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Index Krupp

The Krupp family (see pronunciation), a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, became famous for their production of steel, artillery, ammunition, and other armaments. [1]

234 relations: Adolf Hitler, AEG, Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation, Allied High Commission, Allied-occupied Germany, Ammunition, Anti-aircraft warfare, Anti-communism, Archbishopric of Salzburg, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, Arms race, Armstrong Whitworth, Arndt von Bohlen und Halbach, Artillery, AVR reactor, Škoda Works, Balkan Wars, Ballistite, Bangor and Aroostook Railroad, Bathyscaphe Trieste, Batterie Pommern, Battle of Gravelotte, Battle of Stalingrad, Battle of Wissembourg (1870), Battleship, Benjamin Huntsman, Berndorf, Lower Austria, Bertha Krupp, Berthold Beitz, Bessemer process, Big Bertha (howitzer), Black Death, Blanking and piercing, Bofors, Breech-loading weapon, Bremen, British Empire, Cannon, Capri, Cemented carbide, Challenger Deep, Chrysler Building, Claims Conference, Coal mining, Cold War, Company, Company town, Conglomerate (company), Consonant, ..., Continental System, Cooperative, Corporation, Counter-revolutionary, Crucible steel, Cruiser, Decartelization, Decolonisation of Africa, Denazification, Deutsche Schiff- und Maschinenbau, Dunkirk, Dynasty, Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope, Employee benefits, Essen, Eugenics, Europe, European Economic Community, Exposition Universelle (1855), Extermination through labour, Family business, Führerprinzip, Finery forge, Forced labour under German rule during World War II, Foundation (nonprofit), Foundry, France, Franco-Prussian War, Frederick William IV of Prussia, Friedrich Alfred Krupp, Friedrich Krupp, Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft, Fritz Thyssen, Front organization, Fulling, Fuse (explosives), German cruiser Prinz Eugen, German Empire, Germany, Great Venezuela Railway, Guild, Gun, Gunboat diplomacy, Gunsmith, Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Hans von Kaltenborn-Stachau, Hans von Seeckt, Henry Bohlen, Hitler Youth, Hoesch AG, House of Hohenzollern, Howitzer, Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic, IG Farben, Ingot, Iran, Iranian Revolution, Iron Curtain, Iron–nickel alloy, John J. McCloy, Joint-stock company, Joseph Wirth, Judiciary of Germany, Julius von Verdy du Vernois, Kapp Putsch, Kharkiv, Kiel, Kingdom of Prussia, Koekelare, Konrad Adenauer, Korean War, Kramatorsk, Krupp, Krupp Trial, Kurt von Schleicher, Labor camp, Landsberg Prison, Lange Max Museum, Lex Krupp, Liberty ship, List of companies of Germany, List of German companies by employees in 1907, Mannesmann, Mariana Trench, Martin Bormann, Meppen, Munich Agreement, Muzzleloader, Napoleon, Napoleon III, Napoleonic Wars, NATO, Nazi Germany, Night of the Long Knives, Nuremberg trials, Oboe (navigation), Occupation of the Ruhr, Odisha, Otto von Bismarck, Pahlavi dynasty, Panic of 1873, Panzer I, Panzer IV, Paris Gun, Patent, Paternalism, Paul von Hindenburg, Polysius, Power (physics), Primogeniture, Proving ground, Racial policy of Nazi Germany, Radio telescope, RAG AG, Railway gun, Railway tire, Reichswehr, Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany, Rheinmetall, Rhineland, Rifled breech loader, Rourkela, Royal Air Force, Royal Dutch Shell, Royalty payment, Rudolf Diesel, Ruhr, Ruhr (river), Ruhr Red Army, Schneider-Creusot, Schutzstaffel, Schwerer Gustav, Sheffield, Siemens, Smelting, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Sole proprietorship, Spelling pronunciation, State within a state, Steel, Steel casting, Strategic bombing during World War II, Subsequent Nuremberg trials, Takeover, Tank, Telefunken, The Arms of Krupp, The Great Exhibition, Thirty Years' War, Thyssen AG, ThyssenKrupp, Treaty of Versailles, Tungsten carbide, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, U-boat, Unification of Germany, Unilever, United States, United Technologies, Venezuelan crisis of 1902–03, Vickers, Villa Hügel, Vowel length, War crime, War reparations, Water wheel, Watermill, Weapon, Weimar Republic, Werfen, West Germany, Western Europe, Westphalia, Wilhelm II, German Emperor, William I, German Emperor, William Manchester, Wirtschaftswunder, World War I, World War II, 38 cm SK L/45 "Max", 6-pounder gun, 7.7 cm FK 96, 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41. Expand index (184 more) »

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AG (AEG) (German: "General electricity company") was a German producer of electrical equipment founded as the Deutsche Edison-Gesellschaft für angewandte Elektricität in 1883 in Berlin by Emil Rathenau.

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Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach

Alfried Felix Alwyn Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach (13 August 1907 – 30 July 1967), often referred to as Alfried Krupp, was an industrialist, a competitor in Olympic yacht races and a member of the Krupp family, which has been prominent in German industry since the early 19th century.

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Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation

The Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation (Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach-Stiftung) is a major German philanthropic foundation, created by and named in honour of Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, former owner and head of the Krupp company, once the largest company in Europe.

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Allied High Commission

The Allied High Commission (also known as the High Commission for Occupied Germany, HICOG; in German Alliierte Hohe Kommission, AHK) was established by the United States of America, the United Kingdom, and France after the 1948 breakdown of the Allied Control Council to regulate and supervise the development of the newly established Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany).

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Allied-occupied Germany

Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration).

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Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon.

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Anti-aircraft warfare

Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).

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Anti-communism is opposition to communism.

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Archbishopric of Salzburg

The Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg (Fürsterzbistum Salzburg) was an ecclesiastical principality and state of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria

Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia and, from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.

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Arms race

An arms race, in its original usage, is a competition between two or more states to have the best armed forces.

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Armstrong Whitworth

Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd was a major British manufacturing company of the early years of the 20th century.

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Arndt von Bohlen und Halbach

Arndt von Bohlen und Halbach (24 January 1938 – 8 May 1986) was a German heir and the last member of the Krupp dynasty.

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Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.

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AVR reactor

The AVR reactor (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor) was a prototype pebble bed reactor, located immediately adjacent to Jülich Research Centre in West Germany, constructed in 1960, grid connected in 1967 and shut down in 1988.

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Škoda Works

The Škoda Works (Škodovy závody) was one of the largest European industrial conglomerates of the 20th century, founded by Czech engineer Emil Škoda in 1859 in Plzeň, then in the Kingdom of Bohemia, Austrian Empire.

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Balkan Wars

The Balkan Wars (Balkan Savaşları, literally "the Balkan Wars" or Balkan Faciası, meaning "the Balkan Tragedy") consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913.

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Ballistite is a smokeless propellant made from two high explosives, nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine.

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Bangor and Aroostook Railroad

The Bangor and Aroostook Railroad was a United States railroad company that brought rail service to Aroostook County in northern Maine.

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Bathyscaphe Trieste

Trieste is a Swiss-designed, Italian-built deep-diving research bathyscaphe, which with its crew of two reached a record maximum depth of about, in the deepest known part of the Earth's oceans, the Challenger Deep, in the Mariana Trench near Guam in the Pacific.

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Batterie Pommern

Batterie Pommern, also known as Lange Max, was the world's biggest gun in 1917, during World War I. The German gun was of type 38 cm SK L/45 "Max" and had a modified design by Krupp compared to earlier German 38 cm gun types.

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Battle of Gravelotte

The Battle of Gravelotte (or Gravelotte–St. Privat) on 18 August 1870 was the largest battle during the Franco-Prussian War, named after Gravelotte, a village in Lorraine between Metz and the former French–German frontier.

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Battle of Stalingrad

The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.

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Battle of Wissembourg (1870)

The Battle of Wissembourg or Battle of Weissenburg, the first of the Franco-Prussian War, was joined when three German army corps surprised the small French garrison at Wissembourg on 4 August 1870.

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A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of large caliber guns.

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Benjamin Huntsman

Benjamin Huntsman (4 June 170420 June 1776) was an English inventor and manufacturer of cast or crucible steel.

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Berndorf, Lower Austria

Berndorf is a town in the district of Baden in Lower Austria in Austria.

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Bertha Krupp

Bertha Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach (29 March 1886 – 21 September 1957) was a member of the Krupp family, Germany's leading industrial dynasty of the 19th and 20th centuries.

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Berthold Beitz

Berthold Beitz (26 September 1913 – 30 July 2013) was a German industrialist.

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Bessemer process

The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass production of steel from molten pig iron before the development of the open hearth furnace.

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Big Bertha (howitzer)

Big Bertha (lit) is the name of a type of super-heavy siege artillery developed by the armaments manufacturer Krupp in Germany and used in World Wars I and II.

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Black Death

The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.

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Blanking and piercing

Blanking and piercing are shearing processes in which a punch and die are used to modify webs.

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Bofors AB is a Swedish arms manufacturer.

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Breech-loading weapon

A breech-loading gun is a firearm in which the cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded into a chamber integral to the rear portion of a barrel.

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The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.

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Capri (usually pronounced by English speakers) is an island located in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrentine Peninsula, on the south side of the Gulf of Naples in the Campania region of Italy.

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Cemented carbide

Cemented carbide is a hard material used extensively as cutting tool material, as well as other industrial applications.

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Challenger Deep

The Challenger Deep is the deepest known point in the Earth's seabed hydrosphere, with a depth of by direct measurement from submersibles, and slightly more by sonar bathymetry.

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Chrysler Building

The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco–style skyscraper located on the East Side of Midtown Manhattan in New York City, at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue in the Turtle Bay neighborhood of Manhattan.

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Claims Conference

The Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany, or Claims Conference, represents the world's Jews in negotiating for compensation and restitution for victims of Nazi persecution and their heirs.

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Coal mining

Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity made up of an association of people for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise.

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Company town

A company town is a place where practically all stores and housing are owned by the one company that is also the main employer.

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Conglomerate (company)

A conglomerate is the combination of two or more corporations operating in entirely different industries under one corporate group, usually involving a parent company and many subsidiaries.

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In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Continental System

The Continental System or Continental Blockade (known in French as Blocus continental) was the foreign policy of Napoleon I of France against the United Kingdom during the Napoleonic Wars.

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A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise".

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A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.

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A counter-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part.

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Crucible steel

Crucible steel is steel made by melting pig iron (cast iron), iron, and sometimes steel, often along with sand, glass, ashes, and other fluxes, in a crucible.

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A cruiser is a type of warship.

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Decartelization is the transition of a national economy from monopoly control by groups of large businesses, known as cartels, to a free market economy.

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Decolonisation of Africa

The decolonisation of Africa took place in the mid-to-late 1950s, very suddenly, with little preparation.

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Denazification (Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary, and politics of any remnants of the National Socialist ideology (Nazism).

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Deutsche Schiff- und Maschinenbau

Deutsche Schiff- und Maschinenbau Aktiengesellschaft (abbreviated Deschimag) was a cooperation of eight German shipyards in the period 1926 to 1945.

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Dunkirk (Dunkerque; Duinkerke(n)) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.

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A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.

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Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope

The Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope is a radio telescope in the Ahr Hills (part of the Eifel) in Bad Münstereifel, Germany.

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Employee benefits

Employee benefits and (especially in British English) benefits in kind (also called fringe benefits, perquisites, or perks) include various types of non-wage compensation provided to employees in addition to their normal wages or salaries.

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Essen (Latin: Assindia) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.

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Exposition Universelle (1855)

The Exposition Universelle of 1855 was an International Exhibition held on the Champs-Élysées in Paris from 15 May to 15 November 1855.

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Extermination through labour

Extermination through labour is a term sometimes used to describe the operation of concentration camp, death camp and forced labour systems in Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, North Korea, and elsewhere, defined as the willful or accepted killing of forced labourers or prisoners through excessively heavy labour, malnutrition and inadequate care.

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Family business

A family business is a commercial organization in which decision-making is influenced by multiple generations of a family — related by blood or marriage or adoption — who has both the ability to influence the vision of the business and the willingness to use this ability to pursue distinctive goals.

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The Führerprinzip (German for "leader principle") prescribed the fundamental basis of political authority in the governmental structures of the Third Reich.

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Finery forge

A finery forge is a hearth used to fine (i.e., produce, refine) wrought iron, through the decarburization of the pig iron.

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Forced labour under German rule during World War II

The use of forced labour and slavery in Nazi Germany and throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II took place on an unprecedented scale.

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Foundation (nonprofit)

A foundation (also a charitable foundation) is a legal category of nonprofit organization that will typically either donate funds and support to other organizations, or provide the source of funding for its own charitable purposes.

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A foundry is a factory that produces metal castings.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Franco-Prussian War

The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.

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Frederick William IV of Prussia

Frederick William IV (Friedrich Wilhelm IV.; 15 October 17952 January 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861.

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Friedrich Alfred Krupp

Friedrich Alfred Krupp (17 February 1854 – 22 November 1902) was a German steel manufacturer of the company Krupp.

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Friedrich Krupp

Friedrich Carl Krupp (Essen, 17 July 1787 – Essen, 8 October 1826) was a German steel manufacturer and founder of the Krupp family commercial empire that is now subsumed into ThyssenKrupp AG.

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Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft

Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft (often just called Germaniawerft, "Germania shipyard") was a German shipbuilding company, located in the harbour at Kiel, and one of the largest and most important builders of U-boats for the Kaiserliche Marine in World War I and the Kriegsmarine in World War II.

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Fritz Thyssen

Friedrich "Fritz" Thyssen (9 November 1873 – 8 February 1951) was a German businessman, born into one of Germany's leading industrial families.

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Front organization

A front organization is any entity set up by and controlled by another organization, such as intelligence agencies, organized crime groups, banned organizations, religious or political groups, advocacy groups, or corporations.

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Fulling, also known as tucking or walking (spelt waulking in Scotland), is a step in woollen clothmaking which involves the cleansing of cloth (particularly wool) to eliminate oils, dirt, and other impurities, and making it thicker.

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Fuse (explosives)

In an explosive, pyrotechnic device, or military munition, a fuse (or fuze) is the part of the device that initiates function.

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German cruiser Prinz Eugen

Prinz Eugen was an heavy cruiser, the third member of the class of five vessels.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Great Venezuela Railway

The Great Venezuela Railway (Gran Ferrocarril de Venezuela) was a railway from Caracas to Valencia.

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A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.

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A gun is a tubular ranged weapon typically designed to pneumatically discharge projectiles that are solid (most guns) but can also be liquid (as in water guns/cannons and projected water disruptors) or even charged particles (as in a plasma gun) and may be free-flying (as with bullets and artillery shells) or tethered (as with Taser guns, spearguns and harpoon guns).

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Gunboat diplomacy

In international politics, gunboat diplomacy (or "Big Stick ideology" in U.S. history) refers to the pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of conspicuous displays of naval powerimplying or constituting a direct threat of warfare, should terms not be agreeable to the superior force.

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A gunsmith is a person who repairs, modifies, designs, or builds guns.

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Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach

Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach (7 August 1870 – 16 January 1950) ran the German Friedrich Krupp AG heavy industry conglomerate from 1909 until 1941.

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Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907

The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.

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Hans von Kaltenborn-Stachau

Hans Karl Georg von Kaltenborn-Stachau (23 March 1836, in Magdeburg – 16 February 1898, in Braunschweig) was a Prussian General of the Infantry and Minister of War.

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Hans von Seeckt

Johannes Friedrich "Hans" von Seeckt (22 April 1866 – 27 December 1936) was a German military officer who served as Chief of Staff to August von Mackensen, and was a central figure in planning the victories Mackensen achieved for Germany in the east during the First World War.

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Henry Bohlen

Henry Bohlen (October 22, 1810 – August 22, 1862) was a German-American Union Brigadier General of the American Civil War.

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Hitler Youth

The Hitler Youth (German:, often abbreviated as HJ in German) was the youth organisation of the Nazi Party in Germany.

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Hoesch AG

Hoesch AG was an important steel and mining company with locations in the Ruhr area and Siegen.

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House of Hohenzollern

The House of Hohenzollern is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania.

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A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.

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Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic

During a period between 1918 and January 1924, the German mark suffered hyperinflation.

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IG Farben

IG Farben was a German chemical and pharmaceutical industry conglomerate.

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An ingot is a piece of relatively pure material, usually metal, that is cast into a shape suitable for further processing.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iranian Revolution

The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.

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Iron Curtain

The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.

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Iron–nickel alloy

An iron–nickel alloy or nickel–iron alloy, abbreviated FeNi or NiFe, is a group of alloys consisting primarily of the elements nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe).

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John J. McCloy

John Jay McCloy (born John Snader McCloy; March 31, 1895 – March 11, 1989) was an American lawyer and banker who served as Assistant Secretary of War during World War II.

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Joint-stock company

A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.

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Joseph Wirth

Karl Joseph Wirth, known as Joseph Wirth, (6 September 1879 – 3 January 1956) was a German politician of the Catholic Centre Party who served for 585 days as Chancellor of Germany, from 1921 to 1922.

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Judiciary of Germany

The judiciary of Germany is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in Germany.

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Julius von Verdy du Vernois

Julius von Verdy du Vernois (19 July 1832 – 30 September 1910), often given the short name of Verdy, was a German general and staff officer, chiefly noted both for his military writings and his service on Helmuth von Moltke the Elder's staff during the Franco-Prussian War.

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Kapp Putsch

The Kapp Putsch, also known as the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch after its leaders Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz, was an attempted coup on 13 March 1920 which aimed to undo the German Revolution of 1918–1919, overthrow the Weimar Republic and establish a right-wing autocratic government in its place.

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Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.

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Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016).

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Kingdom of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.

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Koekelare (West Flemish: Kookloare) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders.

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Konrad Adenauer

Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer (5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman who served as the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1949 to 1963.

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Korean War

The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).

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Kramatorsk (Kramators'k; Kramatorsk) is a city of oblast significance located at the northern portion of Donetsk Oblast, in eastern Ukraine.

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The Krupp family (see pronunciation), a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, became famous for their production of steel, artillery, ammunition, and other armaments.

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Krupp Trial

The Krupp Trial (or officially, The United States of America vs. Alfried Krupp, et al.) was the tenth of twelve trials for war crimes that U.S. authorities held in their occupation zone at Nuremberg, Germany after the end of World War II.

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Kurt von Schleicher

Kurt Ferdinand Friedrich Hermann von Schleicher (7 April 1882 – 30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the Weimar Republic.

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Labor camp

A labor camp (or labour, see spelling differences) or work camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are forced to engage in penal labor as a form of punishment under the criminal code.

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Landsberg Prison

Landsberg Prison is a penal facility located in the town of Landsberg am Lech in the southwest of the German state of Bavaria, about west of Munich and south of Augsburg.

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Lange Max Museum

The Lange Max Museum (LMM) is devoted to the German 38 cm SK L/45 "Max" gun and the German occupation of Koekelare and the nearby area in World War I. The focus on the German side of the war makes it a unique museum in Belgium.

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Lex Krupp

The Lex Krupp was a document signed into federal law on November 12, 1943 by Adolf Hitler that made the Krupp company a personal company with specially regulated rules of succession, in order to ensure that the Krupp family enterprise remain intact.

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Liberty ship

Liberty ships were a class of cargo ship built in the United States during World War II.

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List of companies of Germany

Germany is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe.

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List of German companies by employees in 1907

This is a list of German companies by employees in 1907.

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Mannesmann was a German industrial conglomerate.

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Mariana Trench

The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is the deepest part of the world's oceans.

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Martin Bormann

Martin Bormann (17 June 1900 – 2 May 1945) was a prominent official in Nazi Germany as head of the Nazi Party Chancellery.

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Meppen is a town in and the seat of the Emsland district of Lower Saxony, Germany, at the confluence of the Ems, Hase, and Nordradde rivers and the Dortmund-Ems canal (DEK).

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Munich Agreement

The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.

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A muzzleloader is any firearm into which the projectile and usually the propellant charge is loaded from the muzzle of the gun (i.e., from the forward, open end of the gun's barrel).

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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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Napoleon III

Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Night of the Long Knives

The Night of the Long Knives (German), also called Operation Hummingbird (German: Unternehmen Kolibri) or, in Germany, the Röhm Putsch, was a purge that took place in Nazi Germany from June 30 to July 2, 1934, when the National Socialist German Workers Party, or Nazis, carried out a series of political extrajudicial executions intended to consolidate Adolf Hitler's absolute hold on power in Germany.

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Nuremberg trials

The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.

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Oboe (navigation)

Oboe was a British aerial blind bombing targeting system in World War II, based on radio transponder technology.

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Occupation of the Ruhr

The Occupation of the Ruhr (Ruhrbesetzung) was a period of military occupation of the German Ruhr valley by France and Belgium between 1923 and 1925 in response to the Weimar Republic's failure to meet its second reparation payment of the £6.6 billion that was dictated in the Treaty of Versailles by the Triple Entente(1919) in the aftermath of World War I.

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Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.

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Otto von Bismarck

Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.

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Pahlavi dynasty

The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.

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Panic of 1873

The Panic of 1873 was a financial crisis that triggered a depression in Europe and North America that lasted from 1873 until 1879, and even longer in some countries (France and Britain).

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Panzer I

The Panzer I was a light tank produced in Germany in the 1930s.

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Panzer IV

The Panzerkampfwagen IV (PzKpfw IV), commonly known as the Panzer IV, was a German medium tank developed in the late 1930s and used extensively during the Second World War.

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Paris Gun

The Paris Gun (Paris-Geschütz / Pariser Kanone) was the name given to a type of German long-range siege gun, several of which were used to bombard Paris during World War I. They were in service from March to August 1918.

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A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.

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Paternalism is action limiting a person's or group's liberty or autonomy which is intended to promote their own good.

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Paul von Hindenburg

Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.

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Polysius AG is a German company and subsidiary of ThyssenKrupp Technologies that manufactures cement plants and builds cement mills, cement kilns, cement factory automation systems and ore grinding facilities.

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Power (physics)

In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.

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Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.

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Proving ground

A proving ground (US), training area (Australia, Ireland, UK) or training centre (Canada) is a military installation or reservation where weapons or other military technology are experimented with or are tested, or where military tactics are tested.

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Racial policy of Nazi Germany

The racial policy of Nazi Germany was a set of policies and laws implemented in Nazi Germany (1933–45) based on a specific racist doctrine asserting the superiority of the Aryan race, which claimed scientific legitimacy.

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Radio telescope

A radio telescope is a specialized antenna and radio receiver used to receive radio waves from astronomical radio sources in the sky in radio astronomy.

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RAG AG, formerly Ruhrkohle AG, is the largest German coal mining corporation.

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Railway gun

A railway gun, also called a railroad gun, is a large artillery piece, often surplus naval artillery, mounted on, transported by, and fired from a specially designed railway wagon.

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Railway tire

The steel wheel of a steam locomotive and other older types of rolling stock were usually fitted with a steel tire or tyre (in British English, Australian English and others) to provide a replaceable wearing element on a costly wheel.

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The Reichswehr (English: Realm Defence) formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the new Wehrmacht (Defence Force).

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Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany

The Reparations Agreement between Israel and the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Luxemburger Abkommen "Luxembourg Agreement" or Wiedergutmachungsabkommen "Wiedergutmachung Agreement", Hebrew: הסכם השילומים Heskem HaShillumim "Reparations Agreement") was signed on September 10, 1952,USHMM:, USHMM photograph #11019.

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Rheinmetall AG has a presence in two corporate sectors (automotive and defence) with six divisions, and is headquartered in Düsseldorf, Germany.

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The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.

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Rifled breech loader

A rifled breech loader (RBL) is an artillery piece which, unlike the smooth-bore cannon and rifled muzzle loader (RML) which preceded it, has rifling in the barrel and is loaded from the breech at the rear of the gun.

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Rourkela is a planned city located in the northern part of Odisha.

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Royal Air Force

The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.

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Royal Dutch Shell

Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.

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Royalty payment

A royalty is a payment made by one party, the licensee or franchisee to another that owns a particular asset, the licensor or franchisor for the right to ongoing use of that asset.

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Rudolf Diesel

Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (18 March 185829 September 1913) was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the diesel engine, and for his mysterious death.

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The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr area or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Ruhr (river)

__notoc__ The Ruhr is a river in western Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia), a right tributary (east-side) of the Rhine.

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Ruhr Red Army

The Red Ruhr Army was an army of between 50,000 and 80,000 left wing workers from the Communist Party of Germany, the Communist Workers' Party of Germany, the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany, and the Free Workers Union of Germany, formed in the Ruhr Valley (the most important industrial area of Germany) on 13 March 1920 as a reaction to the Kapp Putsch.

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Schneider-Creusot, or Schneider et Cie, was a historic French iron and steel-mill which became a major arms manufacturer.

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The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.

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Schwerer Gustav

Schwerer Gustav (English: Heavy Gustaf) was a German 80 cm (31.5 in.) railway gun.

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Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England.

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Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.

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Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.

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Social Democratic Party of Germany

The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.

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Sole proprietorship

A sole proprietorship, also known as the sole trader or simply a proprietorship, is a type of enterprise that is owned and run by one natural person and in which there is no legal distinction between the owner and the business entity.

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Spelling pronunciation

A spelling pronunciation is the pronunciation of a word according to its spelling, at odds with a standard or traditional pronunciation.

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State within a state

A state within a state or a deep state is a political situation in a country when an internal organ ("deep state"), such as the armed forces or public authorities (intelligence agencies, police, secret police, administrative agencies, and branches of government bureaucracy), does not respond to the civilian political leadership.

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Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

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Steel casting

Steel casting is a specialized form of casting involving various types of steel.

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Strategic bombing during World War II

Strategic bombing during World War II was the sustained aerial attack on railways, harbours, cities, workers' housing, and industrial districts in enemy territory during World War II.

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Subsequent Nuremberg trials

The subsequent Nuremberg trials (formally the Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals) were a series of twelve U.S. military tribunals for war crimes against members of the leadership of Nazi Germany, held in the Palace of Justice, Nuremberg, after World War II from 1946 to 1949 following the Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal.

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In business, a takeover is the purchase of one company (the target) by another (the acquirer, or bidder).

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A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.

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Telefunken was a German radio and television apparatus company, founded in Berlin in 1903, as a joint venture of Siemens & Halske and the Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG) (General electricity company).

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The Arms of Krupp

The Arms of Krupp (1968) is William Manchester's history of the Krupp family, which owned a dominant armaments manufacturing company based in Essen, Germany.

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The Great Exhibition

The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations or The Great Exhibition, sometimes referred to as the Crystal Palace Exhibition in reference to the temporary structure in which it was held, was an international exhibition that took place in Hyde Park, London, from 1 May to 15 October 1851.

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Thirty Years' War

The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.

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Thyssen AG

Thyssen was a major German steel producer founded by August Thyssen.

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thyssenkrupp AG is a German multinational conglomerate with focus on industrial engineering and steel production.

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Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.

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Tungsten carbide

Tungsten carbide (chemical formula: WC) is a chemical compound (specifically, a carbide) containing equal parts of tungsten and carbon atoms.

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Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea

Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea: A Tour of the Underwater World (Vingt mille lieues sous les mers: Tour du monde sous-marin, "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Seas: A Tour of the Underwater World") is a classic science fiction adventure novel by French writer Jules Verne published in 1870.

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U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".

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Unification of Germany

The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.

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Unilever () is a British-Dutch transnational consumer goods company co-headquartered in London, United Kingdom and Rotterdam, Netherlands.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United Technologies

United Technologies Corporation (UTC) is an American multinational conglomerate headquartered in Farmington, Connecticut.

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Venezuelan crisis of 1902–03

The Venezuelan crisis of 1902–03 was a naval blockade from December 1902 to February 1903 imposed against Venezuela by the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy, over President Cipriano Castro's refusal to pay foreign debts and damages suffered by European citizens in the Venezuelan civil war.

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Vickers was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 1999.

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Villa Hügel

The Villa Hügel is a 19th-century mansion in Bredeney, now part of Essen, Germany.

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Vowel length

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.

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War crime

A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.

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War reparations

War reparations are payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors.

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Water wheel

A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill.

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A watermill or water mill is a mill that uses hydropower.

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A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.

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Weimar Republic

The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.

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Werfen is a market town in the district of St. Johann im Pongau, in the Austrian state of Salzburg.

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West Germany

West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Westphalia (Westfalen) is a region in northwestern Germany and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Wilhelm II, German Emperor

Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.

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William I, German Emperor

William I, or in German Wilhelm I. (full name: William Frederick Louis of Hohenzollern, Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig von Hohenzollern, 22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888), of the House of Hohenzollern was King of Prussia from 2 January 1861 and the first German Emperor from 18 January 1871 to his death, the first Head of State of a united Germany.

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William Manchester

William Raymond Manchester (April 1, 1922 – June 1, 2004) was an American author, biographer, and historian.

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The term Wirtschaftswunder ("economic miracle"), also known as The Miracle on the Rhine, describes the rapid reconstruction and development of the economies of West Germany and Austria after World War II (adopting an Ordoliberalism-based social market economy).

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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38 cm SK L/45 "Max"

The 38 cm SK L/45 "Max",In Imperial German Navy gun nomenclature, "SK" (Schnelladekanone) denotes that the gun is quick firing, while the L/45 denotes the length of the gun.

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6-pounder gun

6-pounder gun or 6-pdr, usually denotes a gun firing a projectile weighing approximately.

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7.7 cm FK 96

The 7.7 cm Feldkanone 96 (7.7 cm FK 96) was a field gun used by Germany before World War I.

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8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41

The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun from World War II.

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Redirects here:

Alfred Krupp, Alfreid Krupp, Friederich Krupp AG, Friedrich Krupp AG, House of Krupp, Krupp AG, Krupp Ag, Krupp Arms Works, Krupp Works, Krupp family.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krupp

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