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Kurdish languages

Index Kurdish languages

Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia. [1]

127 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Adam, Ahmad Khani, Ali Hariri, Amadiya, Amir Hassanpour, Amnesty International, Ancient Greek, Arabic, Armenia, Armenian alphabet, Armenian language, Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Avestan, Azerbaijan, Baloch people, Balochi language, Cartoon, Central Anatolia Region, Central Kurdish, Cognate, Cyrillic script, Damascus, David Neil MacKenzie, Dialect continuum, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Encyclopædia Iranica, English language, Esnaf, Ethnologue, Eve, Faqi Tayran, Fars Province, Georgia (country), German language, Glottolog, Gorani language (Zaza-Gorani), Greek language, Halabja, Hawrami dialects, Ibn Wahshiyya, Ilam Province, Indo-European languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales, Iran, Iranian Kurdistan, Iranian languages, Iraq, Iraqi Kurdistan, ..., Isfahan Province, ISO/IEC 8859-1, Italians, Kermanshah Province, Khanaqin, Khorasan Province, Khutbah, Kurdish alphabets, Kurdish culture, Kurdish Institute of Istanbul, Kurdish Institute of Paris, Kurdish population, Kurdistan, Kurdistan Province, Kurds, Kurds in Iran, Kurds in Iraq, Kurds in Syria, Kurds in Turkey, Kyrgyzstan, Languages of the Caucasus, Latin, Latin script, Lithuanian language, Lorestan Province, Malaye Jaziri, Marriage certificate, Martin van Bruinessen, Median language, Microsoft Word, Mutual intelligibility, Nastaʿlīq script, Nationalencyklopedin, Northern Kurdish, Nynorsk, Old Church Slavonic, Old English, Old High German, Old Prussian language, Ottoman Empire, OYAK, Parthian language, Persian language, Proto-Indo-European language, Richard N. Frye, Rome, Russian language, Sanskrit, Semitic languages, Shabaki dialect, Show TV, Soran Emirate, Southern Kurdish, Soviet Union, Sulaymaniyah, Swedish language, Syria, Traffic sign, TRT Kurdî, Turkey, Turkic languages, Turkish alphabet, Turkish Land Forces, United Nations Commission on Human Rights, University of Kurdistan (Iran), University of Kurdistan Hewler, Western Asia, Western Iranian languages, Wiktionary, Yazidi Black Book, Yazidis, Zare Yusupova, Zaza language, Zaza–Gorani languages, 14th century, 1980 Turkish coup d'état, 20th century. Expand index (77 more) »

Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

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Adam (ʾĀdam; Adám) is the name used in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis for the first man created by God, but it is also used in a collective sense as "mankind" and individually as "a human".

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Ahmad Khani

Ahmad Khani, Ahmad-i Khani (Ehmedê Xanî, (1650 Hakkari –1707 Doğubayazıt) was a Kurdish writer, poet, astronomer and philosopher. He was born amongst the Khani's tribe in Hakkari province in present-day Turkey. He moved to Bayezid in Ritkan province and settled there. Later he started with teaching Kurdish (Kurmanji) at basic level. Khani was fluent in Kurdish, Arabic and Persian. He wrote his Arabic-Kurdish dictionary "Nûbihara Biçûkan" (The Spring of Children) in 1683 to help children with their learning process. His most important work is the Kurdish classic love story "Mem and Zin" (Mem û Zîn) (1692). His other work include a book called Eqîdeya Îmanê (The Path of Faith), which is part poem and part prose. The book explains the five pillars of Islamic faith. It was published in 2000 in Sweden.

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Ali Hariri

Ali Hariri (1009-1079) was among the first well-known Kurdish poets who wrote in Kurdish.

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Amadiya (Amêdî, ئامێدی, العمادية, ܥܲܡܵܕܝܵܐ Al-Emadiyah) is a Kurdish town and popular summer resort and Hill station along a tributary to the Great Zab in the Dahuk Governorate of Iraqi Kurdistan.

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Amir Hassanpour

Amir Hassanpour, (10 August 1943 – 24 June 2017; امیر حسن‌پور; ئه‌میر حه‌سه‌نپوور), was a prominent Iranian Kurdish scholar and researcher.

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Amnesty International

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Armenian alphabet

The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.

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Armenian language

The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.

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Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic

Armenia (translit,; Армения; Armeniya), officially the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Armenian SSR; translit; translit), also commonly referred to as Soviet Armenia, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union in December 1922 located in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.

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No description.

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Baloch people

The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.

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Balochi language

Balochi (بلؤچی, transliteration: balòči) is the principal language of the Baloch people spoken primarily in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

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A cartoon is a type of illustration, possibly animated, typically in a non-realistic or semi-realistic style.

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Central Anatolia Region

The Central Anatolia Region (İç Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Central Kurdish

Central Kurdish (کوردیی ناوەندی, Kurdîy nawendî), also called Sorani (سۆرانی, Soranî) is a Kurdish language spoken in Iraq, mainly in Iraqi Kurdistan, as well as the Kurdistan Province and West Azerbaijan Province of western Iran.

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In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.

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Cyrillic script

The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).

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Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.

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David Neil MacKenzie

David Neil MacKenzie FBA (8 April 1926 – 13 October 2001) was a scholar of Iranian languages.

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Dialect continuum

A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.

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Encyclopaedia of Islam

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.

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Encyclopædia Iranica

Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Esnaf is a Turkish word which means “guild” or “corporation”.

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Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.

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Eve (Ḥawwā’; Syriac: ܚܘܐ) is a figure in the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible.

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Faqi Tayran

Faqi Tayran (or Feqiyê Teyran) (1590–1660) is considered one of the great classic Kurdish poets and writers.

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Fars Province

Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.

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Georgia (country)

Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Glottolog is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany.

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Gorani language (Zaza-Gorani)

Gorani (also Gurani) is a group of Northwestern Iranian dialects spoken by groups of Iranian and Iraqi citizens in the southernmost parts of Iranian Kurdistan and the Iraqi Kurdistan region.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Halabja (Kurdish: Hełebce) is a city in Iraqi Kurdistan and the capital of Halabja Governorate, located about northeast of Baghdad and from the Iranian border.

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Hawrami dialects

Horami (ھۆرامی; Horamî) also known as Avromani, Awromani or Owrami, is one of the main groups of dialects of the Gorani language, a subgroup of Northwestern Iranian languages.

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Ibn Wahshiyya

Ibn Wahshiyyah the Nabataean (ابن وحشية النبطي), also known as ʾAbū Bakr ʾAḥmad bin ʿAlī (أبو بكر أحمد بن علي) (fl. 9th/10th centuries) was an Arab alchemist, agriculturalist, farm toxicologist, Egyptologist, and historian born at Qusayn near Kufa in Iraq.

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Ilam Province

Ilam Province (استان ایلام) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Indo-Iranian languages

The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales

Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales (English: National Institute for Oriental Languages and Civilizations) is a French research institution teaching languages that span Central Europe, Africa, Asia, America, and Oceania.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iranian Kurdistan

Iranian Kurdistan, or Eastern Kurdistan (Kurdish: Rojhilatê Kurdistanê), is an unofficial name for the parts of northwestern Iran inhabited by Kurds which borders Iraq and Turkey.

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Iranian languages

The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.

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Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Iraqi Kurdistan

Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.

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Isfahan Province

Isfahan province (Ostāne Esfahan), also transliterated as Esfahan, Espahan, Isfahan, or Isphahan, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran.

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ISO/IEC 8859-1

ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 1: Latin alphabet No.

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The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.

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Kermanshah Province

Kermanshah Province (استان كرمانشاه, Ostān-e Kermanšah) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Khanaqin (Arabic: خانقين; Kurdish: Xaneqîn خانه‌قین) is a city in Iraq in Iraq's Diyala Governorate, near the Iranian border on the Alwand tributary of the Diyala River.

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Khorasan Province

Khorasan (استان خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, also called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times) was a province in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire.

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Khutbah (Arabic: خطبة khuṭbah, hutbe) serves as the primary formal occasion for public preaching in the Islamic tradition.

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Kurdish alphabets

The Kurdish languages are written in either of two alphabets: a Latin alphabet introduced by Jeladet Ali Bedirkhan (Celadet Alî Bedirxan) in 1932 (Bedirxan alphabet, or Hawar after the ''Hawar'' magazine), and a Persian alphabet-based Sorani alphabet, named for the historical Soran Emirate of present-day Iraqi Kurdistan.

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Kurdish culture

Kurdish culture is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people.

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Kurdish Institute of Istanbul

Kurdish Institute of Istanbul (Enstîtuya Kurdî Ya Stenbolê, İstanbul Kürt Enstitüsü), founded in 1992, was an organization focusing on Kurdish literature, language and culture.

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Kurdish Institute of Paris

Kurdish Institute of Paris (Institut kurde de Paris), founded in February 1983, is an organization focused on Kurdish language, culture and history.

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Kurdish population

The Kurdish people live in the historical Kurdistan region, which today is split between Iran, Iraq, Turkey, and Syria. The estimated population is 35 million. A rough estimate by the CIA Factbook has Kurdish populations of 14.5 million in Turkey, 6 million in Iran, about 5 to 6 million in Iraq, and less than 2 million in Syria, which adds up to close to 28 million Kurds in Kurdistan and adjacent regions. Recent emigration has resulted in a Kurdish diaspora of about 1.5 million people, about half of them in Germany. A special case are the Kurdish populations in the Transcaucasus and Central Asia, displaced there mostly in the time of the Russian Empire, who underwent independent developments for more than a century and have developed an ethnic identity in their own right. This group's population was estimated at close to 0.4 million in 1990.

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Kurdistan (کوردستان; lit. "homeland of the Kurds") or Greater Kurdistan is a roughly defined geo-cultural historical region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population and Kurdish culture, languages and national identity have historically been based.

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Kurdistan Province

Kurdistan Province (استان کردستان, Ostān-e Kordestān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).

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Kurds in Iran

Kurds in Iran refers to people born in or residing in Iran who are of Kurdish origin.

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Kurds in Iraq

Kurds in Iraq (کوردانی باشووری کوردستان / کوردانی عێڕاق.) are people born in or residing in Iraq who are of Kurdish origin.

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Kurds in Syria

Kurds in Syria refers to people born in or residing in Syria who are of Kurdish origin.

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Kurds in Turkey

Kurds in Turkey refers to people born in or residing in Turkey who are of Kurdish origin.

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The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.

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Languages of the Caucasus

The Caucasian languages are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus Mountains, which lie between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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Lithuanian language

Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.

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Lorestan Province

Lorestan Province (استان لرستان, also written Luristan, Lurestan, or Loristan), is a province of western Iran in the Zagros Mountains.

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Malaye Jaziri

Malaye Jaziri (Melayê Cizîrî), (1570-1640) was one of the most famous Kurdish writer, poet and mystic.

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Marriage certificate

A marriage certificate (sometimes: marriage lines) is an official statement that two people are married.

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Martin van Bruinessen

Martin van Bruinessen (born 10 July 1946, Schoonhoven) is a Dutch anthropologist and author, who has published a number of publications on the Kurdish, Indonesian, Turkish, Persian, and Zazas cultures, and also on aspects of Islam as a whole.

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Median language

The Median language (also Medean or Medic) was the language of the Medes.

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Microsoft Word

Microsoft Word (or simply Word) is a word processor developed by Microsoft.

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Mutual intelligibility

In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.

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Nastaʿlīq script

Nastaʿlīq (نستعلیق, from نسخ Naskh and تعلیق Taʿlīq) is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Persian alphabet, and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy.

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Nationalencyklopedin, abbreviated NE, is a comprehensive contemporary Swedish-language encyclopedia, initiated by a favourable loan from the Government of Sweden of 17 million Swedish kronor in 1980, which was repaid by December 1990.

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Northern Kurdish

Northern Kurdish (Kurdiya jorîn, rtl), also called Kurmanji (Kurmancî, rtl), is a Kurdish language spoken in southeast Turkey, northwest and northeast Iran, northern Iraq and northern Syria.

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Nynorsk (translates to New Norwegian or New Norse) is one of the two written standards of the Norwegian language, the other being Bokmål.

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Old Church Slavonic

Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old High German

Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.

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Old Prussian language

Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language once spoken by the Old Prussians, the Baltic peoples of Prussia (not to be confused with the later and much larger German state of the same name)—after 1945 northeastern Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia and southernmost part of Lithuania.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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OYAK (Ordu Yardımlaşma Kurumu) is the pension fund of the Turkish Armed Forces, with around 260,000 members in 2012.

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Parthian language

The Parthian language, also known as Arsacid Pahlavi and Pahlawānīg, is a now-extinct ancient Northwestern Iranian language spoken in Parthia, a region of northeastern ancient Iran.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

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Richard N. Frye

Richard Nelson Frye (January 10, 1920 – March 27, 2014) was an American scholar of Iranian and Central Asian Studies, and Aga Khan Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Harvard University.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Semitic languages

The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.

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Shabaki dialect

Shabaki is a dialect of the Indo-Iranian language Gorani spoken by the Shabak people in Mosul, Iraq.

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Show TV

Show TV is a nationwide television channel in Turkey owned by Ciner Media Group (since 2013, acquired from Çukurova Media Group after Çukurova was forced to sell due to tax debts. The channel was originally established by the Turkish businessmen Erol Aksoy and Haldun Simavi and were originally launched on March 1, 1991, although it commences its test transmissions. A year later, the channel moved its headquarters to Istanbul, Turkey, and were at the same time starting its official broadcasts. Show TV extended its range of viewers by adding more channels like Show Max and Show Turk to its group. Show TV aired many world-known series for the first time in Turkey. Among them were S.W.A.T., The Master, The Rookies, Silk Stalkings, T. J. Hooker, Booker, Roseanne, The Wonder Years, Superboy, Tequila and Bonetti, Doogie Howser, M.D., The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, Dream On, Generations, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, Seinfeld, In the Heat of the Night, Friends, Beverly Hills, 90210, Power Rangers and Premiers Baisers. Furthermore, it re-aired some television series like Fame, Charlie's Angels, The Twilight Zone and Dallas, which were very popular during the monopolistic era of TRT in Turkey. The channel's personalities include Mustafa Ceceli, Begüm, Alişan, Asuman Krause, Ali Sunal, Jülide Ateş and Çağla Şikel. The channel also aired successful Turkish television series like Kurtlar Vadisi, Doktorlar, Adını Feriha Koydum, and Muhteşem Yüzyıl.

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Soran Emirate

Soran was a Kurdish Sunni Muslim emirate based in the geographic region of Kurdistan, specifically in what is today known as Iraqi (i.e. southern) Kurdistan.

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Southern Kurdish

Southern Kurdish (کوردی خوارین; kurdîy xwarîn) is a Kurdish group of languages/dialects predominantly spoken in western Iran and eastern Iraq.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Sulaymaniyah (Iraqi:السليمانية, as-Sulaymāniyyah), also called Slemani, is a city in Iraqi Kurdistan.

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Traffic sign

Traffic signs or road signs are signs erected at the side of or above roads to give instructions or provide information to road users.

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TRT Kurdî

TRT Kurdî is Turkey's first national Kurdish language television station.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkic languages

The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).

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Turkish alphabet

The Turkish alphabet (Türk alfabesi) is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ş, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.

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Turkish Land Forces

The Turkish Land Forces (Türk Kara Kuvvetleri), or Turkish Army (Türk Ordusu), is the main branch of the Turkish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations.

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United Nations Commission on Human Rights

The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations from 1946 until it was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006.

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University of Kurdistan (Iran)

University of Kurdistan (دانشگاه كردستان, زانستگای كوردستان) is the largest university in Iranian Kurdistan Province, located in south of Sanandaj.

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University of Kurdistan Hewler

The University of Kurdistan Hewlêr (UKH) is an educational institution in Erbil (Kurdish: Hewlêr, هەولێر) in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Western Iranian languages

The Western Iranian languages are a branch of the Iranian languages, attested from the time of Old Persian (6th century BC) and Median.

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Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary of all words in all languages.

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Yazidi Black Book

The Yazidi Black Book (مسحە‌فا ڕه‌ش Meṣḥefa reş) is one of two books written in the style of a holy book of the Yazidis in Northern Kurdish, the other being the Yazidi Book of Revelation (Kitēba jilwe).

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The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.

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Zare Yusupova

Zare Alievna Yusupova (Russian: Заре Алиевна Юсупова; born 1934) is a Russian philologist specializing in the Kurdish language.

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Zaza language

Zaza language, also called Zazaki, Kirmanjki and Dimli, is an Indo-European language spoken primarily in eastern Turkey by the Zazas.

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Zaza–Gorani languages

Zaza–Gorani is a group of Northwestern Iranian languages.

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14th century

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was the century lasting from January 1, 1301, to December 31, 1400.

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1980 Turkish coup d'état

The 12 September 1980 Turkish coup d'état (12 Eylül Darbesi), headed by Chief of the General Staff General Kenan Evren, was the third coup d'état in the history of the Republic, the previous having been the 1960 coup and the 1971 "Coup by Memorandum".

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20th century

The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000.

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Redirects here:

ISO 639:ku, ISO 639:kur, Kurde, Kurdi language, Kurdic, Kurdish (language), Kurdish Language, Kurdish blogs, Kurdish dialects, Kurdish lang, Kurdish language, Kurdish macrolanguage, Kurdish main dialects, Kurdî, Language Kurdish, Language of Kurds, List of English words of Kurdish origin, Proto-Kurdish, Proto-Kurdish language, ProtoKurdish, Protokurdish, Protokurdish language, زمانی کوردی, كوردی, کوردی.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurdish_languages

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