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Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority.
Taiwan consists of provinces and special municipalities.
Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation (AIDC) is a state-owned aerospace company of Taiwan (Republic of China) under the Ministry of Economic Affairs based in Taichung, Taiwan.
Al-Azhar University (1,, "the (honorable) Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
Anti-Qing sentiment refers to a sentiment principally held in China against the Manchu ruling during the Qing dynasty (1644–1912), which was accused by a number of opponents of being barbarian.
The Association for Asian Studies (AAS) is a scholarly, non-political and non-profit professional association open to all persons interested in Asia and the study of Asia.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
Bai Chongxi (18 March 1893 – 1 December 1966;;, Xiao'erjing: ﺑَﻰْ ﭼْﻮ ثِ) was a Chinese general in the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China (ROC) and a prominent Chinese Nationalist leader.
The Battle of Guningtou or Battle of Kuningtou, also known as the Battle of Kinmen, was a battle fought over Kinmen in the Taiwan Strait during the Chinese Civil War in 1949.
The Battle of Kashgar was a military confrontation that took place in 1934 during the Xinjiang Wars.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Beiyang government (北洋政府), also sometimes spelled Peiyang Government, refers to the government of the Republic of China, which was in place in the capital city Beijing from 1912 to 1928.
Black gold is a term used in the Republic of China (Taiwan) to refer to political corruption.
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model.
The Blue Shirts Society, also known as the Society of Practice of the Three Principles of the People (commonly abbreviated as SPTPP), the Spirit Encouragement Society (勵志社, SES) and the China Reconstruction Society (中華復興社, CRS), was a secret fascist clique in the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party).
The Blue Sky with a White Sun serves as the design for the party flag and emblem of the Kuomintang (KMT), the canton of the flag of the Republic of China, the national emblem of the Republic of China and as the naval jack of the ROC Navy.
British Hong Kong was the period during which Hong Kong was under British Crown rule, from 1841 to 1997 (excluding the Japanese occupation from 1941 to 1945).
Burhan Shahidi (Burhan Shehidi; برهان شهيدي;; Russian: Бурхан Шахиди; Tatar: Borhan Şähidi) (October 3, 1894 – August 27, 1989), also spelled Bao Erhan, was a political leader in Xinjiang, China during the 20th century.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
The CC Clique, or Central Club Clique, was one of the political factions within the Kuomintang (The Chinese Nationalist Party), in the Republic of China (1912–49).
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Central Plains War of 1930 was a civil war between the Nationalist Kuomintang government in Nanjing led by Chiang Kai-shek and several regional military commanders that were former allies of Chiang during the Northern Expedition.
Centre-right politics or center-right politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-right politics, are politics that lean to the right of the left–right political spectrum, but are closer to the centre than other right-wing variants.
The Centrist Democrat International is a Christian democratic political international.
The Charkhlik revolt was a Uighur uprising in 1935 against Chinese Muslim-dominated Tunganistan, which was administered by the 36th Division.
Chen Jiongming (13 January 187822 September 1933), also romanized as Chan Kwing Ming in Cantonese, was a revolutionary figure in the early period of the Republic of China.
Chen Shui-bian (born October 12, 1950) is a retired Taiwanese politician and lawyer who served as President of the Republic of China (Taiwan) from 2000 to 2008.
Chen Yi (courtesy names Gongxia (公俠) and later Gongqia (公洽), sobriquet Tuisu (退素); May 3, 1883 – June 18, 1950) was the chief executive and garrison commander of Taiwan Province after the Empire of Japan surrendered to the Republic of China.
Chiang Ching-kuo (Ningbo dialect) (27 April 1910 – 13 January 1988) was a politician in Taiwan.
The Chiang family is a political family of Taiwan that ruled Taiwan from 1949 to 1988.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
Chiang Pin-kung (born 16 December 1932) is a Taiwanese politician.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China was one of the charter members of the United Nations and is one of five permanent members of its Security Council.
The China Times is a daily Chinese newspaper published in Taiwan.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.
The Chinese Muslim Association (CMA) is an organization of Chinese Muslims in the Republic of China (Taiwan).
Chinese nationalism is the form of nationalism in China which asserts that the Chinese people are a nation and promotes the cultural and national unity of the Chinese.
Chinese reunification (1928), better known in Chinese history as the Northeast Flag Replacement, is Zhang Xueliang's announcement on 29 December 1928 on replacing all banners of the Beiyang government in Manchuria with the flag of the Nationalist government, thus nominally uniting China under one state.
Chinese (re)unification, more specifically Cross-strait (re)unification, is the irredentist concept of Greater China that expresses the goal of unifying the People's Republic of China and Taiwan into a single sovereign state.
Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China.
Christians make up some 4.5% of Taiwan's population.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) is the founding and ruling communist party of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
A comprador or compradore is a "person who acts as an agent for foreign organizations engaged in investment, trade, or economic or political exploitation".
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
Conservatism in Taiwan is a broad political philosophy which espouses the One-China policy as a vital component for the Republic of China (ROC)'s international security and economic development, as opposed to Taiwanization and Taiwanese sovereignty.
A counter-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part.
CPC Corporation, Taiwan (literally Taiwan Chinese Petroleum) is a state-owned petroleum, natural gas, and gasoline company in Taiwan and is the core of the Taiwanese petrochemicals industry.
Cross-Strait relations or Taiwan-China relations, Mainland–Taiwan relations are the relations between the following two political entities, which are separated by the Taiwan Strait in the west Pacific Ocean.
CSBC Corporation, Taiwan (literally "Taiwan International Shipbuilding"), formerly known as China Shipbuilding Corporation (CSBC) is a private company that produces ships for civilian and military use.
Lieutenant General Dai Li (Tai Li;; May 28, 1897 - March 17, 1946) was born Dai Chunfeng (Tai Chun-feng; 戴春風) with the courtesy name of Yunong (Yu-nung; 雨農) in Bao'an, Jiangshan of Qing Dynasty China's Zhejiang province.
A declaration of independence or declaration of statehood is an assertion by a defined territory that it is independent and constitutes a state.
Democratic centralism is a method of leadership in which political decisions reached by the party through its democratically elected bodies are binding upon all members of the party.
The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), also known as Minjindang (MJD) is a liberal political party in the Taiwan and the dominant party in the Pan-Green Coalition as it is currently the majority ruling party, controlling both the presidency and the unicameral Legislative Yuan.
A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power.
Du Yuesheng (22 August 188816 August 1951), nicknamed "Big-Eared Du",Lintner, Bertil.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elections in Taiwan are held on national and local level.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Eric Chu Li-lun (born on 7 June 1961) is a Taiwanese politician and the incumbent Mayor of New Taipei.
The Evergreen Group is the organizational designation used by a Taiwan-based conglomerate of shipping, transportation, and associated service companies.
The February 28 Incident or the February 28 Massacre, also known as the 2.28 Incident (from), was an anti-government uprising in Taiwan that was violently suppressed by the Kuomintang-led Republic of China government, which killed thousands of civilians beginning on 28 February 1947.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
Feng Yuxiang (6 November 1882 – 1 September 1948) was a warlord and leader in Republican China from Chaohu, Anhui.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
In Confucian philosophy, filial piety (xiào) is a virtue of respect for one's parents, elders, and ancestors.
The First East Turkistan Republic (ETR), officially the Turkic Islamic Republic of East Turkistan (شەرقىي تۈركىستان ئىسلام جۇمھۇرىيىتى, Шәрқий Түркистан Ислам Җумхурийити), was a short-lived breakaway would-be Islamic republic founded in 1933.
The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between Qing dynasty of China and Empire of Japan, primarily for influence over Joseon.
The First United Front, also known as the KMT–CPC Alliance, of the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Communist Party of China (CPC), was formed in 1923 as an alliance to end warlordism in China.
The Flag of the Republic of China is a red flag with a navy blue canton bearing a white sun with twelve triangular rays.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
General Order No.
The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is head of the Communist Party of China and the highest-ranking official within the People's Republic of China.
Georgism, also called geoism and single tax (archaic), is an economic philosophy holding that, while people should own the value they produce themselves, economic value derived from land (including natural resources and natural opportunities) should belong equally to all members of society.
Golog (Golok or Guoluo) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is an autonomous prefecture occupying the southeastern corner of Qinghai province, People's Republic of China.
The Ngolok rebellions (1917-1949) were a series of military campaigns against unconquered Ngolok (Golok) tribal Tibetan areas of Qinghai (Amdo), undertaken by two Hui commanders, Gen.
The Government of the Republic of China was formally established in 1912 in Nanking, with Sun Yat-sen as President of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China under the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
The Guominjun, a.k.a. Nationalist Army, KMC, or Northwest Army (西北軍), refers to the military faction founded by Feng Yuxiang, Hu Jingyi and Sun Yue during China's Warlord Era.
Kung Hsiang-hsi (September 11, 1881 – August 16, 1967), often known as Dr.
The Han Chinese,.
Hankou p Hànkǒu), formerly romanized as Hankow (Hangkow), was one of the three cities whose merging formed modern-day Wuhan municipality, the capital of the Hubei province, China.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Hau Lung-pin (born 22 August 1952) is a Taiwanese politician.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
Henry George (September 2, 1839 – October 29, 1897) was an American political economist and journalist.
During the early postwar period (1945–1960) the Kuomintang (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party) suppressed localism and barred Taiwanese from cosmopolitan life except in the spheres of science and technology.
The History of the Republic of China begins after the Qing dynasty in 1912, when the formation of the Republic of China as a constitutional republic put an end to 4,000 years of Imperial rule.
Hồ Chí Minh (Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung, also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.
Honolulu is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Hawaiokinai.
Hu Hanmin (born in Panyu, Guangdong, Qing dynasty, China, December 9, 1879 – Guangdong, Republic of China, May 12, 1936) was one of the early conservative right factional leaders in the Kuomintang (KMT) during revolutionary China.
---- Hu Jintao (born 21 December 1942) is a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of China from 2002 to 2012.
Hu Songshan (1880–1955), a Hui, was born in 1880, in Tongxin County, Ningxia, China.
Huang Xing or Huang Hsing (25 October 1874 – 31 October 1916) was a Chinese revolutionary leader and politician, and the first army commander-in-chief of the Republic of China.
The Huguang Guild Hall in Beijing is a renowned Beijing opera (Peking opera) theatre.
The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.
In economics, hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating inflation.
The Ili Rebellion (Üch Wiläyt inqilawi) was a Soviet-backed revolt against the Kuomintang government of the Republic of China in 1944.
The Ill-gotten Party Assets Settlement Committee (CIPAS) is an independent government agency of the Republic of China responsible for the investigation and returning of ill-gotten assets of political parties and their affiliated organizations during the martial law period in Taiwan.
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Taiwan include.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia.
The International Democrat Union (IDU) is an international alliance of centre-right political parties.
Isa Yusuf Alptekin or ʿĪsa Yūsuf Alptekin (ئەيسا يۈسۈپ ئالپتېكىن. (عيسى يوسف الپتگین) or (عيسى يوسف الپتكین) (Turkish:İsa Yusuf Alptekin)Айсабек; 1901 – 17 December 1995), known in China as Ai Sha, was a Uyghur political leader.
James Soong Chu-yu (born 16 March 1942) is a Taiwanese politician.
Jia Qinglin (born March 1940) is a retired senior leader of the People's Republic of China and of its ruling Communist Party.
John Kuan (born 9 June 1940), also known as Kuan Chung, is a Taiwanese politician who was president of the Examination Yuan of the Republic of China from 2008 to 2014.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.
Kaohsiung City (Hokkien POJ: Ko-hiông; Hakka: Kô-hiùng; old names: Takao, Takow, Takau) is a special municipality located in southern-western Taiwan and facing the Taiwan Strait.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Қазақ, Qazaq, قازاق, Qazaqtar, Қазақтар, قازاقتار; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the southern part of Eastern Europe and the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia and Mongolia), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent.
Kham is a historical region of Tibet covering a land area largely divided between present-day Tibet Autonomous Region and Sichuan, with smaller portions located within Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan provinces of China.
Kinmen or Quemoy (see also "Names" section below), officially Kinmen County, is a group of islands, governed by the Republic of China (ROC), which is located just off the southeastern coast of mainland China, including Great Kinmen, Lesser Kinmen, Wuqiu and several surrounding islets.
The Kumul Rebellion (Hāmì bàodòng, "Hami Uprising") was a rebellion of Kumulik Uyghurs who conspired with Hui Chinese Muslim Gen.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
The Kuomintang chairmanship election of 2005 was held on July 16, 2005 in Taiwan between Ma Ying-jeou and Wang Jin-pyng.
The Kuomintang chairmanship election of 2009 was held on 26 July 2009 in Taiwan with Ma Ying-jeou as the sole candidate.
The Kuomintang chairmanship election of 2015 was held on 17 January 2015 in Taiwan.
The Kuomintang Islamic insurgency refers to a continuation of the Chinese Civil War by Muslim Kuomintang Republic of China Army forces in Northwest China, in the provinces of Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang, and another insurgency in Yunnan.
The Kuomintang Youth League, also known as Young KMT, is a youth group under the Kuomintang.
Lai Shyh-bao (born 20 June 1951) is a Taiwanese politician.
A land/location value tax (LVT), also called a site valuation tax, split rate tax, or site-value rating, is an ad valorem levy on the unimproved value of land.
The Law of the Republic of China, which is commonly known as Taiwan, is mainly based on the civil law system.
Lee Teng-hui (born 15 January 1923) is a Taiwanese politician.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
The Legislative Yuan is the unicameral legislature of the Republic of China now based in Taiwan.
Leninism is the political theory for the organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of socialism.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
Lhasa is a prefecture-level city, formerly a prefecture until 7 January 1960, one of the main administrative divisions of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China.
Li Zongren or Li Tsung-jen (13 August 1890 – 30 January 1969), courtesy name Delin (Te-lin; 德鄰), was a prominent Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang (KMT) military commander during the Northern Expedition, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War.
Liao Kuo-tung (born 8 January 1955) is a Taiwanese aboriginal politician.
Liberal conservatism is a political ideology combining conservative policies with liberal stances, especially on ethical and social issues, or a brand of political conservatism strongly influenced by liberalism.
Lien Chan (born August 27, 1936, in Xi'an, China) is a politician in Taiwan.
Lin Hung-chih (born 22 August 1955) is a Taiwanese politician.
Lin Yi-shih (born 19 August 1968) is a Taiwanese politician.
Linxia City, once known as Hezhou, is a county-level city in the province of Gansu of the People's Republic of China, and the capital of the multi-ethnic Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture.
The following is a list of people who held leadership office of the Kuomintang.
China, officially the People's Republic of China, is formally a multi-party state under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in a United Front similar to the popular fronts of former Communist-era Eastern European countries such as the National Front of Democratic Germany.
The Long March (October 1934 – October 1935) was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army.
Lu Han (1895–1974) was a KMT general of Yi ethnicity.
Ma Bufang (1903 – 31 July 1975) (Xiao'erjing: ما بوفنگ) was a prominent Muslim Ma clique warlord in China during the Republic of China era, ruling the province of Qinghai.
Ma Bufang Mansion was the mansion of the Chinese Muslim warlord and General Ma Bufang and his family from 1943–1949, and now is a tourist attraction, in Xining, Qinghai, China.
Ma Chengxiang (1914–1991) (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﭼْﻊ ﺷِﯿْﺎ) was a Chinese Muslim general in the National Revolutionary Army.
Ma Fuxiang (French romanization: Ma-Fou-hiang or Ma Fou-siang; 4 February 1876 – 19 August 1932) was a Chinese military and political leader spanning the Qing Dynasty through the early Republic of China and illustrated the power of family, the role of religious affiliations, and the interaction of Inner Asian China and the national government of China.
Ma Hongkui (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺡْﻮ ﻛُﻮِ; March 14, 1892 – January 14, 1970) was a prominent warlord in China during the Republic of China era, ruling the province of Ningxia.
Ma Ying-jeou (born 13 July 1950), also spelled as Ma Yingjiu, is a Hong Kong-born Taipei-based politician who served as the eighteenth President of the Republic of China from 2008 to 2016 as well as sixth under the 1947 Constitution.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Mainland Chinese or Mainlanders are Chinese people who live in a region considered a "mainland".
The Malayan Communist Party (MCP), officially known as the Communist Party of Malaya (CPM), was a political party in the Federation of Malaya and Malaysia.
The Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) (formerly known as Malayan Chinese Association) is a uni-racial political party in Malaysia that seeks to represents the Malaysian Chinese ethnicity; it is one of the three major component parties of the opposition coalition in Malaysia called the Barisan Nasional (BN) in Malay, or National Front in English.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
On 19 May 1949, the Governor of Taiwan Province, Chen Cheng, and the Ministry of National Defense of the Republic of China (ROC) promulgated the "Order of Martial Law" to announce the imposition of Taiwan martial law.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Mary Clabaugh Wright (born Mary Oliver Clabaugh; Chinese name 芮瑪麗 Ruì Mǎlì; September 25, 1917 – June 18, 1970) was an American sinologist and historian who specialized in the study of late Qing dynasty and early twentieth century China.
Masud Sabri (1886–1952), also known as Masʿūd Ṣabrī (مەسئۇت سابرى), (مسعود صبري),, was a Uyghur political leader in Xinjiang and Governor of Xinjiang during the Ili Rebellion.
The Matsu Islands (Fuzhou dialect: Mā-cū liĕk-dō̤ or less frequently,; Fuzhou dialect: 馬祖島 Mā-cū-dō̤) are a minor archipelago of 36 islands and islets in the East China Sea administered as Lienchiang County (連江縣;; Lièng-gŏng-gâing) under streamlined Fujian Province, Republic of China (ROC).
The May Fourth Movement was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student participants in Beijing on 4 May 1919, protesting against the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially allowing Japan to receive territories in Shandong which had been surrendered by Germany after the Siege of Tsingtao.
The Mayor of Taipei is the head of the Taipei City Government and is elected to a four-year term.
The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.
Mikhail Markovich Borodin (Михаи́л Ма́ркович Бороди́н; July 9, 1884 – May 29, 1951) was the alias of Mikhail Gruzenberg, a prominent Comintern agent, associate of Lenin and Chinese Government advisor to its leader Mao Zedong.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Mona Rudao, or Mouna Rudao (1880–1930) was the son of a chief of the Seediq tribe of Taiwanese aborigines.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission (MTAC) was a ministry-level commission of the Executive Yuan in the Republic of China.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Moscow Sun Yat-sen University, officially the Sun Yat-sen Communist University of the Toilers of China, was a Comintern school, which operated from 1925-1930 in the city of Moscow, Russia, then the Soviet Union.
Muhammad Amin Bughra also Muḥammad Amīn Bughra (1901–1965) (مۇھەممەد ئىمىن بۇغرا) (محمد أمين بغرا), Муххамад Эмин Бугро, (sometimes known by his Turkish name Mehmet Emin Bugra) was a Turkic Muslim leader, who planned to set up an independent state, the First East Turkestan Republic.
The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a staged event engineered by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
Muslim Conflict in Gansu was when a coalition of Muslim Generals broke out in revolt against the Guominjun in 1927.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
The Nanjing decade (also Nanking decade, Nánjīng shí nián, or The Golden decade, Huángjīn shí nián) is an informal name for the decade from 1927 (or 1928) to 1937 in the Republic of China.
The Nanking Incident occurred in March 1927 during the capture of Nanjing (then Nanking) by the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) in their Northern Expedition.
The National Assembly refers to several national parliamentary government organizations of the Republic of China.
The National Revolutionary Army (NRA), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army (革命軍) before 1928, and as National Army (國軍) after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party) from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China.
The Nationalist government, officially the National Government of the Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China between 1 July 1925 to 20 May 1948, led by the Kuomintang (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party).
A natural monopoly is a monopoly in an industry in which high infrastructural costs and other barriers to entry relative to the size of the market give the largest supplier in an industry, often the first supplier in a market, an overwhelming advantage over potential competitors.
After the founding of the Republic of China, Guangxi served as the base for one of the most powerful warlord cliques of China: the Old Guangxi clique.
The New Kuomintang Alliance (Hsin Kuomintang Lienhsien) was a faction of Kuomintang in the Republic of China (Taiwan), active late 20th century.
The New Life Movement was a government-led civic movement in 1930s China to promote cultural reform and Neo-Confucian social morality and to ultimately unite China under a centralised ideology following the emergence of ideological challenges to the status quo.
The New Party (NP), formerly the Chinese New Party (CNP), is a Chinese nationalist political party in Taiwan, supporting Chinese unification of China and part of the pan-blue coalition.
New Taiwan dollar (sign: NT$; code: TWD) is the official currency of Taiwan.
Ngô Đình Diệm (3 January 1901 – 2 November 1963) was a South Vietnamese politician.
Ningxia (pronounced), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest part of the country.
The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the Nationalists, against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926.
"One China policy" is a policy saying that there is only one country of China, despite the fact that there are two governments, China (officially the People's Republic of China) and Taiwan (officially the Republic of China), with the official name of China.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Taiwan: Taiwan – state in East Asia, officially named the Republic of China (ROC).
The pan-Blue coalition, pan-Blue force or pan-Blue groups is a loose political coalition in Taiwan (Republic of China), consisting of the Kuomintang (KMT), the People First Party (PFP), New Party (CNP), and Minkuotang (MKT).
Pandatsang Rapga (1902–1974) was a Khamba revolutionary during the first half of the 20th century in Tibet.
The Penghu or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait.
The People First Party (PFP) is a centre-right political party in Taiwan (Republic of China).
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
A political party is an organised group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in government.
The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan, sometimes referred to as the Taiwan Issue or Taiwan Strait Issue, or from a Taiwanese perspective as the Mainland Issue, is a result of the Chinese Civil War and the subsequent split of China into the two present-day self-governing entities of the People's Republic of China (PRC; commonly known as China) and the Republic of China (ROC; commonly known as Taiwan).
The politics of the Republic of China take place in a framework of a representative democratic republic, whereby the President is head of state and the Premier (Chef of the Executive Yuan) is head of government, and of a multi-party system.
The President of Taiwan, officially the President of the Republic of China, is the head of state and the head of government of Taiwan.
The Progressive Party was a political party in the Republic of China from 1913 to 1916.
Project National Glory or Project Guoguang was a military attempt by the Kuomintang-led Republic of China located on Taiwan to try to recapture mainland China held by the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).
Puyi or Pu Yi (7 February 190617 October 1967), of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.
Qinghai Lake, Koko Nor (Mongolian: Хөх нуур) or Tso Ngonpo (Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་པོ།) is the largest lake in China.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
A reactionary is a person who holds political views that favor a return to the status quo ante, the previous political state of society, which they believe possessed characteristics (discipline, respect for authority, etc.) that are negatively absent from the contemporary status quo of a society.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
The Republic of China Armed Forces, also known as the Chinese National Armed Forces (CNAF) or Armed Forces of Taiwan are the armed forces of the Republic of China now on Taiwan, encompassing the Army, Navy (including the Republic of China Marine Corps), Air Force and Military Police Force.
The Republic of China Military Academy is the military academy for the army of the Republic of China, located in Fengshan District, Kaohsiung.
The 1912 Republic of China National Assembly elections, held in December 1912 to January 1913, were the first elections for the new founded Republic of China Senate and House of Representatives.
The Republic of Hawaii was the formal name of the nation of Hawaiokinai between July 4, 1894, when the Provisional Government of Hawaii ended, and August 12, 1898, when it was annexed by the United States as a territory of the United States.
Taiwan Retrocession Day is an annual observance and unofficial holiday in the Republic of China to commemorate the end of 50 years of Japanese rule of Taiwan and Penghu, and their handover to China on 25 October 1945.
The Hsing Chung Hui or Xingzhonghui translated as the Revive China Society, the Society for Regenerating China, or the Proper China Society was founded by Sun Yat-sen on 24 November 1894 to forward the goal of establishing prosperity for China and as a platform for future revolutionary activities.
A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates revolution.
The Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang (abbreviated RCCK) is one of eight registered minor political parties (in addition to the Communist Party of China) in the People's Republic of China.
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
The, also known as the or the, are a chain of islands annexed by Japan that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (further divided into the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands), with Yonaguni the southernmost.
Same-sex marriage is not legal in Taiwan, although it has been the subject of public discussion since the early 2000s.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
The Second United Front was the alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang, or KMT) and Communist Party of China (CPC) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1941.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
The Shanghai massacre of April 12, 1927, known commonly as the April 12 Incident, was the violent suppression of Communist Party of China (CPC) organizations in Shanghai by the military forces of Chiang Kai-shek and conservative factions in the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party, or KMT).
Shi Jianqiao (1905 or 1906 – August 27, 1979) was the daughter of the Chinese military officer Shi Congbin, whose killing she avenged by assassinating the former warlord Sun Chuanfang.
Sinicization, sinicisation, sinofication, or sinification is a process whereby non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han Chinese culture and societal norms.
The Sino-Tibetan War was a war that began in 1930 when the Tibetan Army under the 13th Dalai Lama invaded Xikang and Yushu in Qinghai in a dispute over monasteries.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Song Jiaoren (Given name at birth: Liàn 鍊; Courtesy name: Dùnchū 鈍初) (5 April 1882 – 22 March 1913) was a Chinese republican revolutionary, political leader and a founder of the Kuomintang (KMT).
Soong Ai-ling, or Eling Soong (June 14, 1888 – October 18, 1973) was the eldest of the Soong sisters and the wife of H. H. Kung (Kung Hsiang-Hsi), who was the richest man in the early 20th century Republic of China.
Soong Mei-ling or Soong May-ling (March 5, 1898 – October 23, 2003), also known as Madame Chiang Kai-shek or Madame Chiang, was a Chinese political figure who was First Lady of the Republic of China, the wife of Generalissimo and President Chiang Kai-shek.
The Soong sisters were three Shanghainese (of Hainanese descent) Chinese women who were, along with their husbands, amongst China's most significant political figures of the early 20th century.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
Sun Chuanfang (April 17, 1885 – November 13, 1935) a.k.a. the "Nanking Warlord" or leader of the "League of Five Provinces" was a Zhili clique warlord and protégé of the "Jade Marshal" Wu Peifu (1874–1939).
Sun Li-jen (December 8, 1900 – November 19, 1990) KBE was a Chinese Nationalist (KMT) general, a graduate of Virginia Military Institute, best known for his leadership in the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War.
Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
The surrender of Imperial Japan was announced on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").
The Taipei Grand Mosque is the largest and most famous mosque in Taiwan with a total area of 2,747 square meters.
The Taipei Times is the only printed daily English-language newspaper in Taiwan and the third to be established in the nation.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council is an administrative agency under the State Council of the People's Republic of China.
General elections were held in Taiwan, officially the Republic of China, on Saturday, 16 January 2016 to elect the 14th President and Vice President of the Republic of China, and all 113 members of the ninth Legislative Yuan.
The Taiwan independence movement is a political movement to pursue formal independence of Taiwan, Goals for independence have arisen from international law in relation to the 1952 Treaty of San Francisco.
The Election for the 2nd Legislative Yuan were held in Taiwan on 19 December 1992.
The Election for the 3rd Legislative Yuan were held in Taiwan on 2 December 1995.
The Election for the 4th Legislative Yuan were held in Taiwan on 5 December 1998.
The Election for the 5th Legislative Yuan of Taiwan was held on 1 December 2001.
The Election for the 6th Legislative Yuan (第六屆立法委員選舉) of Taiwan was held on December 11, 2004.
Elections for the Seventh Legislative Yuan were held on January 12, 2008 in Taiwan.
The 8th Legislative elections was held on 14 January 2012 in Taiwan.
The Taiwan Miracle or Taiwan Economic Miracle refers to the rapid industrialization and economic growth of Taiwan during the latter half of the twentieth century.
National Assembly elections were held in the Republic of China on 22 December 1991.
National Assembly elections were held in the Republic of China on 23 March 1996, the first direct presidential election was also held on the same day.
An election for the National Assembly took place in Taiwan on Saturday, from 07:30 to 16:00 local time.
The election of the ninth-term President and Vice-President of the Republic of China (第九任中華民國總統 、副總統選舉) was the first direct presidential election in the history of the Republic of China.
The second ever direct presidential election was held in Taiwan on March 18, 2000, to elect the 10th-term President and Vice-President of the Republic of China under the 1947 Constitution.
The Election for the 11th-term President and Vice-President of the Republic of China (Taiwan), the third direct presidential election in Taiwan's history and the 11th presidential election overall under the 1947 Chinese Constitution, was held on March 20, 2004 in Taiwan.
The election for the 12th-term President and Vice-President of the Republic of China (Taiwan) was held in Taiwan on Saturday, March 22, 2008.
The election for the 13th-term President and Vice-President of the Republic of China was held in Taiwan on 14 January 2012.
Taiwan Province is one of the two administrative divisions of the Republic of China (ROC) that are officially referred to as "provinces".
The Taiwan Solidarity Union (TSU) is a political party in Taiwan which advocates Taiwan independence, Taiwanese localization movement and social liberalism.
Taiwanese indigenous peoples or formerly Taiwanese aborigines, Formosan people, Austronesian Taiwanese or Gaoshan people are the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, who number nearly 530,000 or 2.3% of the island's population, or more than 800,000 people, considering the potential recognition of Taiwanese Plain Indigenous Peoples officially in the future.
The Taiwanese Local Elections 2001 is the election in Taiwan on 1 December 2001 to elect mayors of provincial cities, magistrates of counties, members of county and city councils, and heads of townships and county-administered cities.
The Election of County Magistrates, County Councilmen, and Township Governors, commonly known as the "Three-in-One Election", was held in Taiwan on December 3, 2005 for magistrates of counties, mayors of provincial cities, members of county and city councils, and heads of townships and county-administered cities.
The Taiwanese local elections of 2009, or more commonly known as the Taiwan three-in-one elections of 2009, was held on Saturday, December 5, 2009, to elect magistrates of counties, mayors of provincial cities, members of county and city councils, and heads of townships and county-administered cities.
The Taiwanese local elections of 2014, commonly known as the nine-in-one elections, were held on Saturday, 29 November 2014, to elect the Municipal Mayors, Municipal Councilors, Chiefs of indigenous districts in municipalities, Councilors of indigenous districts in municipalities, County Magistrates (City Mayors), County (City) Councilors, Township Chiefs, Township Councilors and chiefs of village (borough) in 6 municipalities and 16 counties (cities).
The Taiwanese municipal elections of 2002, commonly known as the Taiwanese metropolitan elections of 2002, was held on Saturday, December 7, 2002, to elect the mayors, councilmen and ward chiefs of the special-municipalities — Kaohsiung and Taipei.
The Taiwanese municipal elections of 2006, or more commonly known as the Taipei and Kaohsiung elections of 2006, was held on Saturday, December 9, 2006, to elect the mayors, councilmen and ward chiefs of the special-municipalities — Kaohsiung and Taipei administered directly under the central government of Taiwan.
The Taiwanese municipal elections of 2010, commonly known as the Taiwan metropolitan elections of 2010, was held on Saturday, November 27, 2010, to elect the mayors, councilmen and ward chiefs of the five special-municipalities — Kaohsiung, New Taipei, Taichung, Tainan and Taipei administered directly under the central government of Taiwan.
Taiwanization, also known as the Taiwanese localization movement, is a conceptual term used in Taiwan to emphasize the importance of a Taiwanese culture, society, economy, nationality, and identity rather than to regard Taiwan as solely an appendage of China.
The Tangwai movement, simply Tangwai, was a political movement in the Republic of China (Taiwan) in the mid-1970s and early 1980s.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
The Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of National Mobilization for Suppression of the Communist Rebellion were provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of China effective from 1948 to 1991 and amended four times.
The Three-Noes Policy is a policy established in April 1979 and maintained by President Chiang Ching-kuo of the Republic of China, commonly known as "Taiwan", in response to the People’s Republic of China's attempts to have direct contact with the ROC (see Three Links).
The Three Principles of the People, also translated as Three People's Principles, San-min Doctrine, or Tridemism is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation.
The Tianma Tea House is a former tea house in Datong District, Taipei, Taiwan.
The Tibet Improvement Party was a nationalist, revolutionary, anti-feudal and pro-Republic of China political party in Tibet.
, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
The Tongmenghui (or T'ung-meng Hui, variously translated Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance, United Allegiance Society) was a secret society and underground resistance movement founded by Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren, and others in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905.
Tonkin (historically Đàng Ngoài), also spelled Tongkin, Tonquin or Tongking, is in the Red River Delta Region of northern Vietnam.
The was a treaty signed at the Shunpanrō hotel, Shimonoseki, Japan on 17 April 1895, between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire, ending the First Sino-Japanese War.
Tsai Ing-wen (born 31 August 1956) is a Taiwanese politician, legal scholar, attorney, and the current President of the Republic of China, commonly known as Taiwan, since May 20, 2016.
Tseng Yung-chuan is a Taiwanese politician.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Tuva (Тува́) or Tyva (Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (p; Тыва Республика, Tyva Respublika), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic, also defined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a state).
Unequal treaty is the name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed with Western powers during the 19th and early 20th centuries by Qing dynasty China after suffering military defeat by the West or when there was a threat of military action by those powers.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng (越南國民黨; Vietnamese Nationalist Party), abbreviated VNQDĐ or Việt Quốc, was a nationalist and moderate socialist political party that sought independence from French colonial rule in Vietnam during the early 20th century.
Vincent C. Siew or Siew Wan-chang (born 3 January 1939) is a Taiwanese politician who served as the Vice President of the Republic of China from 2008 to 2012.
The Virginia Military Institute (VMI) is a state-supported military college in Lexington, Virginia, the oldest such institution in the United States.
Wang Jin-pyng (born March 17, 1941), is a Taiwanese politician.
Wang Jingwei (Wang Ching-wei; 4 May 1883 – 10 November 1944); born as Wang Zhaoming (Wang Chao-ming), but widely known by his pen name "Jingwei", was a Chinese politician.
Wang Ju-hsuan (born 2 October 1961), also known as Jennifer Wang, is a Taiwanese lawyer and politician.
A warlord is a leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state due to their ability to mobilize loyal armed forces.
The Warlord Era (19161928) was a period in the history of the Republic of China when the control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions, which was spread across in the mainland regions of Sichuan, Shanxi, Qinghai, Ningxia, Guangdong, Guangxi, Gansu, Yunnan, and Xinjiang.
Welfare is a government support for the citizens and residents of society.
In Taiwan, the White Terror was the suppression of political dissidents following the February 28 Incident.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wu Den-yih (born 30 January 1948) is a Taiwanese politician.
Wu Po-hsiung (born June 19, 1939) is a politician in Taiwan (ROC) who formerly served as chairman of the Kuomintang (KMT).
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China.
Xi Jinping (born 15 June 1953) is a Chinese politician currently serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC), President of the People's Republic of China, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission.
The Xi'an Incident of 1936 was a political crisis that took place in Xi'an, China prior to the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Xidaotang ("Hall of the Western Dao," i.e. Islam)--originally called Jinxingtang 金星堂, the "Gold Star Hall"; also called the Hanxue pai 汉学派, the "Han Studies Sect" --is a Sino-Islamic religious body / special economic community centered in Gansu province.
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Yan Xishan; 8 October 1883 – 22 July 1960) was a Chinese warlord who served in the government of the Republic of China. He effectively controlled the province of Shanxi from the 1911 Xinhai Revolution to the 1949 Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War. As the leader of a relatively small, poor, remote province, he survived the machinations of Yuan Shikai, the Warlord Era, the Nationalist Era, the Japanese invasion of China and the subsequent civil war, being forced from office only when the Nationalist armies with which he was aligned had completely lost control of the Chinese mainland, isolating Shanxi from any source of economic or military supply. He has been viewed by Western biographers as a transitional figure who advocated using Western technology to protect Chinese traditions, while at the same time reforming older political, social and economic conditions in a way that paved the way for the radical changes that would occur after his rule.Gillin The Journal of Asian Studies 289.
The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, the Yellow God or the Yellow Lord, or simply by his Chinese name Huangdi, is a deity in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity (五方上帝 Wǔfāng Shàngdì).
Yihewani, or Ikhwan (d), (also known as Al Ikhwan al Muslimun, which means Muslim Brotherhood, not to be confused with the Middle Eastern Muslim Brotherhood) is an Islamic sect in China.
Yuan Shikai (16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese warlord, famous for his influence during the late Qing dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor, his autocratic rule as the first formal President of the Republic of China, and his short-lived attempt to restore monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.
Yulbars Khan (يۇلبارس خان يۇلۋاس خان (يولبارس خان) 'Tiger'; or; 1888-1971), courtesy name Jingfu (景福), was a Uighur warlord and Kuomintang general during the Chinese Civil War.
Zhang Fakui (25 July 1896 – 10 March 1980) was a Chinese Nationalist general who fought against northern warlords, the Imperial Japanese Army and Chinese Communist forces in his military career.
Zhang Xueliang or Chang Hsueh-liang or Chang Hsiao-liang (3 June 1901 – 15 October 2001), occasionally called Peter Hsueh Liang Chang and nicknamed the "Young Marshal" (少帥), was the effective ruler of northeast China and much of northern China after the assassination of his father, Zhang Zuolin, by the Japanese on 4 June 1928.
Zhonghua minzu, translated as "Chinese nation" or "Chinese races", is a key political term that is entwined with modern Chinese history of nation-building and race.
Zhongshan District is an administrative district of Taipei City, named after Sun Yat-sen, better known in Chinese as "Sun Zhongshan".
The 14th Dalai Lama (religious name: Tenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Thondup, 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama.
The Campaign at the China–Burma border was a series of battles fought between the Chinese nationalists and the communists at or around the China–Myanmar border, after the Chinese Civil War in the post World War II era.
The "1992 Consensus" or "Consensus of 1992" (One China Consensus) is a political term coined by politician Su Chi, referring to the outcome of a meeting in 1992 between the semi-official representatives of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in mainland China and the Republic of China (ROC) in Taiwan.
The 1st National Congress of Kuomintang was the first national congress of Kuomintang, held on 20–30 January 1924 at Kwangchow, Kwangtung, Republic of China.
The 2005 Pan–Blue visits to mainland China were a series of groundbreaking visits by delegations of the Kuomintang (KMT) to mainland China.
The 3-19 shooting incident was an assassination attempt on President Chen Shui-bian and Vice President Annette Lu while they were campaigning in Tainan, Taiwan on 19 March 2004, the day before Taiwan's presidential election.
The 36th Division was a cavalry division in the National Revolutionary Army.
Chinese Country People Party, Chinese KMT, Chinese Kuomintang, Chinese Nationalist, Chinese Nationalist Party, Chinese Nationalist party, Chinese Nationalists, Chinese Revolutionary Party, Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang, Country People Party, Guo Min Dang, Guo Mindang, Guomin Dang, Guomindang, Guomindang Party, Guomingdang, Guomingtang, Guomintang, Guómíndang, Guómíndǎng, Jhungguo Guomindang, KMT, KMT (political party), Kmt, Kuo Min Tang, Kuo Ming Tang, Kuo-min-tang, Kuomentang, Kuomin Tang, Kuomindang, Kuomingtang, Kuomintag, Kuomintang Party, Kuomintang of China, Kuomitang, Kuomontang, Kuomotang, National People's Party of China, Nationalist Chinese, Nationalist Chinese Kuomintang, Nationalist Party (1912), Nationalist Party (KMT), Nationalist Party of China, Nationalist Party of Taiwan, Nationalist People's Party, Nationalist People's Party of China, The Kuomintang, Zhongguo Guomindang, Zhongguó Guómíndang, Zhōngguó Guómíndǎng, 中国国民党, 中國國民黨, 中華革命黨, 国民党, 國民黨.