114 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abd (Arabic), Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, Abd al-Rahman al-Awza'i, Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, Abd-Allah ibn Aamir Hadhrami, Abdullah ibn Masud, Abdullah Musawi Shirazi, Abu Hanifa, Abu Mikhnaf, Abu Musa, Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Al-Aswad ibn Yazid, Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, Al-Hannanah Mosque, Al-Hasan ibn Qahtaba, Al-Hirah, Al-Kindi, Al-Qalqashandi, Al-Sahlah Mosque, Al-Walid ibn Uqba, Ali, Alqama ibn Qays, Ammar ibn Yasir, Anbar (town), Arabic, Baghdad, Basra, Battle of Karbala, Battle of Yarmouk, Byzantine Empire, Caliphate, Common Era, Ctesiphon, Damascus, Dawud al-Zahiri, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Euphrates, Governorates of Iraq, Great Mosque of Kufa, Greenwich Mean Time, Hadith, Hadith terminology, Hanafi, Hani ibn Urwa, Hasan ibn Ali, Hegira, Hejaz, ..., Hujr ibn 'Adi, Husayn ibn Ali, Ibn al-Nadim, Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, Iraq, Ishmael, Ja'far al-Sadiq, Kadhimiya, Karbala, Khawarij, Khaybar, Kufic, Kumayl ibn Ziyad, Lakhmids, List of cities in Iraq, Malik, Maliki, Masruq ibn al-Ajda', Maytham al-Tammar, Mecca, Medina, Mother, Muawiyah I, Mughira ibn Shu'ba, Muhammad, Muhammad al-Baqir, Muhammad al-Mahdi, Muhammad al-Shaybani, Mujahideen, Mukhtar, Mukhtar al-Thaqafi, Muslim, Muslim ibn Aqeel, Najaf, Najaf Governorate, Prostration, Rashidun Caliphate, Sa'id ibn al-'As, Sa'id ibn Jubayr, Sahabah, Salman the Persian, Samarra, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, Shafi‘i, Shia Islam, Shia view of Ali, Sufyan al-Thawri, Sujud, Sunni Islam, Surah, Suristan, Syria, Tabaqat, Tafsir, Twelver, Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad, Umar, Umayyad Caliphate, Uthman, Wael Hallaq, Yazid I, Zayd ibn Ali, Zaydi revolt, Ziyad ibn Abih. Expand index (64 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
ʿAbd (عبد) is an Arabic word meaning one who is subordinated as a slave or a servant, and it means also to worship.
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (عبد الملك ابن مروان ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān, 646 – 8 October 705) was the 5th Umayyad caliph.
For further information on the Awza'i madhhab see Awza'i. Abu Amr Abd al-Rahman ibn Amr al-Awzai (أبو عمرو عبدُ الرحمٰن بن عمرو الأوزاعي) (707–774) was the chief representative and eponym of the Awzai school of Islamic jurisprudence.
`Abd Allah al-Zubayr or ibn Zubayr (عبد الله بن الزبير ‘Abdallāh ibn az-Zubayr; 624–692) was an Arab sahabi whose father was Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, and whose mother was Asma bint Abi Bakr, daughter of the first Caliph Abu Bakr.
ʿAbd al-Rahman ibn Muljam al-Murādī (عبدالرحمن بن ملجم المرادي) was the Khariji assassin of Ali.
Abd-Allah ibn Aamir Hadhrami was the governor of the Arabic city of Kufah during the 7th century.
ʿAbdallāh ibn Masʿūd (عبدالله بن مسعود; c.594-c.653) was a companion of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.
Grand Ayatollah Sayyed Abdullah Al-Musawi Al-Shirazi (February 25, 1892 – September 29, 1984) was a Grand Ayatollah of Twelver Shi'a Islam.
Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān b. Thābit b. Zūṭā b. Marzubān (أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان; c. 699 – 767 CE), known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short, or reverently as Imam Abū Ḥanīfa by Sunni Muslims, was an 8th-century Sunni Muslim theologian and jurist of Persian origin,Pakatchi, Ahmad and Umar, Suheyl, “Abū Ḥanīfa”, in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary.
Abu Mikhnaf (died 774) (Lut ibn Yahya ibn Sa'id ibn Mikhnaf Al-Kufi) (لوط ابن يحيٰ ابن سعيد ابن مِخنَف الكوفي) was a classical Muslim historian from the 8th century.
Abu Musa (ابوموسی, أبو موسى) island is a 12.8 square kilometer (4.9 sq mi) island in the eastern Persian Gulf near the entrance to the Strait of Hormuz.
Abu Musa Abd Allah ibn Qays al-Ash'ari, better known as Abu Musa al-Ash'ari (أبو موسى الأشعري) (d. ca. 662 or 672) was a companion of Muhammad and an important figure in early Islamic history.
Aḥmad bin Muḥammad bin Ḥanbal Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Shaybānī (احمد بن محمد بن حنبل ابو عبد الله الشيباني; 780–855 CE/164–241 AH), often referred to as Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal or Ibn Ḥanbal for short, or reverentially as Imam Aḥmad by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, ascetic, and hadith traditionist.
Al-Aswad ibn Yazid (الأسود بن يزيد) (d. 74 AH or 75 AH) was a well-known scholar from among the taba'een and pupil of Abd-Allah ibn Mas'ud He was one of the narrators of hadith.
Abū Muhammad al-Ḥajjāj ibn Yūsuf ibn al-Ḥakam ibn ʿAqīl al-Thaqafī (أبو محمد الحجاج بن يوسف بن الحكم بن عقيل الثقفي; Ta'if 661 – Wasit, 714), known simply as al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf (الحجاج بن يوسف / ALA: (or otherwise transliterated), was perhaps the most notable governor who served the Umayyad Caliphate. An extremely capable though ruthless statesman, a strict in character, but also a harsh and demanding master, he was widely feared by his contemporaries and became a deeply controversial figure and an object of deep-seated enmity among later, pro-Abbasid writers, who ascribed to him persecutions and mass executions.
The Al-Hannanah Mosque (Masjid al-Ḥannānah) is a mosque in Iraq.
Al-Hasan ibn Qahtaba ibn Shabib al-Ta'i in Arabic الحَسَن بن قَحْطَبَة بن شبيب الطائي was a senior military leader in the early Abbasid Caliphate.
Al-Hirah (الحيرة al-Ḥīrah, ܚܝܪܬܐ Ḥīrtā) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia located south of what is now Kufa in south-central Iraq.
Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي; Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab Muslim philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician.
Shihab al-Din abu 'l-Abbas Ahmad ben Ali ben Ahmad Abd Allah al-Qalqashandi (1355 or 1356 – 1418) was a medieval Egyptian writer and mathematician.
The Al-Sahlah Mosque or Masjid al-Sahlah (مسجد السهلة) is one of the primary significant mosques in the city of Kufa, Iraq.
Walid ibn Uqba (وليد بن عقبة) was one of the companions of Muhammad.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Alqama ibn Qays al-Nakha'i (d.) was a well-known scholar from among the taba'een and pupil of Abd-Allah ibn Mas'ud, who called him the most erudite of his disciples.
ʻAmmār ibn Yāsir ibn ʿĀmir ibn Mālik Abū al-Yaqzān (عمار بن یاسر) was one of the Muhajirun in the history of Islam, Islam Times, retrieved on 13 Apr 2014 and, for his dedicated devotion to Islam's cause, is considered to be one of the most loyal and beloved companions of Muhammad and ‘Ali; thus, he occupies a position of the highest prominence in Islam.
Anbar (الأنبار) was a town in Iraq, at lat.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.
The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 AH of the Islamic calendar (October 10, 680 AD) in Karbala, in present-day Iraq.
The Battle of Yarmouk was a major battle between the army of the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim Arab forces of the Rashidun Caliphate.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Ctesiphon (Κτησιφῶν; from Parthian or Middle Persian: tyspwn or tysfwn) was an ancient city located on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and about southeast of present-day Baghdad.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Dawud bin Ali bin Khalaf al-Zahiri (815–883/4 CE) was a Muslim scholar of Islamic law during the Islamic Golden Age, specializing in the fields of Hermeneutics, Biographical evaluation, and historiography.
The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Iraq consists of 19 governorates (muḥāfażah in Arabic), also known as "provinces".
The Great Mosque of Kufa, or Masjid al-Kūfa (مسجد الكوفة المعظم/الأعظم), or Masjid al-Mu'azam/al-A'azam located in Kūfa, Iraq, is one of the earliest mosques in the world.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Hadith terminology (مُصْطَلَحُ الحَدِيْث) muṣṭalaḥ al-ḥadīth) is the body of terminology in Islam which specifies the acceptability of the sayings (hadith) attributed to the prophet Muhammad other early Islamic figures of significance, such as Muhammad's family and/or successors. Individual terms distinguish between those hadith considered rightfully attributed to their source or detail the faults of those of dubious provenance. Formally, it has been defined by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani as: "knowledge of the principles by which the condition of the narrator and the narrated are determined." This page comprises the primary terminology used within ''hadith'' studies.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Ibn Ziyad summoned a retainer, Ma'qil, who he tasked to act a spy and pretend he was a Shi'a in order to locate the whereabouts of Muslim ibn Aqeel.
Al-Ḥasan ibn Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (الحسن ابن علي ابن أبي طالب, 624–670 CE), commonly known as Hasan or Hassan, is the eldest son of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and of Ali, and the older brother to Husayn.
The Hegira (also called Hijrah, هِجْرَة) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
Hujr ibn 'Adi al-Kindi (died 660 CE) He was sentenced to death by the Umayyad Caliph Muawiyah I for his unwavering support and praise for Ali, the fourth Rashidun Caliph of Islam and the first Imam of the Shias, when he objected to the tradition of publicly cursing Ali and continued to condemn Uthman for his corruption.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
Muḥammad ibn Ishāq al-Nadīm (ابوالفرج محمد بن إسحاق النديم), his surname was Abū al-Faraj Muḥammad ibn Abī Ya'qūb Ishāq ibn Muḥammad ibn Ishāq al-Warrāq and he is more commonly, albeit erroneously, known as Ibn al-Nadim (d. 17 September 995 or 998 CE) was a Muslim scholar and bibliographer Al-Nadīm was the tenth century Baghdadī bibliophile compiler of the Arabic encyclopedic catalogue known as 'Kitāb al-Fihrist'.
Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Ubaydullah ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (ابن شهاب الزهري) (died AH 124/741-2), usually referred to simply as Ibn Shihab or al-Zuhri in hadith literature.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Ishmael Ἰσμαήλ Ismaēl; Classical/Qur'anic Arabic: إِسْمَٰعِيْل; Modern Arabic: إِسْمَاعِيْل ʾIsmāʿīl; Ismael) is a figure in the Tanakh and the Quran and was Abraham's first son according to Jews, Christians and Muslims. Ishmael was born to Abraham and Sarah's handmaiden Hagar (Hājar).. According to the Genesis account, he died at the age of 137. The Book of Genesis and Islamic traditions consider Ishmael to be the ancestor of the Ishmaelites and patriarch of Qaydār. According to Muslim tradition, Ishmael the Patriarch and his mother Hagar are said to be buried next to the Kaaba in Mecca.
Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (جعفر بن محمد الصادق; 700 or 702–765 C.E.), commonly known as Jaʿfar al-Sadiq or simply al-Sadiq (The Truthful), was the sixth Shia Imam and a major figure in the Hanafi and Maliki schools of Sunni jurisprudence.
Al-Kāẓimiyyah (الكاظمية) or al-Kāẓimayn (الكاظمين) is a northern neighbourhood of the city of Baghdad, Iraq.
Karbala (كَرْبَلَاء, Karbalā’, Persian: کربلاء) is a city in central Iraq, located about southwest of Baghdad, and a few miles east of Lake Milh.
The Khawarij (الخوارج, al-Khawārij, singular خارجي, khāriji), Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah (ash-Shurāh "the Exchangers") are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad.
KhaybarOther standardized Arabic transliterations: /. Anglicized pronunciation:,. (خيبر) is the name of an oasis some to the north of Medina (ancient Yathrib), Saudi Arabia.
Kufic is the oldest calligraphic form of the various Arabic scripts and consists of a modified form of the old Nabataean script.
Kumayl bin Ziyad an-Nakha'i (كُميل بن زياد النخعي) was among the most loyal companions of Imam Ali Ibn Abi Talib.
The Lakhmids (اللخميون) or Banu Lakhm (بنو لخم) were an Arab kingdom of southern Iraq with al-Hirah as their capital, from about 300 to 602 AD.
This article shows a list of cities in Iraq.
Malik, Melik, Malka, Malek or Melekh (𐤌𐤋𐤊; ملك; מֶלֶךְ) is the Semitic term translating to "king", recorded in East Semitic and later Northwest Semitic (e.g. Aramaic, Canaanite, Hebrew) and Arabic.
The (مالكي) school is one of the four major madhhab of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam.
Masruq ibn al-Ajda' (Arabic مَسْرُوقْ بِنْ اَلْأَجْدَع, died 682) was a well-known and respected tabi'i (from taba'een), jurist and muĥaddith (transmitter of Prophetic traditions or hadith).
Maytham ibn Yahyā al-Tammār or Maytham al-Tammar (ميثم ابن يـحيى التمار) was an early Islamic scholar, a companion and disciple of Ali ibn Abi Talib and a forefather of Sufism.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
A mother is the female parent of a child.
Muawiyah I (Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.
al-Mughīrah ibn Shuʿbah ibn Abī ʿĀmir ibn Masʿūd ath-Thaqafī (المغيرة بن شعبة بن أبي عامر بن مسعود الثقفي) was one of the more prominent companions of Muhammad and one of the four 'shrewds of the Arabs' (Duhat al-Arab).
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muḥammad al-Baqir, full name Muhammad bin 'Ali bin al-Husayn bin Ali bin Abi Talib, also known as Abu Ja'far or simply al-Baqir (the one who opens knowledge) (677-733) was the fifth Shia imam, succeeding his father Zayn al-Abidin and succeeded by his son Ja'far al-Sadiq.
Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Mahdī (محمد بن الحسن المهدي), also known as Imam Zaman (امام زمان), is believed by Twelver Shī‘a Muslims to be the Mahdī, an eschatological redeemer of Islam and ultimate savior of humankind and the final Imām of the Twelve Imams who will emerge with Isa (Jesus Christ) in order to fulfill their mission of bringing peace and justice to the world.
Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Shaybānī (محمد بن الحسن الشيباني; 749/50 – 805), the father of Muslim international law, was an Islamic jurist and a disciple of Abu Hanifa (later being the eponym of the Hanafi school of Islamic jurisprudence), Malik ibn Anas and Abu Yusuf.
Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").
Mukhtar (also spelled Muktar) meaning "chosen" in المختار, is the head of a village or mahalle (neighbourhood) in many Arab countries as well as in Turkey, Cyprus and Kazakhstan.
al-Mukhtār ibn Abī ‘Ubaydah al-Thaqafī (المختار بن أبي عبيدة الثقفي) (also spelled Mukhtar bin Abu Ubaid), (born c. 622, al-Ṭaʾif, Arabia —died March 687, Kūfah, Iraq), was an early Islamic revolutionary based in Kufa, Iraq who led an abortive rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphs in vengeance for the death of Husayn ibn 'Ali at the Battle of Karbala.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Muslim ibn Aqil Al-Hashimi (Arabic: مسلم بن عقيل الهاشمي) was the son of Aqeel ibn Abu Talib and a member of the clan of Bani Hashim, thus, he is a cousin of Husayn ibn Ali.
Najaf (اَلـنَّـجَـف; BGN: An-Najaf) or An Najaf Al Ashraf (النّجف الأشرف) is a city in central-south Iraq about 160 km (100 mi) south of Baghdad.
Najaf Governorate (النجف An Najaf) (or Najaf Province) is a governorate in central and southern Iraq.
Prostration is the placement of the body in a reverentially or submissively prone position as a gesture.
The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Saʾīd ibn al-ʿĀs ibn Umayya (died 678/679) was the Muslim governor of Kufa under Caliph Uthman (r. 644–656) and governor of Medina under Caliph Mu'awiya I (r. 661–680).
Sa'id bin Jubayr (665–714) (سعيد بن جبير), also known as Abū Muhammad, was originally from Kufa, in modern-day Iraq.
The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Salman the Persian or Salman al-Farsi (سلمان الفارسي Salmān al-Fārisī), born Rouzbeh (روزبه), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the first Persian who converted to Islam.
Sāmarrāʾ (سَامَرَّاء) is a city in Iraq.
Saʿd ibn Abī Waqqās (سعد بن أبي وقاص) was of the companions of the Islamic prophet.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Ali was the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and a member of the Ahl al-Bayt.
Sufyan ath-Thawri ibn Said (سفيان بن سعيد الثوري) (716–778) was a Tābi‘ al-Tābi‘īn Islamic scholar and jurist, founder of the Thawri madhhab.
Sujūd (سُجود), or sajdah (سجدة), is an Arabic word meaning prostration to God (Arabic: الله Allah) in the direction of the Kaaba at Mecca which is usually done during the daily prayers (salat).
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
A Surah (also spelled Sura; سورة, plural سور suwar) is the term for a chapter of the Quran.
Suristan was used as a name in two senses during the Sassanid Persian Empire 226 to 651 AD.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tabaqat (طبقات) is a genre of Islamic biographical literature that is organized according to the century in which the notable individuals (such as scholars, poets etc.) lived.
Tafsir (lit) is the Arabic word for exegesis, usually of the Qur'an.
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
ʿUbayd Allāh ibn Ziyād (عبيد الله بن زياد; died August 686) was the Umayyad governor of Basra, Kufa and Khurasan during the reigns of caliphs Mu'awiya I and Yazid I, and the leading general of the Umayyad army under caliphs Marwan I and Abd al-Malik.
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".
Wael B. Hallaq is a scholar of Islamic law and Islamic intellectual history.
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya (يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان.; 64711 November 683), commonly known as Yazid I, was the second caliph of the Umayyad caliphate (and the first one through inheritance).
Zayd ibn 'Alī (زيد بن علي, also spelled Zaid, Zayyed; 695–740) was the grandson of Husayn ibn Ali, and great-grandson of Ali.
The Zaidi revolt was a failed rebellion led by Zayd ibn Ali in 740 against the Umayyad dynasty, who had taken over the Islamic Caliphate since the death of his great-grandfather, Ali.
Ziyad ibn Abih (زياد بن أبيه) (622 AD – 673 AD) was an Arab general and administrator from the clan of Umayyah.