau) is a small town in Legnica County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Chortkiv (Чортків; Czortków; טשאָרטקאָוו Chortkov) is a city in Ternopil Oblast (province) in western Ukraine.
Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all people and is imposed by government.
The Crimean Karaites or Krymkaraylar (Crimean Karaim: Кърымкъарайлар sg. къарай – qaray; Trakai Karaim: sg. karaj, pl. karajlar; קראי מזרח אירופה; Karaylar), also known as Karaims and Qarays, are an ethnic group derived from Turkic-speaking adherents of Karaite Judaism in Central and Eastern Europe, especially in the territory of the former Russian Empire.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
The history of the Curzon Line, with minor variations, goes back to the period following World War I. It was drawn for the first time by the Supreme War Council as the demarcation line between the newly emerging states, the Second Polish Republic, and the Soviet Union.
The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.
Czesław Miłosz (30 June 1911 – 14 August 2004) was a Polish poet, prose writer, translator and diplomat.
Czesław Niemen (February 16, 1939 – January 17, 2004), born Czesław Juliusz Wydrzycki, and often credited as just Niemen, was one of the most important and original Polish singer-songwriters and rock balladeers of the last quarter-century, singing mainly in Polish.
Daniel Marcel Olbrychski (born 27 February 1945) is a Polish actor best known for leading roles in several Andrzej Wajda movies and also known for playing a defector and spymaster Vassily Orlov, alongside Hollywood actress Angelina Jolie in the movie Salt.
Modern sources on the Slavic languages normally describe the Polish language as consisting of four major dialect groups, each primarily associated with a certain geographical region, and often further subdivided into subdialectal groups (called gwara in Polish):Roland Sussex and Paul Cubberley (2006).
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
The Dniester or Dnister River is a river in Eastern Europe.
Drohobych (Дрогóбич; Дрогобыч; Drohobycz; דראָהאָביטש) is a city of regional significance in Lviv Oblast, Ukraine.
Dzyatlava District (Дзятлаўскі раён) is a district (rajon) in Grodno Region of Belarus.
Marshal Edward Rydz-Śmigły (11 March 1886 – 2 December 1941; nom de guerre Śmigły, Tarłowski, Adam Zawisza), also called Edward Śmigły-Rydz, was a Polish politician, statesman, Marshal of Poland and Commander-in-Chief of Poland's armed forces, as well as painter and poet.
Elections to the People's Assemblies of Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia, which took place on October 22, 1939, were an attempt to legitimize the annexation of the Second Polish Republic by the Soviet Union following the September 17 Soviet invasion of Poland in accordance with the secret protocol of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.
Eliza Orzeszkowa (June 6, 1841 – May 18, 1910) was a Polish novelist and a leading writer, Britannica, Retrieved June 5, 2016 of the Positivism movement during foreign Partitions of Poland.
Ernest Adam Malinowski (1818–1899) was a Polish engineer.
Feliks Falk (born 25 February 1941) is a Polish film and theater director as well as writer of film scripts, stage plays, television plays, and radio shows.
Fire in the Steppe (Pan Wołodyjowski; also translated into English as Sir Michael and Colonel Wolodyjowski; literally, Sir Wołodyjowski) is a historical novel by the Polish author Henryk Sienkiewicz, published in 1888.
Franciszek Żwirko (16 September 1895 – 11 September 1932) was a prominent Polish sport and military aviator.
Fundacja Pomoc Polakom na Wschodzie (The Foundation Aid to Poles in the East) is a foundation created by Polish government (State Treasury) in order to facilitate the cooperation between Polish government and Polonia in the East (primarily, former Soviet Union).
Gabriel Narutowicz (17 March 1865 – 16 December 1922) was a Polish professor of hydroelectric engineering and politician who served as the 1st President of Poland from 11 December 1922 until his assassination on 16 December, five days after assuming office.
Maria Gabriela Stefania Korwin-Piotrowska (1857–1921), known as Gabriela Zapolska, was a Polish novelist, playwright, naturalist writer, feuilletonist, theatre critic and stage actress.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
Gazeta Lwowska (Lviv Gazette) is a Polish language biweekly magazine, published since 24 December 1990 in Lviv (also known as Lwów, Lvov, etc.), Ukraine.
Gazeta Wyborcza (meaning Electoral Newspaper in English) is a newspaper published in Warsaw, Poland.
Głubczyce (Hlubčice or sparsely Glubčice, Leobschütz, Silesian German: Lischwitz) is a town in Opole Voivodeship in southern Poland, near the border with the Czech Republic.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Gliwice (Gleiwitz) is a city in Upper Silesia, southern Poland, near Katowice.
Grodno or Hrodna (Гродна, Hrodna; ˈɡrodnə, see also other names) is a city in western Belarus.
Henryk Roman Gulbinowicz (17 October 1923 in Vilnius, Poland (now Lithuania) is member of the clergy of Białystok, emeritus Archbishop of Wrocław and Cardinal Priest. He grew up in Šukiškės near Vilnius. He entered the archdiocesan seminary where he completed his secondary studies, before being transferred to Białystok.Gazeta Wyborcza, "Kardynał Henryk Gulbinowicz przechodzi na emeryturę", 2003-10-10, He was ordained by Archbishop Romuald Jalbrzykowski on 18 June 1950, and was an associate pastor at Szudzialowo. After a year of parish experience, he was sent to Lublin to continue his preparation in theology at the Catholic University of Lublin. He earned a doctorate in moral theology in 1955; from 1956 to 1959 he was university chaplain in Białystok. Following this he taught in the seminary at Warmia, while also working in the diocesan Curia of Olsztyn.The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, Biographical Dictionary (1903–2009), On 12 January 1970, Pope Paul VI appointed him titular Bishop of Acci, and also the apostolic administrator of the Polish section of the Archdiocese of Vilnius (Białystok). The following 8 February he received episcopal consecration from the Primate of Poland, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński. In charge of the Church community, he was responsible for the reorganization of the diaconate, and he also promoted the construction of new parishes. Already in 1944 he furthered the growth of religious life in his area by creating in Białystok the Parish Catechetics Center and reviving the trimestral publication "Wiadomości Kościelne Archidiecezij w Białystoku" (Church news of the archdiocese of Białystok). On 3 January 1976 he became Archbishop of Wrocław. While guiding this local Church during these years, he created many pastoral centers in this large region. In addition, he founded the biweekly "Nowe Życie" (New Life) and crowned the statue of the Virgin as protector of the famous shrine of Wambierzyce in Lower Silesia, which attracts pilgrimages continually. A few days before martial law was imposed in 1981, the local Solidarity union branch withdrew from its bank account 80 million Polish zlotys, the equivalent of today's USD 100 million, and deposited the cash with Gulbinowicz, who hid it from the communist regime during Solidarity's delegalisation. He is the author of a number of works in the area of moral and doctrinal theology, and on the formation of the clergy. On 25 May 1985 Gulbinowicz was created Cardinal by John Paul II. Since 3 April 2004, he has been Archbishop emeritus of Wrocław. His year of birth had been listed as 1928 (which would have meant he was ordained early), but in early February 2005 it was publicly disclosed that the real date was in 1923; hence he was 5 years older than previously held. His birth records were falsified in 1942 so he wouldn't be sent to a German labor camp. This meant that he had reached age 80 in 2003, and so at that time lost the right to participate in a conclave. (In early 2005, Pope John Paul II was in poor health and would die in early April, thus leading to a conclave. It was noted in the secular press that Cardinal Gulbinowicz presumably already reached a private agreement with the Vatican regarding the age issue.).
reason (translit; hejtman; hatman) is a political title from Central and Eastern Europe, historically assigned to military commanders.
Hugo Stumberg Kołłątaj, alt.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
Hvizdets (Гвізде́ць, Gwoździec, G'vojiets) is an urban-type settlement in Kolomyia Raion (district) of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (region), Ukraine.
Ignacy Domeyko or Domejko, pseudonym: Żegota (Ignacio Domeyko,; born near Nieśwież, now Karelichy District, Belarus, 31 July 1802 – 23 January 1889, Santiago de Chile) was a Polish geologist, mineralogist and educator.
Ignacy Jan Paderewski (– 29 June 1941) was a Polish pianist and composer, politician, statesman and spokesman for Polish independence.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
Ivano-Frankivsk (Ivano-Frankivsk; formerly Stanyslaviv, Stanislau, or Stanisławów; see below) is a historic city located in Western Ukraine.
Ivyanets (Iвяне́ц,; Ивенец; Iwieniec), also known as Ivianec, is a town in Valozhyn District, Minsk Voblast, Belarus.
The Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet Jagielloński; Latin: Universitas Iagellonica Cracoviensis, also known as the University of Kraków) is a research university in Kraków, Poland.
Count Jan Potocki (8 March 1761 – 23 December 1815) was a Polish nobleman, Polish Army Captain of Engineers, ethnologist, Egyptologist, linguist, traveler, adventurer, and popular author of the Enlightenment period, whose life and exploits made him a legendary figure in his homeland.
The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.
Jarosław (Ярослав, יאַרעסלאָוו Yareslov, Jaroslau) is a town in south-eastern Poland, with 38,970 inhabitants, as of 30 June 2014.
Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz, also known under his literary pseudonym Eleuter (20 February 1894 – 2 March 1980), was a Polish poet, essayist, dramatist and writer.
Jasień (Gassen) is a town in Poland, in Lubusz Voivodeship, in Żary County.
The Jasna Góra Monastery (Jasna Góra, Luminous Mount, Fényes Hegy, Clarus Mons) in Częstochowa, Poland, is a famous Polish shrine to the Virgin Mary and one of the country's places of pilgrimage.
Jawor (Jauer) is a town in south-western Poland with 24,347 inhabitants (2006).
Józef Klemens Piłsudski (5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935) was a Polish statesman; he was Chief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal of Poland" (from 1920), and de facto leader (1926–35) of the Second Polish Republic as the Minister of Military Affairs.
Jerzy Kawalerowicz (19 January 1922 – 27 December 2007) was a Polish film director and politician, having been a member of Polish United Workers' Party from 1954 until its dissolution in 1990 and a deputy in Polish parliament since 1985 until 1989.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John III Sobieski (Jan III Sobieski; Jonas III Sobieskis; Ioannes III Sobiscius; 17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696), was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death, and one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Jolanta Kwaśniewska, née Konty (born 3 June 1955 in Gdańsk) is a Polish lawyer and charity activist who was First Lady of Poland between 1995 and 2005, as the wife of the then president Aleksander Kwaśniewski.
Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language.
Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz (6 February 1758, Skoki, near Brest – 21 May 1841, Paris) was a Polish poet, playwright and statesman.
Juliusz Słowacki (23 August 1809 – 3 April 1849) was a Polish Romantic poet.
Karol Maciej Szymanowski (3 October 188229 March 1937) was a Polish composer and pianist, the most celebrated Polish composer of the early 20th century.
Karta Polaka, literally meaning Pole's Card, but also translated as Polish Charter or Polish Card, is a document confirming belonging to the Polish nation, which may be given to individuals who cannot obtain dual citizenship in their own countries while belonging to the Polish nation according to conditions defined by law; and, who do not have prior Polish citizenship or permission to reside in Poland.
Kaunas (also see other names) is the second-largest city in Lithuania and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kaziuko mugė or Saint Casimir's Fair is a large annual folk arts and crafts fair in Vilnius, Lithuania, dating to the beginning of the 17th century.
Kędzierzyn-Koźle (Kandrzin-Cosel, 1934-45: Heydebreck O.S. and Cosel; Kandrzin-Koźle) is a town in southwestern Poland, the administrative centre of Kędzierzyn-Koźle County in Opole Voivodeship.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
The term Kniefall von Warschau, also referred to as Warschauer Kniefall, (both German for "Warsaw genuflection") refers to a gesture of humility and penance by German Chancellor Willy Brandt towards the victims of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
Kożuchów (Freystadt in Schlesien) is a town in Lubusz Voivodeship, Poland.
Kremenets (Крем'янець, Кременець, translit. Kremianets', Kremenets'; Krzemieniec; Kremenits) is a city of regional significance in the Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine.
Liceum Krzemienieckie (Крем'янецький ліцей); sometimes referred to as "the Volhynian Athens" and "Czacki's School") was a renowned Polish secondary school which existed 1805-31 and later, in the Interbellum, in 1922-39 in Krzemieniec (now Kremenets in Ukraine).
Krzesimir Marcin Dębski (born 26 October 1953 in Wałbrzych) is a Polish composer, conductor and jazz violinist.
Klub Sportowy Polonia (FK Polonija Vilnius) was a football club based in Vilnius, Lithuania.
Kurier Wileński (literally: Vilnian Courier) is the main Polish-language newspaper in Lithuania.
Kuzmyno (Кузьмино, translit. Kuz'myno), also referred to as Kalnik, Kuzmics, Kuzmino, Kuzmina, Kuz'myno, or in Beregszilvás, is a village located in the Mukacheve Raion (district) in the Zakarpattia Oblast (province) in western Ukraine.
Legnica (archaic Polish: Lignica, Liegnitz, Lehnice, Lignitium) is a city in southwestern Poland, in the central part of Lower Silesia, on the Kaczawa River (left tributary of the Oder) and the Czarna Woda.
Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is a historical region (dzielnica) of Poland; its capital is the city of Kraków.
Lewin Brzeski (Löwen) is a town in Brzeg County, Opole Voivodeship, Poland, with 5,843 inhabitants (2004).
The inhabitants of Lviv, Ukraine (Lwów; Lemberg) are commonly known in English as Leopolitans (from the Latin name for the city, Leopolis).
The following is a list of notable people from Lithuania's capital city of Vilnius (historically known by the names of Vilna/Wilna/Wilno).
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
The Lithuanian Academy of Sciences (Lietuvos mokslų akademija) or LAS, founded in 1941 as the Lithuanian SSR Academy of Sciences (Lithuanian: Lietuvos TSR Mokslų akademija), as an autonomous, state-subsidized establishment serving as a scientific advisory body to the government of Lithuanian SSR.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (Lithuanian SSR; Lietuvos Tarybų Socialistinė Respublika; Литовская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Litovskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), one of the USSR republics that existed in 1940–1941 and 1944–1990, was formed on the basis of the Soviet occupation rule.
Lithuanians (lietuviai, singular lietuvis/lietuvė) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people.
Lower Silesia (Dolny Śląsk; Dolní Slezsko; Silesia Inferior; Niederschlesien; Silesian German: Niederschläsing; Dolny Ślůnsk) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Upper Silesia is to the southeast.
Lower Silesian Voivodeship, or Lower Silesia Province (''Polish'': województwo dolnośląskie), in southwestern Poland, is one of the 16 voivodeships (provinces) into which Poland is divided.
Lubaczów (Любачів Liubachiv) is a town in southeastern Poland, close to the border with Ukraine, with 12,567 inhabitants Situated in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship (since 1999), it is the capital of Lubaczów County and is located northeast of Przemyśl.
Lubin, (Lüben) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship in south-western Poland.
Lubomierz is a town in Lwówek Śląski County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Lubusz Voivodeship, or Lubusz Province (in Polish, województwo lubuskie), is a voivodeship (province) in western Poland.
Lutsk (Luc'k,, Łuck, Luck) is a city on the Styr River in northwestern Ukraine.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
Lwów Eaglets (Orlęta Lwowskie) is a term of affection applied to the Polish teenagers who defended the city of Lwów (L'viv) in Eastern Galicia, during the Polish-Ukrainian War (1918–1919).
The Lwów dialect (gwara lwowska, Львівська ґвара) is a subdialect (gwara) of the Polish language characteristic of the inhabitants of the city of Lviv (Lwów, Львів), now in Ukraine.
Lwów Voivodeship (Województwo lwowskie) was an administrative unit of interwar Poland (1918–1939).
Maciej Płażyński (10 February 1958 – 10 April 2010) was a Polish liberal-conservative politician.
Malbork (Marienburg; Civitas Beatae Virginis) is a town in northern Poland in the Żuławy region (Vistula delta), with 38,478 inhabitants (2006).
The massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia (rzeź wołyńska, literally: Volhynian slaughter; Волинська трагедія., Volyn tragedy), were part of an ethnic cleansing operation carried out in Nazi German-occupied Poland by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) against Poles in the area of Volhynia, Polesia, Lublin region and Eastern Galicia beginning in 1943 and lasting up to 1945.
Masuria (Masuren, Masurian: Mazurÿ) is a region in northern Poland famous for its 2,000 lakes.
Mazovia (Mazowsze) is a historical region (dzielnica) in mid-north-eastern Poland.
Mazyr (Мазы́р,; Мозырь Mozir, Mozyrz) is a city in Gomel Region of Belarus on the Pripyat River about east of Pinsk and northwest of Chernobyl and is located at approximately.
Michael I (Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki, Mykolas I Kaributas Višnioveckis; May 31, 1640 – November 10, 1673) was the ruler of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from September 29, 1669 until his death in 1673.
Ministry of Culture and National Heritage of the Republic of Poland (Ministerstwo Kultury i Dziedzictwa Narodowego) is a governmental administration office concerned with various aspects of Polish culture.
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
Mirosław Hermaszewski (born September 15, 1941) is a retired Polish Air Force officer and cosmonaut.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
Mrągowo (from 1945-1947: Żądźbork) is a town in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship of northeastern Poland, the capital of Mrągowo County and the seat (though not part of) the Gmina Mrągowo.
Nad Niemnem is a Positivist novel written by Eliza Orzeszkowa in 1888 during the foreign Partitions of Poland.
Naujoji Vilnia (Nowa Wilejka) is a neighborhood in eastern Vilnius, Lithuania situated along the banks of the Vilnia River.
Navahrudak (Навагрудак), more commonly known by its Russian name Novogrudok (Новогрудок) (Naugardukas; Nowogródek; נאָווהאַרדאָק Novhardok) is a city in the Grodno Region of Belarus.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Neman, Nemunas, Nyoman, Niemen or Memel, a major Eastern European river.
Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, UMK) is located in Toruń, Poland.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire.
Nowa Sól (Neusalz an der Oder) is a town on the Oder River in Lubusz Voivodeship, western Poland.
Nowogródek Voivodeship (Województwo nowogródzkie) was a unit of administrative division of the Second Polish Republic between 1919 and 1939, with the capital in Nowogródek (now Navahrudak, Belarus).
Nysa (Neisse or Neiße) is a town in southwestern Poland on the Nysa Kłodzka river, situated in the Opole Voivodeship.
Oława is a town in south-western Poland with 32,674 inhabitants (2016).
The Oder (Czech, Lower Sorbian and Odra, Oder, Upper Sorbian: Wódra) is a river in Central Europe.
The Oder–Neisse line (granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej, Oder-Neiße-Grenze) is the international border between Germany and Poland.
Oles'ko (Олесько;; Olesko; Oleks) is an urban-type settlement in Busk Raion, Lviv Oblast (region) of western Ukraine.
Olsztyn (Allenstein; Old Polish: Holstin; Old Prussian: Alnāsteini or Alnestabs; Alnaštynas, Alnštynas, Alštynas (historical) and Olštynas (modern)) is a city on the Łyna River in northeastern Poland.
Open wagons form a large group of railway goods wagons designed primarily for the transportation of bulk goods that are not moisture-retentive and can usually be tipped, dumped or shovelled.
Opole (Oppeln, Silesian German: Uppeln, Uopole, Opolí) is a city located in southern Poland on the Oder River and the historical capital of Upper Silesia.
Opole Voivodeship, or Opole Province (województwo opolskie, Woiwodschaft Oppeln), is the smallest and least populated voivodeship (province) of Poland.
Osadniks (osadnik/osadnicy, "settler/settlers, colonist/colonists") were veterans of the Polish Army and civilians who were given or sold state land in the Kresy (current Western Belarus and western Ukraine) territory ceded to Poland by Polish-Soviet Riga Peace Treaty of 1921 (and occupied by the Soviet Union in 1939 and ceded to it after World War II).
The Ossolineum or the National Ossoliński Institute (Zakład Narodowy im., ZNiO) is a non-profit foundation located in Wrocław, Poland since 1947, and subsidized from the state budget.
The Pacification of Ukrainians was the punitive action by police and military of the Second Polish Republic against the Ukrainian minority in Poland (in Eastern Galicia — against the Ukrainian majority) in September–November 1930 in response to a wave of more than 2,200 acts of sabotage against Polish property in the region.
Pan Tadeusz (full title in English: Sir Thaddeus, or the Last Lithuanian Foray: A Nobleman's Tale from the Years of 1811 and 1812 in Twelve Books of Verse; Polish original: Pan Tadeusz, czyli ostatni zajazd na Litwie. Historia szlachecka z roku 1811 i 1812 we dwunastu księgach wierszem) is an epic poem by the Polish poet, writer and philosopher Adam Mickiewicz.
Pan-Germanism (Pangermanismus or Alldeutsche Bewegung), also occasionally known as Pan-Germanicism, is a pan-nationalist political idea.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Paweł Piotr Kukiz (born 24 June 1963) is a Polish politician, singer and actor.
The Peace of Riga, also known as the Treaty of Riga (Traktat Ryski), was signed in Riga on 18 March 1921, between Poland, Soviet Russia (acting also on behalf of Soviet Belarus) and Soviet Ukraine.
Pidhaitsi (Підгайці, Pidhajci, Podhajce) is a small city in the Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine.
Pinsk (Пі́нск, Pinsk; Пи́нск; Пи́нськ, Pyns'k; Pińsk; Yiddish/פינסק, Pinskas) is a city in Belarus, in the Polesia region, traversed by the river Pina, at the confluence of the Pina and Pripyat rivers.
Podolia or Podilia (Подíлля, Podillja, Подо́лье, Podolʹje., Podolya, Podole, Podolien, Podolė) is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine and in northeastern Moldova (i.e. northern Transnistria).
LKS Pogoń Lwów is a former Polish professional sports club which was located in Lwów (now Lviv in Ukraine), and existed from 1904 until the outbreak of World War II in 1939.
Pokuttya or Pokuttia (Покуття, Pocuția, Pokucie, Покутье) is a historical area of East-Central Europe, between upper Prut and Cheremosh rivers, in modern Ukraine.
The Polish minority in Belarus numbers officially about 294,549 according to 2009 census.
The Polish minority in Latvia numbers about 51,548 and (according to the Latvian data from 2011) forms 2.3% of the population of Latvia.
The Polish minority in Lithuania numbered 200,317 persons, according to the Lithuanian census of 2011, or 6.6% of the total population of Lithuania.
The Polish minority in the Soviet Union refers to people of Polish descent who used to reside in the Soviet Union before its 1991 dissolution (in the Autumn of Nations), and who live in post-Soviet, sovereign countries of Europe and Asia as their significant minorities at present time, including the Kresy macroregion (Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine), Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan among others.
The Polish minority in Ukraine officially numbers about 144,130 (according to the 2001 census), (Розподіл населення окремих національностей за іншими мовами, крім рідної, якими володіють), Ukrainian Statistical Bureau (Державний комітет статистики України).
Polesia, Polesie or Polesye (Палессе Paliessie, Полісся Polissia or Polisia, Polesie, Поле́сье Poles'e) is a natural and historical region starting from the farthest edges of Central Europe and into Eastern Europe, stretching from parts of Eastern Poland, touching similarly named Podlasie, straddling the Belarus–Ukraine border and into western Russia.
Polesie Voivodeship (województwo poleskie) was an administrative unit of interwar Poland (1918–1939).
The Polish census of 1931 or Second General Census in Poland (Drugi Powszechny Spis Ludności) was the second census taken in sovereign Poland during the interwar period, performed on December 9, 1931 by the Main Bureau of Statistics.
The Polish Committee of National Liberation (Polish: Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego, PKWN), also known as the Lublin Committee, was a puppet provisional government of Poland,.
The Polish diaspora refers to Poles who live outside Poland.
The Polish government-in-exile, formally known as the Government of the Republic of Poland in exile (Rząd Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej na uchodźstwie), was the government in exile of Poland formed in the aftermath of the Invasion of Poland of September 1939, and the subsequent occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, which brought to an end the Second Polish Republic.
Polish historic regions are regions that were related to a former Polish state, or are within present-day Poland without being identified in its administrative division.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Polish National Districts (called in Russian "полрайоны", polrajony, an abbreviation for "польские национальные районы", "Polish national raions") were in the interbellum period possessing some form of a national autonomy in the Ukrainian and Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republics of the USSR.
The Polish National-Territorial Region (Polski Kraj Narodowo-Terytorialny) was an autonomous region in Lithuania, self-proclaimed by the local Poles on 6 September 1990.
The Polish Operation of the Soviet security service in 1937–1938 was a mass operation of the NKVD carried out in the Soviet Union against Poles (labeled by the Soviets as "agents") during the period of the Great Purge.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
The Polish population transfers in 1944–46 from the eastern half of prewar Poland (also known as the expulsions of Poles from the Kresy macroregion), refer to the forced migrations of Poles toward the end – and in the aftermath – of World War II.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The Polish–Lithuanian War was an armed conflict between newly independent Lithuania and Poland in the aftermath of World War I. The conflict primarily concerned territorial control of the Vilnius Region, including Vilnius, and the Suwałki Region, including the towns of Suwałki, Augustów, and Sejny.
The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.
The Polish–Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the Second Polish Republic and Ukrainian forces (both West Ukrainian People's Republic and Ukrainian People's Republic).
Polonization (or Polonisation; polonizacja)In Polish historiography, particularly pre-WWII (e.g., L. Wasilewski. As noted in Смалянчук А. Ф. (Smalyanchuk 2001) Паміж краёвасцю і нацыянальнай ідэяй. Польскі рух на беларускіх і літоўскіх землях. 1864–1917 г. / Пад рэд. С. Куль-Сяльверставай. – Гродна: ГрДУ, 2001. – 322 с. (2004). Pp.24, 28.), an additional distinction between the Polonization (polonizacja) and self-Polonization (polszczenie się) has been being made, however, most modern Polish researchers don't use the term polszczenie się.
Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.
The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
Prochowice (Parchwitz) is a town in Legnica County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Przemyśl (Premissel, Peremyshl, Перемишль less often Перемишель) is a city in south-eastern Poland with 66,756 inhabitants, as of June 2009.
Równe (Roben) is a village located in Poland, in Opole Voivodeship, Głubczyce County, Gmina Głubczyce, near the border with the Czech Republic.
Recovered Territories (Ziemie Odzyskane, literally "Regained Lands") was an official term used by the People's Republic of Poland to describe the territory of the former Free City of Danzig and the parts of pre-war Germany that became part of Poland after World War II.
Red Ruthenia or Red Rus' (Ruthenia Rubra; Russia Rubra; Chervona Rus'; Ruś Czerwona, Ruś Halicka; Chervonnaya Rus') is a term used since the Middle Ages for a region now comprising south-eastern Poland and adjoining parts of western Ukraine.
Reichskommissariat (Reich Commissariat) is the German designation for a type of administrative entity headed by a government official known as a Reichskommissar (Reich Commissioner).
Nazi Germany established the Reichskommissariat Ostland (RKO) in 1941 as the civilian occupation regime in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), the northeastern part of Poland and the west part of the Belarusian SSR during World War II.
During World War II, Reichskommissariat Ukraine (abbreviated as RKU), was the civilian occupation regime (Reichskommissariat) of much of Nazi German-occupied Ukraine (which included adjacent areas of modern-day Belarus and pre-war Second Polish Republic).
Rejowiec is a town in Chełm County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland.
Repatriation of Polish population in the years of 1955–1959 (also known as the second repatriation, to distinguish it from the ''first repatriation'' in the years 1944-1946) was the second wave of forced repatriation (in fact, deportation) of the Poles living in the territories annexed by the Soviet Union (see Kresy Wschodnie).
The Republic of Central Lithuania or Middle Lithuania (Republika Litwy Środkowej, Vidurio Lietuvos Respublika, Рэспубліка Сярэдняе Літвы / Respublika Siaredniaje Litvy), or Central Lithuania (Litwa Środkowa, Vidurio Lietuva or Vidurinė Lietuva, Сярэдняя Літва / Siaredniaja Litva), was a short-lived political entity, which did not gain international recognition.
Rivne (Рівне; Rovno; Równe) is a historic city in western Ukraine and the historical region of Volhynia.
Romuald Traugutt (16 January 1826 – 5 August 1864) was a Polish general and war hero best known for commanding the January Uprising of 1863.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Ruthenians and Ruthenes are Latin exonyms which were used in Western Europe for the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples, Rus' people with Ruthenian Greek Catholic religious background and Orthodox believers which lived outside the Rus'.
Ryszard Kapuściński (March 4, 1932 – January 23, 2007) was a Polish journalist, photographer, poet and author.
Rzeczpospolita is a nationwide daily economic and legal newspaper and the only conservative-liberal newspaper in Poland.
Sambir (Самбір, Sambor) is a city in Lviv Oblast, Ukraine.
Sami swoi (translated as All Friends Here or Our Folks; literally "only ourselves") (1967) is the first part of a Polish comedic trilogy of movies by Sylwester Chęciński.
Samuel Linde (Thorn, now Toruń, 11 or 24 April 1771 – 8 August 1847, Warsaw) was a linguist, librarian, and lexicographer of the Polish language.
Sanatorium Under the Sign of the Hourglass is the English title of Sanatorium Pod Klepsydrą, a novel by the Polish writer and painter Bruno Schulz, published in 1937.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
Self-Defence of Lithuania and Belarus (Samoobrona Litwy i Białorusi) was a voluntary military formation created during the reconstitution of sovereign Poland towards the end of World War One in the Kresy macroregion.
The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament, the lower house being the 'Sejm'.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Silesian University of Technology (Polish name: Politechnika Śląska IPA) is a university located in Gliwice, Silesia, Poland.
The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet Union military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939.
In the aftermath of the German and Soviet invasion of Poland, which took place in September 1939, the territory of Poland was divided in half between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Stanisław "Rewera" Potocki (1589–1667) was a Polish noble, magnate and military leader.
Stanisław II Augustus (also Stanisław August Poniatowski; born Stanisław Antoni Poniatowski; 17 January 1732 – 12 February 1798), who reigned as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1764 to 1795, was the last monarch of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Stanisław Herman Lem (12 or 13 September 1921 – 27 March 2006) was a Polish writer of science fiction, philosophy, and satire, and a trained physician.
General Stanisław Maczek (31 March 1892 – 11 December 1994) was a Polish tank commander of World War II, whose division was instrumental in the Allied liberation of France, closing the Falaise pocket, resulting in the destruction of 14 German Wehrmacht and SS divisions.
Stanisław Moniuszko (May 5, 1819, Ubiel, Minsk Governorate – June 4, 1872, Warsaw, Congress Poland) was a Polish composer, conductor and teacher.
Stanisławów Voivodeship (Województwo stanisławowskie) was an administrative district of the interwar Poland (1920–1939).
Suwałki (Suvalkai, סואוואַלק) is a city in northeastern Poland with 69,210 inhabitants (2011).
The Suwałki Agreement, Treaty of Suvalkai, or Suwalki Treaty (Umowa suwalska, Suvalkų sutartis) was an agreement signed in the town of Suwałki between Poland and Lithuania on October 7, 1920.
A sybirak (plural: sybiracy) is a person resettled to Siberia.
Sylwester Chęciński (born May 21, 1930 in Susiec, Poland) is a Polish film and television director.
Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.
Szprotawa (Sprottau) is a town in Poland, in Lubusz Voivodeship, in Żagań County.
Tadeusz Łomnicki (18 July 1927 in Podhajce near Ternopil (now Pidhaitsi, Ukraine) – 22 February 1992 in Poznań) was a Polish actor, one of the most notable stage and film artists of his time in Poland.
Tadeusz Borowski (12 November 1922 – 1 July 1951) was a Polish writer and journalist.
Tadeusz Czacki (28 August 1765 in Poryck, Volhynia – 8 February 1813 in Dubno) was a Polish historian, pedagogue and numismatist.
Tadeusz Isakowicz-Zaleski (translit) is a Polish Roman Catholic and Armenian Catholic priest, author and activist.
Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kościuszko (Andrew Thaddeus Bonaventure Kosciuszko; February 4 or 12, 1746 – October 15, 1817) was a Polish-Lithuanian military engineer, statesman, and military leader who became a national hero in Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, and the United States.
Tadeusz Konwicki (22 June 1926 – 7 January 2015) was a Polish writer and film director, as well as a member of the Polish Language Council.
Tarnopol Voivodeship (Województwo tarnopolskie) was an administrative region of interwar Poland (1918–1939) with an area of 16,500 km² and provincial capital in Tarnopol.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
The Tehran Conference (codenamed Eureka) was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran.
Telšiai, known also by several alternative names including Telsiai and Telschi in English sources, is a city in Lithuania with about 25,000 inhabitants.
Ternopil (Ternopil',; Tarnopol; Ternopol'; Tarnopol; Ternepol/Tarnopl; Tarnopol) is a city in western Ukraine, located on the banks of the Seret River.
17 days after the German invasion of Poland in 1939, which marked the beginning of World War II, the Soviet Union invaded the eastern regions of the Second Polish Republic, which Poland re-established during the Polish–Soviet War and referred to as the "Kresy", and annexed territories totaling with a population of 13,299,000 inhabitants including Lithuanians,Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Poles, Jews, Czechs and others.
The Manuscript Found in Saragossa (also known in English as The Saragossa Manuscript) is a frame-tale novel written in French at the turn of 18th and 19th century by Polish author Count Jan Potocki (1761–1815).
Toruń (Thorn) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula River.
Trakai (see names section for alternate and historic names) is a historic city and lake resort in Lithuania.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.
The Treaty of Warsaw (also the Polish-Ukrainian or Petliura-Piłsudski Alliance or Agreement) of April 1920 was a military-economical alliance between the Second Polish Republic, represented by Józef Piłsudski, and the Ukrainian People's Republic, represented by Symon Petliura, against Bolshevik Russia.
Trzcińsko-Zdrój (Bad Schönfließ; Szénflét) is a town in Gryfino County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland, with 2,591 inhabitants (2005).
Tutejszy (Тутэйшыя, Tutejšyja; Тутешній, Tutešnij; Tuteišiai; Tuteiši, literally meaning “locals”, “from here”) was a self-identification of rural population in mixed-lingual areas of Eastern and Northern Europe, including Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, and Latvia, in particular, in Polesie and Podlasie.
TVP Polonia (also known as TV Polonia, Telewizja Polonia or Telewizja Polska Polonia) is the international channel of the Telewizja Polska (TVP).
TVP2 (TVP Dwa, Program II Telewizji Polskiej, "Dwójka") is a Polish public mainstream TV channel operated by TVP.
The Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Українська повстанська армія, УПА, Ukrayins’ka Povstans’ka Armiya, UPA) was a Ukrainian nationalist paramilitary and later partisan army that engaged in a series of guerrilla conflicts during World War II against Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and both Underground and Communist Poland.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.
The Union of Lublin (unia lubelska; Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Union of Poles in Belarus (Związek Polaków na Białorusi, Саюз Палякаў Беларусі) is an organization located in Belarus.
The University of Wrocław (UWr; Uniwersytet Wrocławski; Universität Breslau; Universitas Wratislaviensis) is a public research university located in Wrocław, Poland.
Ustrzyki Dolne (Istrik, Устри́ки-Долі́шні "Ustrýky-Dolíshni") is a town in south-eastern Poland, situated in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship (since 1999) close to the border with Ukraine.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vilnius Region (Vilniaus kraštas, Wileńszczyzna, Віленшчына, also formerly known in English: as Wilno Region or Vilna Region) is the territory in the present-day Lithuania and Belarus that was originally inhabited by ethnic Baltic tribes and was a part of Lithuania proper, but came under East Slavic and Polish cultural influences over time.
Vilnius University (Vilniaus universitetas; former names exist) is the oldest university in the Baltic states and one of the oldest in Northern Europe.
A voivodeship is the area administered by a voivode (Governor) in several countries of central and eastern Europe.
Volhynia, also Volynia or Volyn (Wołyń, Volýn) is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe straddling between south-eastern Poland, parts of south-western Belarus, and western Ukraine.
The Volhynia Experiment was a cultural and political program by the interwar Polish government in the province of Volhynia whose purpose was to create a Ukrainian identity that was also loyal to the Polish state.
Voŭčyn or Volchin (Воўчын, Vaučinė, Wołczyn, Волчин) is a village in Kamenets Raion, Brest Region, Belarus.
Vyshnivets (Вишнівець, translit. Vyshnivets’; Wiśniowiec) is an urban-type settlement in the Zbarazh Raion (district) of the Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine.
Wacław Piotr Rzewuski (1706–1779) was a Polish dramatist and poet as well as a military commander and a Grand Crown Hetman.
Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship or Warmia-Masuria Province or Warmia-Mazury Province (in Województwo warmińsko-mazurskie,.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Władysław Gomułka (6 February 1905 – 1 September 1982) was a Polish communist politician.
Wesoła Lwowska Fala (Polish for Lwów's Merry Wave) was a weekly radio program of the Polish Radio Lwow, broadcast every Sunday by the Polish Radio.
West Pomeranian Voivodeship or West Pomerania Province (in Polish, województwo zachodniopomorskie.
The West Ukrainian People's Republic (Західноукраїнська Народна Республіка., Zakhidnoukrayins’ka Narodna Respublika, ZUNR) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia.
Western Belorussia or Western Belarus (Заходняя Беларусь: Zachodniaja Biełaruś; Zachodnia Białoruś; Западная Белоруссия: Zapadnaja Belorussija) is a historical region of modern-day Belarus comprising the territory which belonged to the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period in accordance with the international peace treaties.
Western Krai (Западный край) is an unofficial name of the westernmost parts of the Russian Empire, excluding the territory of Congress Poland.
Western Ukraine or West Ukraine (Західна Україна) is a geographical and historical relative term used in reference to the western territories of Ukraine.
Wiktor Thommée (1881–1962) was a Polish military commander and a brigadier general of the Polish Army.
The Wilno Voivodeship (województwo wileńskie) was one of 16 Voivodeships in the Second Polish Republic, with the capital in Wilno (now Vilnius, Lithuania).
Wincenty Pol (20 April 1807 – 2 December 1872) was a Polish poet and geographer.
With Fire and Sword (Ogniem i mieczem) is a historical novel by the Polish author Henryk Sienkiewicz, published in 1884.
Wołów (Wohlau, Volov) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship in south-western Poland.
Wołczyn (Konstadt) is a village in Kluczbork County, Opole Voivodeship, Poland, with 6,033 inhabitants.
Wołyń Voivodeship or Volhynian Voivodeship (Województwo Wołyńskie, Palatinatus Volhynensis) was an administrative region of interwar Poland (1918–1939) with an area of 35,754 km², 22 cities, and provincial capital in Łuck.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Mass evacuation, forced displacement, expulsion, and deportation of millions of people took place across most countries involved in World War II.
World War III (WWIII or WW3) and the Third World War are names given to a hypothetical third worldwide large-scale military conflict subsequent to World War I and World War II.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
Wschowa (Fraustadt) is a town in the Lubusz Voivodeship in Poland with 14,607 inhabitants (2004).
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
Zakerzonia (Закерзоння, Trans-Curzonia; Zakerzonie) is an informal name for the territories of Poland to the west of the Curzon Line which used to have sizeable Ukrainian populations, including significant Lemko, Boyko and Carpatho-Ruthenian populations, before the invasion of Poland by the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany in 1939, and were claimed as ethnically Ukrainian territories by Ukrainian nationalists in the aftermath of World War II.
Zalavas (Zułowo, Зулаў, Zulaŭ) is a small village in Švenčionys district municipality, Lithuania.
Zamość (Yiddish: זאמאשטש Zamoshtsh) is a city in southeastern Poland, situated in the southern part of Lublin Voivodeship (since 1999), about from Lublin, from Warsaw and from the border with Ukraine.
Zavosse (Belarusian: Завоссе, Завосьсе; Polish: Zaosie; Zaosė) is a village in Belarus, in the Baranavichy Raion of Brest Region.
Zbigniew Cybulski (November 3, 1927 – January 8, 1967) was a Polish actor, one of the best-known and most popular personalities of the post-World War II history of Poland.
Zbigniew Gołąb (born 16 March 1923, Nowy Targ – 24 March 1994, Chicago) was a Polish American linguist and Slavist.
Zhytomyr (Žytomyr; Žitomir; Żytomierz; Žitomir) is a city in the north of the western half of Ukraine.
Zielona Góra (Grünberg in Schlesien) is the largest city in Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland, with 138,512 inhabitants (2015).
Zygmunt Gloger (3 November 1845 in Tybory-Kamianka – 16 August 1910 in Warsaw) was a Polish historian, archaeologist, geographer and ethnographer, bearer of the Wilczekosy coat of arms.
The 1951 Polish–Soviet territorial exchange or Polish-Soviet border adjustment treaty of 1951 was a border adjustment signed in Moscow between the People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union regarding roughly of land, along their mutual border.