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Kurds

Index Kurds

The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan). [1]

550 relations: A Time for Drunken Horses, Abbas I of Persia, Abbas I's Kakhetian and Kartlian campaigns, Abdisho, Abdul Hamid II, Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou, Afghan, Afrin Canton, Afsharid dynasty, Aftermath of World War I, Aga Khan Trust for Culture, Agnosticism, Ahmet Kaya, Ahura Mazda, Akkadian Empire, Akkadian language, Al-Mu'tasim, Al-Sulaymaniyah FC, Al-Tabari, Albert Kahn (banker), Aleppo, Alevism, Amedeo Preziosi, American Bible Society, Amir Kabir, Amir Khan Lepzerin, Amnesty International, Anatolia, Ancient Rome, Ani, Annazids, Anthropomorphism, Antoin Sevruguin, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabs, Ararat rebellion, Ardashir I, Armenia, Armenians, Arran (Caucasus), Artabanus V of Parthia, Asian Football Confederation, Assassins, Assyria, Assyrian people, Austria, Ayyubid dynasty, Azad (rapper), Azerbaijan (Iran), ..., Azerbaijan People's Government, Azerbaijanis, İbrahim Tatlıses, Şırnak, Şivan Perwer, Ba'athism, Baghdad, Bahman Ghobadi, Ballad, Balochistan, Bar Hebraeus, Bard, Basra, Battle of Chaldiran, Battle of Dimdim, Battle of Hattin, BBC, Bedr Khan Bey, Behrouz Vossoughi, Bektashi Order, Benelux, Bijar, Bisotun, Bitlis, Boxing, Bronze Age, Buyid dynasty, Cairo Citadel, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Canada 2011 Census, Cannes Film Festival, Caucasus, Celal İbrahim, Central Anatolia Region, Central Asia, Central Intelligence Agency, Central Kurdish, China, Chopy Fatah, Christian martyrs, Christianity, Circassians, Citadel of Aleppo, Cizre, Classical Arabic, Communism, Constitution of Iraq, Corduene, Council of Europe, Crusades, Cultural rights, Cyaxares, Cyrtian, Daily Star (United Kingdom), Dalkurd FF, Damascus, Darin Zanyar, Daylamites, Deep state in Turkey, Deism, Democracy Party (Turkey), Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan, Democratic Society Party, Dewsbury, Dicle Bridge, Directorate-General of Antiquities and Museums, Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Diyarbakır, Diyarbakırspor, Dualistic cosmology, Duhok SC, Duvar, Early Muslim conquests, Egalitarianism, Egypt, Emirate, Encyclopædia Iranica, Epic poetry, Erbil, Erbil SC, Eren Derdiyok, Erzurum, Ethnic cleansing, Ethnic group, Ethnic groups in the Middle East, Ethnologue, Ethnonym, Etymology, Euphemism, European Court of Human Rights, European Parliament, European Union, Ey Reqîb, Fars Province, Female genital mutilation, Feudalism, Feyli Lurs, FIFA, Fifth column, Fire temple, Firuz-Shah Zarrin-Kolah, Folklore, Forced marriage, Frame drum, France, Free will, Galatasaray S.K., Ganj Ali Khan, Gaziantep, Gender equality, Geography of Iran, Germany, Ghulat, Gnosticism, Golden Rule, Gorani language (Zaza-Gorani), Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Great Britain, Greater Khorasan, Greco-Roman wrestling, Greenwood Publishing Group, Guran, Guran (Kurdish tribe), Gutian people, Haji Bektash Veli, Hakkari, Halabja, Halabja chemical attack, Hamdanid dynasty, Hamidiye (cavalry), Hamo Beknazarian, Hanafi, Handicraft, Harran, Harvard Theological Review, Hasanwayhids, Hazaraspids, Heaven, Hebrew language, Hell, Henna, Hierarchy of angels, High Middle Ages, History of Iran, History of the Jews in Kurdistan, History of the Kurds, Hoşap Castle, Holy Spirit in Christianity, Honor killing, Hormuzan, Human Rights Watch, Huner Saleem, Idris Bitlisi, Ilam Province, India, Indo-European languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Innatism, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Iran, Iran crisis of 1946, Iran–Iraq War, Iran–PJAK conflict, Iranian Kurdistan, Iranian languages, Iranian nationalism, Iranian peoples, Iranian presidential election, 2013, Iranian Revolution, Iraq, Iraq War, Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraqi Kurdistan national football team, Iraqi Premier League, Ishak Pasha Palace, Islam, Islamic Consultative Assembly, Islamkundliche Untersuchungen, Ismail I, Istanbul, Jaff, Jakob Künzler, Janbiya, Jerusalem, Kahramanmaraş, Kalbajar, Kalhor (Iranian tribe), Kar-Namag i Ardashir i Pabagan, Karim Khan Zand, Karim Sanjabi, Kāve, KDPI insurgency (1989–96), Kermanshah, Kermanshahis, Khanaqin, Khorasan Province, Khuzestan Province, Kianoush Rostami, Kingdom of Kurdistan, Kirkuk, Komala Party of Iranian Kurdistan, Konya, Kosovo Albanians, Krak des Chevaliers, Kurdish Americans, Kurdish chiefdoms, Kurdish Christians, Kurdish cinema, Kurdish Institute of Paris, Kurdish languages, Kurdish literature, Kurdish nationalism, Kurdish population, Kurdish refugees, Kurdish tribes, Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present), Kurdistan, Kurdistan Democratic Party, Kurdistan Free Life Party, Kurdistan Province, Kurdistan Regional Government, Kurdistan Workers' Party, Kurdistansky Uyezd, Kurds, Kurds in Georgia, Kurds in Germany, Kurds in Lebanon, Kurds in Syria, Kurds in Turkey, Kurds of Khorasan, Lachin, Lake Urmia, Lake Van, Laki language, Laks (Iran), Lalish, League of Nations, Leyla Zana, List of designated terrorist groups, List of Kurdish dynasties and countries, List of Kurdish organisations, List of Kurds, List of mayors of Tehran, List of Safavid Grand Viziers, London, Lorestan Province, Lori people, Lotf Ali Khan, Lurs, Madig, Magi, Mahabad, Mahdi, Mahsun Kırmızıgül, Malatya, Mar Qardagh, Mardin, Marivan, Markazi Masjid, Dewsbury, Martial law, Martin van Bruinessen, Marwanids, Marxism, Marxism–Leninism, Marzban, Medes, Media of Syria, Median language, Melek Taus, Mesopotamia, Messianism, Metempsychosis, Michael Radu, Michael the Syrian, Middle Ages, Middle East, Middle Persian, Mikhail Aloyan, Millenarianism, Minstrel, Mir Jafar Dasni, Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, Mohammad Mosaddegh, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza Rahimi, Mongols, Monica Bellucci, Monthly Review, Mosul, Mount Judi, Mount Nemrut, Multilingualism, Muslim, Muslim conquest of Persia, Mustafa Barzani, Myanmar, Mysticism, Mythology, Nader Shah, Nagorno-Karabakh, Nagorno-Karabakh War, National symbols of the Kurds, Nationalism, NATO, Newroz as celebrated by Kurds, Nineveh, Nineveh Governorate, Nizamettin Ariç, Nomad, Northern Kurdish, Nova Science Publishers, Nur Tatar, Olympic weightlifting, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Iraq, Ottoman Turks, Ottoman–Persian War (1775–76), Ottoman–Persian wars, Paganism, Pahlavi dynasty, Pan-Arabism, Pan-Iranism, Pan-Turkism, Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, Peace of Amasya, Pennsylvania, Persian language, Persian mythology, Persian people, Peshmerga, Piranshahr, Iran, Piryones, Politics of Iran, Princeton University Press, Puppet state, Qajar dynasty, Qamishli, Qazi Muhammad, Qizilbash, RAND Corporation, Rawadid dynasty, Refugees of the Syrian Civil War, Reincarnation, Religious symbol, Republic of Ararat, Republic of Mahabad, Reza Shah, Rhino Season, Richard N. Frye, Rohingya people, Rojava conflict, Routledge, Rowman & Littlefield, Russia, Russian Empire, Safavid dynasty, Sakharov Prize, Saladin, Samir Amin, Sanandaj, Saranjâm, Sasanian Empire, Second language, Second Temple Judaism, Secularization, Sedentism, Self-governance, Selim I, Shaddadids, Shafi‘i, Shah, Shahmaran, Shahnameh, Shahqoli Khan Zanganeh, Shahr-e Kord, Shapur II, Sharafkhan Bidlisi, Shaykh Ali Khan Zanganeh, Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir, Sheikh Ubeydullah, Sherwana Castle, Shia Islam, Shia–Sunni relations, Siirt, Simko Shikak, Simko Shikak revolt (1918–22), Simurgh, Soot, Southern Kurdish, Soviet Union, St. Martin's Press, Storytelling, Sufism, Sulaymaniyah, Suleiman of Persia, Sultan Sahak, Sumer, Sumerian language, Sunni Islam, Supreme Being, Sweden, Switzerland, Syncretism, Syracuse University Press, Syria, Syrian Civil War, Taekwondo, Takht-e Soleymān, Taq Bostan, Tattoo, Taylor & Francis, Tehran, Ten Thousand, The Exorcist (film), The Herd (1978 film), The Kamkars, The Market: A Tale of Trade, The New York Times, The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire, The Washington Post, The Wind Will Carry Us, The World Factbook, Theophilos (emperor), Theophobos, Tigris, Timur, Toponymy, Transaction Publishers, Transcaucasia, Treaty of Sèvres, Treaty of Versailles, Triage (film), Turkey, Turkic peoples, Turkish Hezbollah, Turkish Kurdistan, Turkish language, Turkish military operation in Afrin, Turkish nationalism, Turkish occupation of northern Syria, Turkish people, Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army, Turkmens, United Nations, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 688, United States, United States Census Bureau, University of California Press, Urartu, Urfa, Utu-hengal, Van, Turkey, Vice President of Iran, Viva World Cup, Warp and weft, West Azerbaijan Province, Western Armenia, Western Asia, Western Europe, Western Iranian languages, White Revolution, Work song, World War I, Wrestling in Iran, Xenophon, Yarsanism, Yazdânism, Yazidi Black Book, Yazidi Book of Revelation, Yazidis, Yılmaz Erdoğan, Yılmaz Güney, Yerevan, Yol, Young Turks, Zabdicene, Zakarids-Mkhargrzeli, Zakho, Zakho FC, Zand dynasty, Zand tribe, Zaza language, Zaza–Gorani languages, Zazas, Zed Books, Zengid dynasty, Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism, 1960 Turkish coup d'état, 1967 Kurdish revolt in Iran, 1975 Algiers Agreement, 1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran, 1980 Turkish coup d'état, 2007 Yazidi communities bombings, 2012 Summer Olympics. 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A Time for Drunken Horses

A Time for Drunken Horses (کاتێک بۆ مەستیی ئەسپەکان, زمانی برای مستی اسب‌ها, Zamani barayé masti asbha, Demek jibo hespên serxweş) is a 2000 Iranian (Kurdish/Persian) film directed by Bahman Ghobadi and produced in Iran.

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Abbas I of Persia

Shāh Abbās the Great or Shāh Abbās I of Persia (شاه عباس بزرگ; 27 January 157119 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and is generally considered the strongest ruler of the Safavid dynasty.

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Abbas I's Kakhetian and Kartlian campaigns

Abbas I's Kakhetian and Kartlian campaigns refers to the four campaigns Safavid king Abbas I led between 1614-1617, in his East Georgian vassal kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti during the Ottoman–Safavid War (1603–18).

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Abdisho

Abdisho (Syriac: ʰbhedhišoʰ), a member of the Church of the East, was a deacon and martyr.

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Abdul Hamid II

Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; İkinci Abdülhamit; 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.

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Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou

Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou (Ebdulrehman Qasimlo, عبدالرحمان قاسملو; 22 December 1930 – 13 July 1989) was a Kurdish political leader.

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Afghan

Afghan (also referred to as Afghanistani) (Pashto/افغان; see etymology) refers to someone or something from Afghanistan, in particular a citizen of that country.

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Afrin Canton

Afrin Canton (Kantona Efrînê, مقاطعة عفرين, translit) was one of the cantons of the de facto autonomous Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS).

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Afsharid dynasty

The Afsharid dynasty (افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Turkic Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Persia in the mid-eighteenth century.

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Aftermath of World War I

The aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, cultural, economic, and social change across Eurasia (Europe and Asia), Africa, and even in areas outside those that were directly involved.

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Aga Khan Trust for Culture

The Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC) is an agency of the Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN), a family of institutions created by Aga Khan IV with distinct but complementary mandates to improve the welfare and prospects of people in the developing world, particularly in Asia and Africa.

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Agnosticism

Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.

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Ahmet Kaya

Ahmet Kaya (28 October 1957 – 16 November 2000) was a Kurdish folk singer from Malatya, Turkey.

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Ahura Mazda

Ahura Mazda (also known as Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, Harzoo and Hurmuz) is the Avestan name for the creator and sole God of Zoroastrianism, the old Iranian religion that spread across the Middle East, before ultimately being relegated to small minorities after the Muslim conquest of Iran.

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Akkadian Empire

The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible.

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Akkadian language

Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.

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Al-Mu'tasim

Abū Isḥāq Muḥammad ibn Hārūn al-Rashīd (أبو إسحاق محمد بن هارون الرشيد; October 796 – 5 January 842), better known by his regnal name al-Muʿtaṣim bi’llāh (المعتصم بالله, "he who seeks refuge in God"), was the eighth Abbasid caliph, ruling from 833 to his death in 842.

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Al-Sulaymaniyah FC

Sulaymaniyah football club also written (نادي السليمانية, یانه‌ی وه‌رزشی سلێمانی) is a sports club based in Sulaymaniyah, Iraqi Kurdistan.

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Al-Tabari

Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (محمد بن جریر طبری, أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير بن يزيد الطبري) (224–310 AH; 839–923 AD) was an influential Persian scholar, historian and exegete of the Qur'an from Amol, Tabaristan (modern Mazandaran Province of Iran), who composed all his works in Arabic.

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Albert Kahn (banker)

Albert Kahn (3 March 1860 – 14 November 1940) was a French banker and philanthropist, known for initiating The Archives of the Planet, a vast photographical project.

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Aleppo

Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.

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Alevism

Alevism (Alevîlik or Anadolu Alevîliği/Alevileri, also called Qizilbash, or Shī‘ah Imāmī-Tasawwufī Ṭarīqah, or Shīʿah-ī Bāṭen’īyyah) is a syncretic, heterodox, and local tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (''bāṭenī'') teachings of Ali, the Twelve Imams, and a descendant—the 13th century Alevi saint Haji Bektash Veli.

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Amedeo Preziosi

Amedeo Preziosi (2 December 1816 – 27 September 1882) was a Maltese painter known for his watercolours and prints of the Balkans, Ottoman Empire and Romania.

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American Bible Society

The American Bible Society (ABS) is a United States–based nondenominational Bible society which publishes, distributes and translates the Bible and provides study aids and other tools to help people engage with the Bible.

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Amir Kabir

Mirza Taghi Khan Farahani (میرزا تقی‌خان فراهانی) known as Amir Kabir (امیرکبیر) (1807 – 10 January 1852), also known by the titles of Atabak and Amir-e Nezam; chief minister to Naser al-Din Shah Qajar (Shah of Persia) for the first three years of his reign and one of the most capable and innovative figures to appear in the whole Qajar period.

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Amir Khan Lepzerin

Emîr Xan Lepzêrîn (transliterated: Amir Khan Lepzerin) was a Kurdish ruler of Bradost near Urmia.

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Amnesty International

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Ani

Ani (Անի; Ἄνιον, Ánion; Abnicum; ანი, Ani, or ანისი, Anisi; Ani) is a ruined medieval Armenian city now situated in Turkey's province of Kars, next to the closed border with Armenia.

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Annazids

The Annazid or Banu Annaz or Al-Anazis (990–1116), were a Kurdish Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled a territory on the present-day Iran-Iraq frontier that included Kermanshah, Ilam, Hulwan, Dinawar (all in western Iran), Sharazour, Daquq, Daskara, Bandanijin(Mandali), and No'maniya (in south-eastern Iraq).

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Anthropomorphism

Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.

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Antoin Sevruguin

Antoin Sevruguin (آنتوان سورگین; 1830-1933) was a photographer in Iran during the reign of the Qajar dynasty (1785–1925).

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabs

Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Ararat rebellion

The Ararat rebellion, also known as the Ağrı rebellion (Ağrı ayaklanmaları or Ağrı isyanı), was an uprising amongst the Kurdish inhabitants of the province of Ağrı in eastern Turkey against the Turkish government that took place in 1930.

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Ardashir I

Ardashir I or Ardeshir I (Middle Persian:, New Persian: اردشیر بابکان, Ardashir-e Bābakān), also known as Ardashir the Unifier (180–242 AD), was the founder of the Sasanian Empire.

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Armenia

Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Armenians

Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.

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Arran (Caucasus)

Arran (Middle Persian form), also known as Aran, Ardhan (in Parthian), Al-Ran (in Arabic), Aghvank and Alvank (in Armenian), (რანი-Ran-i) or Caucasian Albania (in Latin), was a geographical name used in ancient and medieval times to signify the territory which lies within the triangle of land, lowland in the east and mountainous in the west, formed by the junction of Kura and Aras rivers, including the highland and lowland Karabakh, Mil plain and parts of the Mughan plain, and in the pre-Islamic times, corresponded roughly to the territory of modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan.

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Artabanus V of Parthia

Artabanus V of Parthia, also known as Ardavan V (Parthian: 𐭍𐭐𐭕𐭓), ruled the Parthian Empire from c. 208 to 224.

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Asian Football Confederation

The Asian Football Confederation (AFC) is the governing body of association football in Asia and Australia.

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Assassins

Order of Assassins or simply Assassins (أساسين asāsīn, حشاشین Hashâshīn) is the common name used to refer to an Islamic sect formally known as the Nizari Ismailis.

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Assyria

Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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Assyrian people

Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Ayyubid dynasty

The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.

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Azad (rapper)

Azad Azadpour (born November 24, 1973 in Sanandaj (Kurdistan Province of Iran) is a German rapper of Kurdish descent based in Frankfurt am Main.

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Azerbaijan (Iran)

Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan (آذربایجان Āzarbāijān; آذربایجان Azərbaycan), also known as Iranian Azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern Iran that borders Iraq, Turkey, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.

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Azerbaijan People's Government

The Azerbaijan People's Government (APG; Azərbaycan Milli Hökuməti, حکومت خودمختار آذربایجان, Азербайджанское народное правительство, Azerbajdzhanskoe narodnoe pravitel'stvo) was a short-lived unrecognized secessionist state in northern Iran from November 1945 to December 1946.

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Azerbaijanis

Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.

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İbrahim Tatlıses

İbrahim Tatlıses (born 1952), known popularly as İbo, is a Turkish folk singer and former actor from Kurdish and Arab origine.

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Şırnak

Şırnak (Kurdish: Şirnex) is a town in southeastern Turkey.

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Şivan Perwer

Şivan Perwer (Born İsmail Aygün) (pron: Shivân Parwar) (born December 23, 1955 in Siverek (Kurdish: Sêwreg), Turkey) is a Kurdish poet, writer, musical teacher, singer, and performer on the tembûr (lute).

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Ba'athism

Ba'athism (البعثية, al-Ba'athiyah, from بعث ba'ath, meaning "renaissance" or "resurrection") is an Arab nationalist ideology that promotes the development and creation of a unified Arab state through the leadership of a vanguard party over a progressive revolutionary government.

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Baghdad

Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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Bahman Ghobadi

Bahman Ghobadi (بهمن قبادی; Kurdish: به‌همه‌ن قوبادی / Behmen Qubadî) is a Kurdish film director, producer and writer.

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Ballad

A ballad is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music.

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Balochistan

Balōchistān (بلوچستان; also Balūchistān or Balūchestān, often interpreted as the Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region in south-western Asia.

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Bar Hebraeus

Gregory Bar Hebraeus (122630 July 1286), also known by his Latin name Abulpharagius or Syriac name Mor Gregorios Bar Ebraya, was a maphrian-catholicos (Chief bishop of Persia) of the Syriac Orthodox Church in the 13th century.

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Bard

In medieval Gaelic and British culture, a bard was a professional story teller, verse-maker and music composer, employed by a patron (such as a monarch or noble), to commemorate one or more of the patron's ancestors and to praise the patron's own activities.

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Basra

Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.

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Battle of Chaldiran

The Battle of Chaldiran (جنگ چالدران; Çaldıran Muharebesi) took place on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive victory for the Ottoman Empire over the Safavid Empire.

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Battle of Dimdim

The Battle of Dimdim is the name for the battle between the Safavid Empire and the Sunni Kurds of the Ottoman Empire between 1609 and 1610.

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Battle of Hattin

The Battle of Hattin took place on 4 July 1187, between the Crusader states of the Levant and the forces of the Ayyubid sultan Salah ad-Din, known in the West as Saladin.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Bedr Khan Bey

Bedr Khan Bey (Bedirhan Bey; 1803–1868) was the last Kurdish emir and mutesellim of the Bohtan Emirate.

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Behrouz Vossoughi

Behrouz Vossoughi (بهروز وثوقی), (born Khalil Vossoughi, خلیل وثوقی, 11 March 1938), is an Iranian actor, TV host and modeln, with appearances in more than 90 films and plays.

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Bektashi Order

Bektashi Order or Shī‘ah Imāmī Alevī-Bektāshī Ṭarīqah (Tarikati Bektashi; Bektaşi Tarîkatı) is a dervish order (tariqat) named after the 13th century Alevi Wali (saint) Haji Bektash Veli from Khorasan, but founded by Balım Sultan.

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Benelux

The Benelux Union (Benelux Unie; Union Benelux) is a politico-economic union of three neighbouring states in western Europe: Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.

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Bijar

Bījār (بیجار; بیجاڕ, Bîcar) is a city and capital of Bijar County, Kurdistan Province, Iran.

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Bisotun

Bisotun (بيستون; also Romanized as Bīsotūn; also known as Bīsītan and Bīsītūn) is a city and capital of Bisotun District, in Harsin County, Kermanshah Province, Iran.

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Bitlis

Bitlis (Բաղեշ; Bidlîs; ܒܝܬ ܕܠܝܣ; بتليس; Βαλαλης Balales) is a city in eastern Turkey and the capital of Bitlis Province.

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Boxing

Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Buyid dynasty

The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids (آل بویه Āl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was an Iranian Shia dynasty of Daylamite origin.

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Cairo Citadel

The Saladin Citadel of Cairo (قلعة صلاح الدين) is a medieval Islamic fortification in Cairo, Egypt.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Canada

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Canada 2011 Census

The Canada 2011 Census is a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population on May 10, 2011.

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Cannes Film Festival

The Cannes Festival (Festival de Cannes), named until 2002 as the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world.

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Caucasus

The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

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Celal İbrahim

Celal Ibrahim (1884 – 21 March 1917) was a Turkish footballer and one of the founders of Galatasaray.

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Central Anatolia Region

The Central Anatolia Region (İç Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Central Kurdish

Central Kurdish (کوردیی ناوەندی, Kurdîy nawendî), also called Sorani (سۆرانی, Soranî) is a Kurdish language spoken in Iraq, mainly in Iraqi Kurdistan, as well as the Kurdistan Province and West Azerbaijan Province of western Iran.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chopy Fatah

Chopy Shakir Fatah (Çopî Şakir Fetah, چۆپی شاکر فەتاح, جوبي شاكر فتاح; born June 10, 1983) is a contemporary Kurdish singer.

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Christian martyrs

A Christian martyr is a person who is killed because of their testimony for Jesus.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Circassians

The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.

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Citadel of Aleppo

The Citadel of Aleppo (قلعة حلب) is a large medieval fortified palace in the centre of the old city of Aleppo, northern Syria.

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Cizre

Cizre (Cizîr or Cizîra Botan, جزيرة ابن عمر, ܓܙܝܪܐ Gzirā or Gziro) is a town and district of Şırnak Province in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, on the border with Syria, just to the northwest of the Turkish-Syrian-Iraqi tripoint.

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Classical Arabic

Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.

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Communism

In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

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Constitution of Iraq

The Constitution of Iraq is the fundamental law of Iraq.

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Corduene

Corduene (also known as Gorduene, Cordyene, Cardyene, Carduene, Gordyene, Gordyaea, Korduene, Gordian; Kardox; Karduya; Կորճայք Korchayk;; Hebrew: קרטיגיני) was an ancient region located in northern Mesopotamia, present-day eastern Turkey.

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Council of Europe

The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.

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Crusades

The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.

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Cultural rights

The cultural rights movement has provoked attention to protect the rights of groups of people, or their culture, in similar fashion to the manner in which the human rights movement has brought attention to the needs of individuals throughout the world.

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Cyaxares

Cyaxares (Κυαξάρης; 𐎢𐎺𐎧𐏁𐎫𐎼; translit; Avestan: Huxšaθra "Good Ruler"; Akkadian: Umakištar; Old Phrygian: ksuwaksaros; r. 625–585 BC) was the third and most capable king of Media, according to Herodotus, with a far greater military reputation than his father Phraortes or grandfather Deioces.

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Cyrtian

The Cyrtians or Kyrtians (gr. Κύρτιοι Kýrtioi, lat. Cyrtii) were an ancient Median tribe in historic Persia near Mount Zagros and are the ancestors of Kurds.

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Daily Star (United Kingdom)

The Daily Star is a daily tabloid newspaper published from Monday to Saturday in the United Kingdom since 2 November 1978.

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Dalkurd FF

Dalkurd Fotbollsförening, commonly known as Dalkurd FF or simply Dalkurd is a Swedish football club based in Uppsala.

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Damascus

Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.

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Darin Zanyar

Darin Zanyar (born 2 June 1987), better known simply as Darin, is a Swedish singer and songwriter from Stockholm.

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Daylamites

The Daylamites or Dailamites (Middle Persian: Daylamīgān; دیلمیان Deylamiyān) were an Iranian people inhabiting the Daylam—the mountainous regions of northern Iran on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea.

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Deep state in Turkey

The deep state (derin devlet) is alleged to be a group of influential anti-democratic coalitions within the Turkish political system, composed of high-level elements within the intelligence services (domestic and foreign), Turkish military, security, judiciary, and mafia.

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Deism

Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.

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Democracy Party (Turkey)

The Democracy Party (Demokrasi Partisi, DEP) was a pro-Kurdish political party in Turkey.

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Democratic Federation of Northern Syria

The Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS), commonly known as Rojava, is a de facto autonomous region in northern Syria.

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Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan

The Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan (PDKI; Hîzbî Dêmukratî Kurdistanî Êran, HDKA; Ḥezb-e Demokrāt-e Kordestān-e Īrān), also known as the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran (KDPI), is an armed leftist ethnic party of Kurds in Iran, exiled in northern Iraq.

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Democratic Society Party

The Democratic Society Party (Demokratik Toplum Partisi, DTP, Kurdish: Partiya Civaka Demokratîk, PCD) was a Kurdish nationalist political party in Turkey.

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Dewsbury

Dewsbury is a minster town in the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees, in West Yorkshire, England.

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Dicle Bridge

The Dicle Bridge (Dicle Köprüsü; script) is a historic bridge in Diyarbakır over the river Tigris (Dicle) in southeastern Turkey.

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Directorate-General of Antiquities and Museums

The Directorate-General for Antiquities and Museums (DGAM) (المديرية العامة للآثار والمتاحف) is a Syrian government owned agency that is responsible for the protection, promotion and excavation activities in all sites of national heritage in the country.

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Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire

The period of the defeat and end of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the Second Constitutional Era with the Young Turk Revolution.

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Dissolution of the Soviet Union

The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.

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Diyarbakır

Diyarbakır (Amida, script) is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey.

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Diyarbakırspor

Diyarbakırspor, currently known as Diyarbekirspor, is a professional football club located in the city of Diyarbakır in Turkey.

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Dualistic cosmology

Dualism in cosmology is the moral or spiritual belief that two fundamental concepts exist, which often oppose each other.

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Duhok SC

Dohuk Football Club (نادي دهوك الرياضي, یانه‌یا وه‌رزشی یا دهوکێ), officially Duhok Sports Club founded in 1970, is an Iraqi professional football club, based in Dohuk, Iraqi Kurdistan that plays in the Iraq Division One.

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Duvar

Duvar is a 1983 Turkish drama film directed by Yılmaz Güney produced in France.

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Early Muslim conquests

The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.

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Egalitarianism

Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Emirate

An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Arabic or Islamic monarch styled emir.

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Encyclopædia Iranica

Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.

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Epic poetry

An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.

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Erbil

Erbil, also spelt Arbil or Irbil, locally called Hawler by the Kurdish people (ھەولێر Hewlêr; أربيل, Arbīl; ܐܲܪܒܝܠ, Arbela), is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan and the largest city in northern Iraq.

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Erbil SC

Erbil Sport Club (نادي أربيل الرياضي, یانەی وەرزشیی هەولێر) is a sports club based in the city of Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan that plays in the Iraq Division One, the second-tier of Iraqi football.

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Eren Derdiyok

Eren Derdiyok (born 12 June 1988) is a Swiss footballer who plays as a striker for Turkish club Galatasaray and the Switzerland national team.

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Erzurum

Erzurum (Կարին) is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey).

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Ethnic cleansing

Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.

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Ethnic group

An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.

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Ethnic groups in the Middle East

The ethnic groups in the Middle East refers to the various peoples that reside in West Asia and Egypt in North Africa.

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Ethnologue

Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.

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Ethnonym

An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.

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Etymology

EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".

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Euphemism

A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant.

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European Court of Human Rights

The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.

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European Parliament

The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Ey Reqîb

Ey Reqîb (Central ئەی ڕەقیب) is the Kurdish national anthem.

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Fars Province

Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.

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Female genital mutilation

Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.

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Feudalism

Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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Feyli Lurs

Feyli Lurs, also Feyli Kurds and Feylis, (Feyli: لوره یل فه یلی) are a group of Lur tribes that mainly live in Lorestan, Kermanshah and Ilam.

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FIFA

The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.

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Fifth column

A fifth column is any group of people who undermine a larger group from within, usually in favour of an enemy group or nation.

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Fire temple

A fire temple in Zoroastrianism is the place of worship for Zoroastrians, often called dar-e mehr (Persian) or agiyari (Gujarati).

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Firuz-Shah Zarrin-Kolah

Firuz Shah Zarrin Kolah (فیروزشاه زرین کلاه, literal meaning in English: King Firuz of golden crown) was a Kurdish dignitary,F.

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Folklore

Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.

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Forced marriage

Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without his or her consent or against his or her will.

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Frame drum

A frame drum is a drum that has a drumhead width greater than its depth.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Free will

Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.

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Galatasaray S.K.

Galatasaray Spor Kulübü (Galatasaray Sports Club) is a Turkish sports club based on the European side of the city of Istanbul in Turkey, most notable for its association football department.

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Ganj Ali Khan

Ganj Ali Khan (گنج علی خان or گنجعلیخان) was a military officer in Safavid Iran of Kurdish origin, who served as governor in various provinces and was known for his loyal service to king (shah) Abbas I. Ganj Ali Khan continuously aided the shah on almost all of his military campaigns until his own death in 1624/5.

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Gaziantep

Gaziantep, previously and still informally called Antep (Այնթապ, Kurdish: Dîlok), is a city in the western part of Turkey's Southeastern Anatolia Region, some east of Adana and north of Aleppo, Syria.

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Gender equality

Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.

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Geography of Iran

Geographically, Iran is located in West Asia and borders the Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Gulf of Oman.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Ghulat

Ghulāt (lit, singular ghālī) is a term used in the theology of Shia Islam to describe some minority Muslim groups who either ascribe divine characteristics to figures of Islamic history (usually a member of the Ahl al-Bayt) or hold beliefs deemed deviant by mainstream Shi'i theology.

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Gnosticism

Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.

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Golden Rule

The Golden Rule (which can be considered a law of reciprocity in some religions) is the principle of treating others as one would wish to be treated.

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Gorani language (Zaza-Gorani)

Gorani (also Gurani) is a group of Northwestern Iranian dialects spoken by groups of Iranian and Iraqi citizens in the southernmost parts of Iranian Kurdistan and the Iraqi Kurdistan region.

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Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran

The Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Neẓām-e jomhūrī-e eslāmi-e Irān, known simply as Neẓām (lit) among its supporters, and "the regime" among its dissidents) is the ruling state and current political system in Iran, in power since the revolution and fall of Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.

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Grand National Assembly of Turkey

The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Greater Khorasan

Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.

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Greco-Roman wrestling

Greco-Roman (US) or Graeco-Roman (UK) wrestling is a style of wrestling that is practiced worldwide.

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Greenwood Publishing Group

ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Guran

Guran is a character from The Phantom comic strip, and is the Phantom's best friend since childhood.

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Guran (Kurdish tribe)

Guran or Goran (گوران) is a Kurdish tribe.

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Gutian people

The Guti or Quti, also known by the derived exonyms Gutians or Guteans, were a nomadic people of the Zagros Mountains (on the border of modern Iran and Iraq) during ancient times.

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Haji Bektash Veli

Haji Bektash Veli or Ḥājī Baktāsh Walī (حاجی بکتاش ولی Ḥājī Baktāš Walī; Hacı Bektaş-ı Veli) was an Alevi Muslim mystic, saint, Sayyid, humanist, and philosopher, who lived from 1209 to 1271.

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Hakkari

Hakkari (ܚܟܐܪܝ, or ܗܟܐܪܝ, Colemêrg), was a historical mountainous region lying between the plains of Nineveh to the south of Lake Van, encompassing parts of the modern provinces of Hakkâri, Şırnak, Van in Turkey and Dohuk in Iraq.

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Halabja

Halabja (Kurdish: Hełebce) is a city in Iraqi Kurdistan and the capital of Halabja Governorate, located about northeast of Baghdad and from the Iranian border.

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Halabja chemical attack

The Halabja chemical attack (Kurdish: Kîmyabarana Helebce کیمیابارانی ھەڵەبجە), also known as the Halabja Massacre or Bloody Friday, was a massacre against the Kurdish people that took place on March 16, 1988, during the closing days of the Iran–Iraq War in the Kurdish city of Halabja in Iraq.

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Hamdanid dynasty

The Hamdanid dynasty (حمدانيون Ḥamdānyūn) was a Shi'a Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Iraq (al-Jazirah) and Syria (890-1004).

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Hamidiye (cavalry)

The Hamidiye corps (literally meaning "belonging to Hamid", full official name Hamidiye Hafif Süvari Alayları, Hamidiye Light Cavalry Regiments) were well-armed, irregular mainly Sunni Kurdish, but also Turkish, Circassian,Palmer, Alan, Verfall und Untergang des Osmanischen Reiches, Heyne, München 1994 (engl. Original: London 1992), pp.

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Hamo Beknazarian

Hamo Beknazarian (Համո Բեկնազարյան; Амбарцум Бек-Назаров; 19 May 1891 – 27 April 1965), also known as Hamo Bek-Nazarov or Amo Bek-Nazarian, was a Soviet Armenian film director, actor and screenwriter.

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Hanafi

The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).

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Handicraft

A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by hand or by using only simple tools.

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Harran

Harran (حران,Harran, حران) was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa.

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Harvard Theological Review

The Harvard Theological Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1908 and published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Harvard Divinity School.

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Hasanwayhids

Hasanawayhid or Hasanuyid (حسنویه, Dewleta Hesnewiyan) was a Kurdish Muslim principality from 961 to 1015, centered at Dinawar (northeast of present-day Kermanshah).

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Hazaraspids

The Hazaraspids (هزاراسپیان) (1155–1424), was a Kurdish Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled the Zagros Mountains region of southwestern Iran, essentially in Lorestan and the adjacent parts of Fars which flourished in the later Saljuq, Ilkhanid, Muzaffarid, and Timurid periods.

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Heaven

Heaven, or the heavens, is a common religious, cosmological, or transcendent place where beings such as gods, angels, spirits, saints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned, or live.

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Hebrew language

No description.

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Hell

Hell, in many religious and folkloric traditions, is a place of torment and punishment in the afterlife.

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Henna

Henna (حِنَّاء) is a dye prepared from the plant Lawsonia inermis, also known as hina, the henna tree, the mignonette tree, and the Egyptian privet, the sole species of the genus Lawsonia.

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Hierarchy of angels

A hierarchy of angels is a belief or tradition found in the angelology of different religions, which holds that there are different levels or ranks of angels.

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High Middle Ages

The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.

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History of Iran

The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.

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History of the Jews in Kurdistan

Jews of Kurdistan (יהודי כורדיסטן, Yehudei Kurdistan, lit. Jews of Kurdistan; אנשא דידן,, lit. our people; Kurdên cihû) are the ancient Eastern Jewish communities, inhabiting the region known as Kurdistan in northern Mesopotamia, roughly covering parts of northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey.

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History of the Kurds

The Kurds (Kurdish: کورد, Kurd), also the Kurdish people (Kurdish: گەلی کورد, Gelê Kurd), are a Northwestern Iranic ethnic group in the Middle East.

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Hoşap Castle

Hoşap Castle (Hoşap kalesi, is a large medieval castle located in the village of Güzelsu (previously Hoşap), Gürpınar District, Van Province, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. It is at a distance of approximately 50 km to the city center of Van. Most of the surviving structure was built by the local Ottoman governor Sarı Süleyman Bey in 1643. Hoşap or Xoşabê means Sunday in Aramaic. It also means "beautiful water" in Persian and "Güzelsu" has the same meaning in Turkish. The former town of Hoşap lay on the flat ground north of the castle rock and in the enclosed space on the opposite side of the castle from the road; the present village extends into this space. The town was defended at one corner by the castle and elsewhere by a wall, which originally started from the ends of the castle’s two cliffs. Built of mud, and toothed with the remains of mud battlements, the wall of the early Ottoman period can still be seen in stretches. On the north of the former town it now starts from a point beyond but the line of the cliff, near the Van road and extends along a natural ridge eastwards. From the castle’s southerly cliff the wall crosses the low saddle to the north-east. The two walls meet at the summit of the next hill, in order to keep control of all the land commanding the town. Beyond this hill’s summit stretches a seemingly empty expanse of low, spreading hills.

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Holy Spirit in Christianity

For the majority of Christian denominations, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is the third person (hypostasis) of the Trinity: the Triune God manifested as God the Father, God the Son, and the Holy Spirit; each person itself being God.

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Honor killing

An honor killing or shame killing is the murder of a member of a family, due to the perpetrators' belief that the victim has brought shame or dishonor upon the family, or has violated the principles of a community or a religion, usually for reasons such as refusing to enter an arranged marriage, being in a relationship that is disapproved by their family, having sex outside marriage, becoming the victim of rape, dressing in ways which are deemed inappropriate, engaging in non-heterosexual relations or renouncing a faith.

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Hormuzan

Hormuzan (Middle Persian: Hormazdān, New Persian: هرمزان) was an Iranian aristocrat who served as the governor of Khuzestan, and was one of the Sasanian military officers at the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah.

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Human Rights Watch

Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

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Huner Saleem

Huner Saleem (Kurdish: هونه‌ر سەلیم), also transliterated as Huner Salim, (born 9 March 1964), is an Iraqi–Kurdish film director.

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Idris Bitlisi

Idris Bitlisi (1455 – 15 November 1520), sometimes spelled Idris Bidlisi, Idris-i Bitlisi, or Idris-i Bidlisi ("Idris of Bitlis"), and fully Mevlana Hakimeddin İdris Mevlana Hüsameddin Ali-ül Bitlisi, was an Ottoman Kurdish religious scholar and administrator from Bitlis (in modern Turkey).

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Ilam Province

Ilam Province (استان ایلام) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Indo-Iranian languages

The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Innatism

Innatism is a philosophical and epistemological doctrine that holds that the mind is born with ideas/knowledge, and that therefore the mind is not a "blank slate" at birth, as early empiricists such as John Locke claimed.

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International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly with resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the covenant.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iran crisis of 1946

The Iran crisis of 1946, also known as the Azerbaijan Crisis (translit.: Qaʾilih Âzarbâyjân), followed the end of World War II and stemmed from the Soviet Union's refusal to relinquish occupied Iranian territory, despite repeated assurances.

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Iran–Iraq War

The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.

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Iran–PJAK conflict

The Iran–PJAK conflict, or Iran–Kurdistan Free Life Party conflict is an armed conflict between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Kurdish guerrilla group Kurdistan Free Life Party (PJAK), which began in 2004 and largely ended in 2011.

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Iranian Kurdistan

Iranian Kurdistan, or Eastern Kurdistan (Kurdish: Rojhilatê Kurdistanê), is an unofficial name for the parts of northwestern Iran inhabited by Kurds which borders Iraq and Turkey.

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Iranian languages

The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.

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Iranian nationalism

Iranian nationalism refers to nationalism among the people of Iran and individuals whose national identity is Iranian.

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Iranian peoples

The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.

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Iranian presidential election, 2013

Presidential elections were held in Iran on 14 June 2013.

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Iranian Revolution

The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Iraq War

The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.

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Iraqi Kurdistan

Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.

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Iraqi Kurdistan national football team

The Iraqi Kurdistan national football team (منتخب كردستان العراق الوطني لكرة القدم, Helbijardey Topî pêy Kurdistan;ھەڵبژاردەی تۆپی پێی كوردستان), is the national team of Iraqi Kurdistan.

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Iraqi Premier League

The Iraqi Premier League (Arabic: الدوري العراقي الممتاز, Dawri Al-Mumtaz) is the highest league in the league system of Iraqi football and currently contains the top 20 Iraqi football clubs.

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Ishak Pasha Palace

Ishak Pasha Palace (İshak Paşa Sarayı) is a semi-ruined palace and administrative complex located in the Doğubeyazıt district of Ağrı province of eastern Turkey.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islamic Consultative Assembly

The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), is the national legislative body of Iran.

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Islamkundliche Untersuchungen

Islamkundliche Untersuchungen (est. 1970) is a series of scholarly publications in the field of Islamic studies issued by the of Berlin, Germany.

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Ismail I

Ismail I (Esmāʿīl,; July 17, 1487 – May 23, 1524), also known as Shah Ismail I (شاه اسماعیل), was the founder of the Safavid dynasty, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as Shah of Iran (Persia).

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Istanbul

Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Jaff

The Jaff tribe people (also Jahf, Jaaf, Jaf, Caf or جاف) are divided between Iran and Iraq.

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Jakob Künzler

Jakob Künzler (March 8, 1871 – January 15, 1949) was a Swiss who resided in an oriental mission in Urfa and who witnessed the Armenian Genocide.

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Janbiya

Janbiya, also spelled jambia, jambya, jambiya, and janbia (جنۢبية janbīyah), is the Arabic term for a specific type of dagger with a short curved blade and a medial ridge That originated from Yemen.

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Jerusalem

Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

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Kahramanmaraş

Kahramanmaraş is a city in the Mediterranean Region, Turkey and the administrative center of Kahramanmaraş Province.

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Kalbajar

Kalbajar (Kəlbəcər, Քարվաճառ), also spelled as Kelbajar, Kälbäjär, Kelbadzhar, Kelbadshar, Kelbadjar, Kelbadžar; is a town and the provincial capital of Shahumyan Region of the de facto independent but unrecognized Republic of Artsakh (de jure Azerbaijan).

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Kalhor (Iranian tribe)

Kalhor is a Kurdish tribe and their dialect has been as categorized a southern branch of Southern Kurdish.

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Kar-Namag i Ardashir i Pabagan

The Kār-Nāmag ī Ardašīr ī Pābagān ("Book of the Deeds of Ardeshir, Son of Papak") (New کارنامهٔ اردشیر بابکان), is a short Middle Persian prose tale written in the Sassanid period (226-651).

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Karim Khan Zand

Mohammad Karim Khan Zand (Mohammad Karīm Khān-e Zand), better known as Karim Khan Zand (کریم خان زند), was the founder of the Zand Dynasty and the Shah of Iran, ruling from 1751 to 1779.

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Karim Sanjabi

Karim Sanjabi (کریم سنجابی; September 1904 – 4 July 1995) was an Iranian politician of National Front.

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Kāve

Kaveh the Blacksmith (کاوه آهنگر – Kāve ye Āhangar; Kaway Asngar), also known as Kawa or the Blacksmith of Isfahan, is a mythical figure in the Iranian mythology who leads a popular uprising against a ruthless foreign ruler, Zahāk (Aži Dahāk).

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KDPI insurgency (1989–96)

The insurgency by the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran surged in 1989, lasting until 1996, as part of the Kurdish separatism struggle.

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Kermanshah

Kermanshah (کرمانشاه, کرماشان, Kirmashan; Kermānshāh; also known as Bākhtarān or Kermānshāhān), the capital of Kermanshah Province, is located from Tehran in the western part of Iran.

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Kermanshahis

Kermanshahi (Kirmaşanî, کرمانشاهی) refers to Iranian people who live mainly in Kermanshah province.

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Khanaqin

Khanaqin (Arabic: خانقين; Kurdish: Xaneqîn خانه‌قین) is a city in Iraq in Iraq's Diyala Governorate, near the Iranian border on the Alwand tributary of the Diyala River.

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Khorasan Province

Khorasan (استان خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, also called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times) was a province in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire.

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Khuzestan Province

Khuzestan Province (استان خوزستان Ostān-e Khūzestān, محافظة خوزستان Muḥāfaẓa Khūzistān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Kianoush Rostami

Kianoush Rostami (کیانوش رستمی, born 23 July 1991) is an Iranian Olympic weightlifter.

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Kingdom of Kurdistan

The Kingdom of Kurdistan was a short-lived unrecognized state proclaimed in the city of Sulaymaniyah following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.

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Kirkuk

Kirkuk (كركوك; کەرکووک; Kerkük) is a city in Iraq, serving as the capital of the Kirkuk Governorate, located north of Baghdad.

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Komala Party of Iranian Kurdistan

Komala Party of Iranian Kurdistan (lit), simply known as the Komalah (Komełe; کومله), is an armed communist ethnic party of Kurds in Iran, exiled in northern Iraq.

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Konya

Konya (Ikónion, Iconium) is a major city in south-western edge of the Central Anatolian Plateau and is the seventh-most-populous city in Turkey with a metropolitan population of over 2.1 million.

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Kosovo Albanians

Albanians are the largest ethnic group in Kosovo, commonly called Kosovar Albanians, Kosovan Albanians or Kosovo Albanians and simply Kosovars.

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Krak des Chevaliers

Krak des Chevaliers (حصن الفرسان), also Crac des Chevaliers, Ḥoṣn al-Akrād (rtl, literally "Castle of the Kurds"), formerly Crac de l'Ospital is a Crusader castle in Syria and one of the most important preserved medieval castles in the world.

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Kurdish Americans

Kurds in the United States refers to people born in or residing in the United States of Kurdish origin.

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Kurdish chiefdoms

The Kurdish chiefdoms or principalities were several semi-independent entities which existed during the 16th to 19th centuries during the state of continuous warfare between the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Iran.

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Kurdish Christians

Kurdish Christians (Kurdish: Kurdên Mesîhî) are Kurds who follow Christianity.

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Kurdish cinema

The first film of the Kurdish cinema, Zare was shot in Armenia and directed by Hamo Beknazarian in 1926, but only in the 2000s Kurdish cinema began to rise.

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Kurdish Institute of Paris

Kurdish Institute of Paris (Institut kurde de Paris), founded in February 1983, is an organization focused on Kurdish language, culture and history.

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Kurdish languages

Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.

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Kurdish literature

Kurdish literature (in Kurmanji Kurdish language: Wêjeya Kurdî, in Sorani Kurdish language: وێژەی کوردی or ئەدەبی کوردی) refers to literature written in the Kurdish language.

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Kurdish nationalism

Kurdish nationalism (Kurdish: Kurdayetî, کوردایەتی) holds that the Kurdish people are deserving of a sovereign nation that would be partitioned out of areas in Turkey, northern Iraq, and Syria based on the promised nation of Kurdistan under the Treaty of Sèvres.

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Kurdish population

The Kurdish people live in the historical Kurdistan region, which today is split between Iran, Iraq, Turkey, and Syria. The estimated population is 35 million. A rough estimate by the CIA Factbook has Kurdish populations of 14.5 million in Turkey, 6 million in Iran, about 5 to 6 million in Iraq, and less than 2 million in Syria, which adds up to close to 28 million Kurds in Kurdistan and adjacent regions. Recent emigration has resulted in a Kurdish diaspora of about 1.5 million people, about half of them in Germany. A special case are the Kurdish populations in the Transcaucasus and Central Asia, displaced there mostly in the time of the Russian Empire, who underwent independent developments for more than a century and have developed an ethnic identity in their own right. This group's population was estimated at close to 0.4 million in 1990.

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Kurdish refugees

The problem of Kurdish refugees and displaced people began since the fall of the Zand Dynasty and losing of the Autonomy in the Ottoman Empire in 1794 and increased since the end of World War 1 and the treaties which occupied Kurdish Land in the Middle East, and continues to loom today.

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Kurdish tribes

The following is a list of tribes of Kurdish people from the geo-cultural region of Kurdistan.

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Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present)

The Kurdish–Turkish conflict is an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and various Kurdish insurgent groups, which have demanded separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan, or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds inside the Republic of Turkey.

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Kurdistan

Kurdistan (کوردستان; lit. "homeland of the Kurds") or Greater Kurdistan is a roughly defined geo-cultural historical region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population and Kurdish culture, languages and national identity have historically been based.

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Kurdistan Democratic Party

The Kurdistan Democratic Party (Partiya Demokrat a Kurdistanê), usually abbreviated as KDP or PDK, is one of the main Kurdish parties in Iraqi Kurdistan.

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Kurdistan Free Life Party

The Kurdistan Free Life Party, or PJAK (Partiya Jiyana Azad a Kurdistanê), is a militant leftist-nationalist, anti-Iranian government group.

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Kurdistan Province

Kurdistan Province (استان کردستان, Ostān-e Kordestān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Kurdistan Regional Government

The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) (حکوومەتی هەرێمی کوردستان, Hikûmetî Herêmî Kurdistan; حكومة اقليم كردستان, Ḥukūmat ʾIqlīm Kurdistān) is the official ruling body of the predominantly Kurdish region of Northern Iraq referred to as Iraqi Kurdistan or Southern Kurdistan.

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Kurdistan Workers' Party

The Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistanê) is an organization based in Turkey and Iraq.

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Kurdistansky Uyezd

Kurdistansky Uyezd (Курдистанский уезд; Kürdüstan qəzası), also known colloquially as Red Kurdistan (Красный Курдистан; Qızıl Kürdistan; Кöрдьстана Сор) was a Soviet administrative unit that existed for six years from 1923 to 1929.

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Kurds

The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).

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Kurds in Georgia

Georgian Kurds are members of the eponymous ethnic group that are citizens of Georgia.

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Kurds in Germany

Kurds in Germany refers to people born in or residing in Germany of full or partial Kurdish origin.

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Kurds in Lebanon

Kurds in Lebanon refers to people born in or residing in Lebanon who are of Kurdish origin.

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Kurds in Syria

Kurds in Syria refers to people born in or residing in Syria who are of Kurdish origin.

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Kurds in Turkey

Kurds in Turkey refers to people born in or residing in Turkey who are of Kurdish origin.

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Kurds of Khorasan

The Kurds of Khorasan or Khorassani Kurds (Kurdên Xorasanê, کردهای خراسان) are Kurds native to northeastern Iran, across the Iran-Turkmenistan border.

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Lachin

Lachin (Laçın, literally "hawk") or Berdzor (Բերձոր), formerly Abdallyar, Datschin) is a town internationally recognized de jure as part of Azerbaijan, but currently controlled by the de facto independent Artsakh. Since 1992 the area has been under the control of Artsakh, which has renamed the town Berdzor, and acts as the capital of Kashatagh Region. The government of Azerbaijan considers it to be the regional center of its Lachin Rayon. The town and its surrounding region serve as the strategic Lachin corridor connecting the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic with Armenia.

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Lake Urmia

Lake Urmia (Daryāĉe Orumiye, Daryāche-ye Orumiye;, Urmiya gölü) is an endorheic salt lake in Iran.

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Lake Van

Lake Van (Van Gölü, Վանա լիճ, Vana lič̣, Gola Wanê), the largest lake in Turkey, lies in the far east of that country in the provinces of Van and Bitlis.

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Laki language

Laki (لەکی; Lekî) is a speech variety that is either considered an independent Iranian language,, a dialect of Lurish or a dialect of Southern Kurdish.

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Laks (Iran)

layout and formatting; it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox.--> The Laks are an Iranian group in southwestern Iran.

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Lalish

Lalish (Laliş, also called Lalişa Nûranî) is a small mountain valley village situated in the Shekhan District of Nineveh Governorate in northern Iraq, near the border with Iraqi Kurdistan.

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League of Nations

The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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Leyla Zana

Leyla Zana (born 3 May 1961 in Silvan, Diyarbakır Province), is a Kurdish politician, who was imprisoned for 10 years for her political activism, which was deemed by the Turkish courts to be against the unity of the country.

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List of designated terrorist groups

This is a list of designated terrorist groups by national governments, former governments, and inter-governmental organizations, where the proscription has a significant effect on the group's activities.

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List of Kurdish dynasties and countries

This is a list of Kurdish dynasties, countries and autonomous territories.

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List of Kurdish organisations

Kurdish Organisations.

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List of Kurds

This is a list of notable Kurdish people.

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List of mayors of Tehran

The Mayor of Tehran is an elected politician who, along with the Tehran’s City Council of 21 members, is accountable for the strategic government of Tehran.

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List of Safavid Grand Viziers

This is the list of Grand Viziers (vazīr-e azam) of the Safavid dynasty.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Lorestan Province

Lorestan Province (استان لرستان, also written Luristan, Lurestan, or Loristan), is a province of western Iran in the Zagros Mountains.

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Lori people

The Lori are a nomadic community found in the Balochistan region of Iran and Pakistan.

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Lotf Ali Khan

Lotf Ali Khan (لطفعلى خان زند) (c. 1769 – 1794) was the last Shah of Persia (reigned 1789–94) of the Zand dynasty.

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Lurs

Lurs (also Lors, Lurish: لورَل, Persian:لُرها) are an Iranian people living mainly in western and south-western Iran.

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Madig

Madig was an Iranian king who ruled in present-day northern Iraq.

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Magi

Magi (singular magus; from Latin magus) denotes followers of Zoroastrianism or Zoroaster.

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Mahabad

Mahabad (مهاباد; also Romanized as Mihābād and Muhābād), (Mehabad: مەهاباد); is a city and capital of Mahabad County, West Azarbaijan Province, Iran.

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Mahdi

The Mahdi (مهدي, ISO 233:, literally "guided one") is an eschatological redeemer of Islam who will appear and rule for five, seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations)Martin 2004: 421 before the Day of Judgment (literally "the Day of Resurrection") and will rid the world of evil.

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Mahsun Kırmızıgül

Mahsun Kırmızıgül (Born Abdullah Bazencir, April 1, 1968) is a Turkish singer songwriter, actor and director, scriptwriter, music composer, producer of Zaza Kurdish descent.

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Malatya

Malatya (Մալաթիա Malat'ya; Meletî; ܡܠܝܛܝܢܐ Malīṭīná; مالاتيا) is a large city in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey and the capital of Malatya Province.

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Mar Qardagh

Mar Qardagh (ܡܪܝ ܩܪܕܐܓ), was a Sassanid prince who was martyred for converting to Christianity.

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Mardin

Mardin (Mêrdîn, ܡܶܪܕܺܝܢ, Arabic/Ottoman Turkish: rtl Mārdīn) is a city and multiple (former/titular) bishopric in southeastern Turkey.

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Marivan

Mariwan (مريوان,; مەریوان, Merîwan; also Romanized as Persian pronunciation Marīvān) also known as Qal‘eh-ye Marīvān - "Fort Marivan"; formerly, Dezhe Shahpur (Persian: دِژ شاهپور), also Romanized as Dezhe Shāhpūr and Dezhe Shapoor) is a city in – and the capital of – Marivan County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 91,664, in 22,440 families. Before the foundation of the town in 1950s, Marîwan was the name of the region. The spoken language in the city is Kurdish, but the language which is used in schools and offices is Farsi, since the official language in Iran is Persian Almost everyone in the city are fluent in Farsi.

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Markazi Masjid, Dewsbury

The Markazi Masjid ("Central Mosque"), also known as the Dewsbury Markaz or Dar ul Ulum ("House of Knowledge"), is a mosque in the Savile Town area of Dewsbury, West Yorkshire.

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Martial law

Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.

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Martin van Bruinessen

Martin van Bruinessen (born 10 July 1946, Schoonhoven) is a Dutch anthropologist and author, who has published a number of publications on the Kurdish, Indonesian, Turkish, Persian, and Zazas cultures, and also on aspects of Islam as a whole.

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Marwanids

The Marwanids (990–1085) were a Kurdish Muslim dynasty in the Diyar Bakr region of Upper Mesopotamia (present day northern Iraq/southeastern Turkey) and Armenia, centered on the city of Amid (Diyarbakır).

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Marxism

Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Marxism–Leninism

In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.

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Marzban

Marzbān, or Marzpān (Middle Persian transliteration: mrzwpn, derived from marz "border, boundary" and the suffix -pān "guardian"; Modern Persian: مرزبان Marzbān) were a class of margraves, warden of the marches, and by extension military commanders, in charge of border provinces of the Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD) and mostly Sasanian Empire (224–651 AD) of Iran.

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Medes

The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.

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Media of Syria

The media of Syria consists primarily of television, radio, Internet, film and print.

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Median language

The Median language (also Medean or Medic) was the language of the Medes.

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Melek Taus

Melek Taus (Ezdiki: Tawûsê Melek), also spelled Malik Tous, translated in English as Peacock Angel, is one of the central figures of Yazidi religion.

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Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Messianism

In Abrahamic religions, Messianism is the belief and doctrine that is centered on the advent of the messiah, who acts as the chosen savior and leader of humanity by God.

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Metempsychosis

Metempsychosis (μετεμψύχωσις) is a philosophical term in the Greek language referring to transmigration of the soul, especially its reincarnation after death.

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Michael Radu

Michael S. Radu (April 29, 1947 – March 25, 2009) was a Romanian-American political scientist and journalist who grew up in Romania.

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Michael the Syrian

Michael the Syrian (ܡܝܟܐܝܠ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ; died 1199 AD), also known as Michael the Great (ܡܝܟܐܝܠ ܪܒܐ) or Michael Syrus or Michael the Elder, to distinguish him from his nephew,William Wright, A short history of Syriac literature, p.250, n.3. was a patriarch of the Syriac Orthodox Church from 1166 to 1199. He is best known today as the author of the largest medieval Chronicle, which he composed in Syriac. Various other materials written in his own hand have survived.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Middle Persian

Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.

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Mikhail Aloyan

Mikhail Surenovich Aloyan (Михаил Суренович Алоян; born 23 August 1988) is a Russian professional boxer who competes as a bantamweight.

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Millenarianism

Millenarianism (also millenarism), from Latin ''mīllēnārius'' "containing a thousand", is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society, after which all things will be changed.

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Minstrel

A minstrel was a medieval European entertainer.

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Mir Jafar Dasni

Mir Jafar bin Mir Hasan Dasni (Mîr Ceferê Dasnî, الأمير جعفر بن الأمير حسن الداسني), also known as Jafar bin Faharjis, was a Yazidi and was member of the ethno-religious group of the Yazidis leader who in 838 launched an uprising against Abbasid Caliph al-Mutasim in the area north of Mosul.

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Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf

Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf (محمدباقر قالیباف, born 23 August 1961) is an Iranian conservative politician and former military officer who held office as the Mayor of Tehran from 2005 to 2017.

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Mohammad Mosaddegh

Mohammad Mosaddegh (محمد مصدق;; 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was an Iranian politician.

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Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.

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Mohammad Reza Rahimi

Mohammad Reza Rahimi (محمدرضا رحيمی, born on 11 January 1949) is an Iranian politician who was first vice president from 13 September 2009 until 3 August 2013.

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Mongols

The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Monica Bellucci

Monica Anna Maria Bellucci (born 30 September 1964) is an Italian actress and model.

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Monthly Review

The Monthly Review, established in 1949, is an independent socialist magazine published monthly in New York City.

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Mosul

Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.

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Mount Judi

Mount Judi (الجوديّ, קרדו, Cûdî, ܩܪܕܘ, Cudi), also spelled Guti and Kutu, according to very Early Christian and Islamic tradition (based on the Qur'an, Hud:44), is Noah's apobaterion or "Place of Descent", the location where the Ark came to rest after the Great Flood.

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Mount Nemrut

Nemrut or Nemrud (Nemrut Dağı; Çiyayê Nemrûdê; Նեմրութ լեռ) is a mountain in southeastern Turkey, notable for the summit where a number of large statues are erected around what is assumed to be a royal tomb from the 1st century BC.

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Multilingualism

Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.

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Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Muslim conquest of Persia

The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).

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Mustafa Barzani

Mustafa Barzani (Mistefa Barzanî) (March 14, 1903 – March 1, 1979) also known as Mullah Mustafa, was a Kurdish nationalist leader, and one of the most prominent political figures in modern Kurdish politics.

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Myanmar

Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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Mysticism

Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.

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Mythology

Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.

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Nader Shah

Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.

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Nagorno-Karabakh

Nagorno-Karabakh, meaning "Mountainous Karabakh," also known as Artsakh, is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, within the mountainous range of Karabakh, lying between Lower Karabakh and Zangezur, and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus mountains.

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Nagorno-Karabakh War

The Nagorno-Karabakh War was an ethnic and territorial conflict that took place in the late 1980s to May 1994, in the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in southwestern Azerbaijan, between the majority ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh backed by the Republic of Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.

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National symbols of the Kurds

The national symbols of the Kurds is a list of flags, icons or cultural expressions that are emblematic, representative or otherwise characteristic of the Kurdish people.

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Nationalism

Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Newroz as celebrated by Kurds

Newroz or Nawroz (نه‌ورۆز/Newroz/Nawroz, also: Gulus گوڵوس) refers to the celebration of the traditional Iranian peoples' New Year holiday of Nowruz in Kurdish culture.

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Nineveh

Nineveh (𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua); ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq.

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Nineveh Governorate

Nineveh Governorate (محافظة نينوى) (ܗܘܦܲܪܟܝܵܐ ܕܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ) is a governorate in northern Iraq that contains the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh.

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Nizamettin Ariç

Nizamettin Ariç, Nîzamettîn Arîç, (born 1956) is a contemporary Kurdish singer, composer and director.

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Nomad

A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.

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Northern Kurdish

Northern Kurdish (Kurdiya jorîn, rtl), also called Kurmanji (Kurmancî, rtl), is a Kurdish language spoken in southeast Turkey, northwest and northeast Iran, northern Iraq and northern Syria.

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Nova Science Publishers

Nova Science Publishers is an academic publisher of books, encyclopedias, handbooks, e-books and journals, based in Hauppauge, New York.

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Nur Tatar

Nur Tatar Askari (born August 16, 1992 in Van, Turkey) is a Turkish female taekwondo practitioner competing in the feather, light and welterweight divisions.

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Olympic weightlifting

Weightlifting, also called '''Olympic-style weightlifting''', or Olympic weightlifting, is an athletic discipline in the modern Olympic programme in which the athlete attempts a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman Iraq

Ottoman Iraq refers to the period of the history of Iraq when the region was ruled by the Ottoman Empire (1534–1704 and 1831–1920).

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Ottoman Turks

The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.

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Ottoman–Persian War (1775–76)

The Ottoman–Persian War of 1775–1776 was fought between the Ottoman Empire and the Zand dynasty of Persia.

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Ottoman–Persian wars

The Ottoman-Persian Wars or Ottoman-Iranian Wars were a series a wars between Ottoman Empire and the Safavid, Afsharid, Zand, and Qajar dynasties of Iran (Persia) through the 16th–19th centuries.

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Paganism

Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).

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Pahlavi dynasty

The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.

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Pan-Arabism

Pan-Arabism, or simply Arabism, is an ideology espousing the unification of the countries of North Africa and West Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, referred to as the Arab world.

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Pan-Iranism

Pan-Iranism is an ideology that advocates solidarity and reunification of Iranian peoples living in the Iranian plateau and other regions that have significant Iranian cultural influence, including the Persians, Azerbaijanis (who are currently considered Turkic, but have historically and genetically been Iranic), Lurs, Gilaks, Mazanderanis, Ossetians, Kurds, Zazas, Talysh, Tajiks of Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, the Pashtuns and the Baloch of Pakistan.

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Pan-Turkism

Pan-Turkism is a movement which emerged during the 1880s among Turkic intellectuals of Azerbaijan (part of the Russian Empire at the time) and the Ottoman Empire (modern day Turkey), with its aim being the cultural and political unification of all Turkic peoples.

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Patriotic Union of Kurdistan

The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK; Yekêtiy Niştîmaniy Kurdistan; Yekîtiya Nîştimanî ya Kurdistanê) is a Kurdish political party in Iraqi Kurdistan.

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Peace of Amasya

The Peace of Amasya (پیمان آماسیه ("Qarārdād-e Amasiyeh"); Amasya Antlaşması) was a treaty agreed to on May 29, 1555 between Shah Tahmasp of Safavid Iran and Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire at the city of Amasya, following the Ottoman–Safavid War of 1532–1555.

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Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Persian mythology

Persian mythology are traditional tales and stories of ancient origin, all involving extraordinary or supernatural beings.

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Persian people

The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.

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Peshmerga

Peshmerga (lit, or Those who face death') are the military forces of the federal region of Iraqi Kurdistan.

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Piranshahr, Iran

Piranshahr (پیرانشهر.; (Piranshahr: پیرانشهر); پیرانشهر‎. պիրանշար. Kurmancî Kurdish: Pîranşahr) is a city geopolitically located in the Islamic Republic of Iran and geographically in the western part of the country, but demographically located in the Northern parts of Iranian Kordestan and geolinguistically in the Eastern parts of the Greater Kurdish inhabited area.

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Piryones

Piryones (پیریۆنس) was a Muslim Kurdish poet and Sufi of 13th century.

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Politics of Iran

The politics of Iran take place in a framework of a theocracy in a format of syncretic politics that is guided by Islamic ideology.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Puppet state

A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.

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Qajar dynasty

The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.

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Qamishli

Qamishli (القامشلي, Qamişlo, lit or translit) is a city in northeastern Syria on the border with Turkey, adjoining the Turkish city of Nusaybin, and close to Iraq.

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Qazi Muhammad

Qazi Muhammad (قازی محەممەد / Qazî Mihemed) (1893–1947) was an Iranian Kurdish separatist leader who founded the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan and headed the short-lived Republic of Mahabad.

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Qizilbash

Qizilbash or Kizilbash, (Kızılbaş - Red Head, sometimes also Qezelbash or Qazilbash, قزلباش) is the label given to a wide variety of Shi'i militant groups that flourished in Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan), Anatolia and Kurdistan from the late 15th century onwards, some of which contributed to the foundation of the Safavid dynasty of Iran.

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RAND Corporation

RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.

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Rawadid dynasty

Rawwadid or Ravvadid (also Revend or Revendi) or Banū rawwād (955–1071), was a Muslim ruling family of Arab descent during the Medieval era, centered on Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan).

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Refugees of the Syrian Civil War

Refugees of the Syrian Civil War or Syrian refugees are citizens and permanent residents of Syrian Arab Republic, who have fled from their country since the onset of the Syrian Civil War in 2011 and have sought asylum in other parts of the world. In 2016, from an estimated pre-war population of 22 million, the United Nations (UN) identified 13.5 million Syrians requiring humanitarian assistance, of which more than 6 million are internally displaced within Syria, and around 5 million are refugees outside of Syria. The vast majority of the latter are hosted by countries neighboring Syria. Among countries of the Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan (3RP), a coordination platform including neighboring countries (with the exception of Israel) and Egypt, the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) counted 5,165,502 registered refugees, as of August 2017. Turkey is the largest host country of registered refugees with over 3.5 million Syrian refugees. The UNHCR counted almost 1 million asylum applicants in Europe, as of August 2017. Humanitarian aid to internally displaced persons (IDPs) within Syria and Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries is planned largely through the UNHCR. By 2016, various nations had made pledges to the UNHCR to permanently resettle 170,000 registered refugees.

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Reincarnation

Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.

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Religious symbol

A religious symbol is an iconic representation intended to represent a specific religion, or a specific concept within a given religion.

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Republic of Ararat

The Republic of Ararat, or Kurdish Republic of Ararat,Abbas Vali, Essays on the origins of Kurdish nationalism, Mazda Publishers, 2003,, was a self-proclaimed Kurdish state.

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Republic of Mahabad

The Republic of Mahabad (کۆماری مەھاباد; جمهوری مهاباد) was a short-lived Kurdish self-governing state in present-day Iran, from 22 January to 15 December 1946.

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Reza Shah

Reza Shah Pahlavi (رضا شاه پهلوی;; 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944) was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.

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Rhino Season

Rhino Season (فصل کرگدن; Fasle Kargadan) is a 2012 Iranian movie by Mij Film largely filmed in Turkey and directed by Bahman Ghobadi.

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Richard N. Frye

Richard Nelson Frye (January 10, 1920 – March 27, 2014) was an American scholar of Iranian and Central Asian Studies, and Aga Khan Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Harvard University.

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Rohingya people

The Rohingya people are a stateless Indo-Aryan-speaking people who reside in Rakhine State, Myanmar (also known as Burma).

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Rojava conflict

The Rojava conflict, also known as the Rojava revolution, is a political upheaval and military conflict taking place in Northern Syria, known among Kurdish nationalists as Western Kurdistan or Rojava.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Rowman & Littlefield

Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Safavid dynasty

The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.

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Sakharov Prize

The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, commonly known as the Sakharov Prize, honours individuals and groups of people who have dedicated their lives to the defense of human rights and freedom of thought.

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Saladin

An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.

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Samir Amin

Samir Amin (سمير أمين) (born 3 September 1931) is an Egyptian-French Marxian economist.

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Sanandaj

Sanandaj (سنە Sine; سنندج) is the capital of Kurdistan Province in Iran.

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Saranjâm

The Kalâme Sarânjâm (کلام سرانجام or Serencam "The Discourse of Conclusion") is the central religious text of the Ahl-e Haqq, written in the 15th century based on the teachings of Sultan Sahak.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Second language

A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.

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Second Temple Judaism

Second Temple Judaism is Judaism between the construction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, c. 515 BCE, and its destruction by the Romans in 70 CE.

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Secularization

Secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.

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Sedentism

In cultural anthropology, sedentism (sometimes called sedentariness; compare sedentarism) is the practice of living in one place for a long time.

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Self-governance

Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.

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Selim I

Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute (Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.

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Shaddadids

The Shaddadids were a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin who ruled in various parts of Armenia and Arran from 951 to 1174 AD.

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Shafi‘i

The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.

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Shah

Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).

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Shahmaran

Shahmaran (lit; Şamaran, Şahmeran, ŞahmaraCyrillic: Шаһмара, Iske imla:شاهمار or Zilant, Зилант or Aq YılanCyrillic: Ак Елан, Iske imla: آق یلان, lit) is a mythical creature in Iran, Anatolia and Iraq.

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Shahnameh

The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (شاهنامه, "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.

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Shahqoli Khan Zanganeh

Shahqoli Khan Zanganeh (شاه قلی خان زنگنه, died 1716), was a Kurdish nobleman, who served as the vizier of the Safavid king (shah) Sultan Husayn (r. 1694–1722) from 1707 to 1716.

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Shahr-e Kord

Shahr-e Kord (شهركرد, also Romanized as Shahrekord and Shahr Kord) is the capital city of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran.

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Shapur II

Shapur II (𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩 Šāpuhr), also known as Shapur II the Great, was the tenth Shahanshah of the Sasanian Empire.

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Sharafkhan Bidlisi

Sharaf al-Din Khan b. Shams al-Din b. Sharaf Beg Bedlisi (Kurdish: شەرەفخانی بەدلیسی, Şerefxanê Bedlîsî; شرف‌الدین خان بن شمس‌الدین بن شرف بیگ بدلیسی) (949-1012/1543-1603-04) was a medieval Kurdish emir and a politician from the Emirate of Bitlis.

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Shaykh Ali Khan Zanganeh

Shaykh Ali Khan Zanganeh (شیخ علی خان زنگنه, died 1689), was an Iranian statesman of Kurdish origin, who served as the grand vizier of the Safavid king (shah) Suleiman I (r. 1666–1694) from 1669 to 1689.

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Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir

Shaykh ‘Adī ibn Musāfir al-Umawī (عدي بن مسافر الاموي Şêx Adî, died 1162) was a Yazidi who claimed descent from the Arabian Umayyad Caliph Marwan ibn al-Hakam, he was born in the 1070s in the Beqaa Valley of present-day Lebanon.

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Sheikh Ubeydullah

Sheikh Ubeydullah (died 1883) (Kurdish: Şêx Ubeydullayê Nehrî, شێخ وبه‌يدوڵاي نهری), also known as Sayyid Ubeydullah, was the leader of the first modern Kurdish nationalist struggle.

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Sherwana Castle

Sherwana Castle, also known as Shirwanah Castle, is located in Kalar, Kurdistan, Iraq.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Shia–Sunni relations

Sunni Islam and Shia Islam are the two major denominations of Islam.

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Siirt

Siirt (سِعِرْد Siʿird, Սղերդ Sġerd, ܣܥܪܬ siʿreth, Sêrt, سعرد Σύρτη) is a city in southeastern Turkey and the seat of Siirt Province). The population of the city according to the 2009 census was 129,188. The majority of the city's population is Arabic and Kurdish.

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Simko Shikak

Simko Shikak (also known as "Simitquh"; born Ismail Agha Shikak 1887 – 1930) was a Kurdish chieftain of the Shakak tribe.

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Simko Shikak revolt (1918–22)

The Simko Shikak revolt refers to an armed Ottoman-backed tribal Kurdish uprising against the Qajar dynasty of Iran from 1918 to 1922, led by Kurdish chieftain Simko Shikak from the Shekak tribe.

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Simurgh

--> --> Simurgh (سيمرغ), also spelled simorgh, simorg, simurg, simoorg, simorq or simourv, is a benevolent, mythical bird in Iranian mythology and literature.

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Soot

Soot is a mass of impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.

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Southern Kurdish

Southern Kurdish (کوردی خوارین; kurdîy xwarîn) is a Kurdish group of languages/dialects predominantly spoken in western Iran and eastern Iraq.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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St. Martin's Press

St.

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Storytelling

Storytelling describes the social and cultural activity of sharing stories, sometimes with improvisation, theatrics, or embellishment.

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Sufism

Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Sulaymaniyah

Sulaymaniyah (Iraqi:السليمانية, as-Sulaymāniyyah), also called Slemani, is a city in Iraqi Kurdistan.

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Suleiman of Persia

Sam Mirza (سام میرزا), later known by his first dynastic name of Safi II (شاه صفی), and thereafter known by his more famous second dynastic name of Suleiman I (شاه سلیمان), was the eighth Safavid shah (king) of Iran, ruling from 1 November 1666 to 29 July 1694.

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Sultan Sahak

Sultan Sahak, or Soltân Sahak (سلطان سهاک) (born 14th century; died 15th century), was a Kurdish religious leader of Arab descent who founded spiritual path of the Ahl-e Haqq, also known as the Yârsân.

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Sumer

SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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Sumerian language

Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Supreme Being

Supreme Being is a term used by theologians and philosophers of many religions, including Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Judaism, Sikhism, Jainism, Deism and Zoroastrianism, often as an alternative to the term God.

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Sweden

Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Syncretism

Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.

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Syracuse University Press

Syracuse University Press, founded in 1943, is a university press that is part of Syracuse University.

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Syria

Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Syrian Civil War

The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.

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Taekwondo

Taekwondo (from Korean 태권도, 跆拳道) is a Korean martial art, characterised by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques.

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Takht-e Soleymān

Takht-e Soleymān (تخت سلیمان), also known as Azar Goshnasp (آتشکده آذرگشنسپ), literally "the Fire of the Warrior Kings", is an archaeological site in West Azarbaijan, Iran.

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Taq Bostan

Taq-e Bostan (طاق بستان, تاقوەسان) means "Arch of the Garden" or "Arch made by stone" is a site with a series of large rock reliefs from the era of Sassanid Empire of Persia (Iran), carved around 4th century AD.

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Tattoo

A tattoo is a form of body modification where a design is made by inserting ink, dyes and pigments, either indelible or temporary, into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment.

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Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.

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Tehran

Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.

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Ten Thousand

The Ten Thousand (οἱ Μύριοι, oi Myrioi) was a force of mercenary units, mainly Greek, employed by Cyrus the Younger to attempt to wrest the throne of the Persian Empire from his brother, Artaxerxes II.

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The Exorcist (film)

The Exorcist is a 1973 American supernatural horror film adapted by William Peter Blatty from his 1971 novel of the same name, directed by William Friedkin, and starring Ellen Burstyn, Linda Blair, Max von Sydow, and Jason Miller.

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The Herd (1978 film)

The Herd (Sürü) is a 1978 Turkish drama film, written, produced and co-directed by Yılmaz Güney with Zeki Ökten during Güney's second imprisonment, featuring Tarık Akan as a peasant, forced by a local blood feud to sell his sheep in far away Ankara.

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The Kamkars

The Kamkars (کامکاران, Kamkaran,کامکارها) is a Kurdish family of seven brothers and a sister, all from the city of Sanandaj, the capital of the Kurdistan province of Iran.

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The Market: A Tale of Trade

The Market: A Tale of Trade (Pazar: Bir Ticaret Masalı) is a 2008 international co-production drama film, written and directed by Ben Hopkins, starring Tayanç Ayaydın as a small-time blackmarket trader in a provincial town in Eastern Turkey tasked with procuring some valuable medicine.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire

The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire is a book about the small nations of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, and the Russia and some other post-Soviet states of today.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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The Wind Will Carry Us

The Wind Will Carry Us (باد ما را خواهد برد, Bād mā rā khāhad bord) is a 1999 Iranian film by Abbas Kiarostami.

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The World Factbook

The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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Theophilos (emperor)

Theophilos (Θεόφιλος; sometimes Latinized or Anglicized as Theophilus; 800-805 20 January 842 AD) was the Byzantine Emperor from 829 until his death in 842.

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Theophobos

Theophobos (Θεόφοβος) or Theophobus, originally Nasir (ناصر), Nasr (نصر), or Nusayr (نصیر), was an Iranian commander of the Khurramites who converted to Christianity and entered Byzantine service under Emperor Theophilos (r. 829–843).

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Tigris

Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.

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Timur

Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.

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Toponymy

Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.

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Transaction Publishers

Transaction Publishers was a New Jersey–based publishing house that specialized in social science books.

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Transcaucasia

Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

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Treaty of Sèvres

The Treaty of Sèvres (Traité de Sèvres) was one of a series of treaties that the Central Powers signed after their defeat in World War I. Hostilities had already ended with the Armistice of Mudros.

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Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.

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Triage (film)

Triage is a 2009 drama film starring Colin Farrell, Paz Vega, Branko Djuric and Christopher Lee, written and directed by Bosnian director Danis Tanović.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkic peoples

The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.

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Turkish Hezbollah

Turkish Hezbollah (TH) (Türk Hızbullahı), also known as the Kurdish Hezbollah (Hizbullahî Kurdî) or just Hizbullah in Turkey,Aslı Aydıntaşbaş,, Middle East Quarterly, June 2000, pp.

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Turkish Kurdistan

Turkish Kurdistan, or Northern Kurdistan (Bakurê Kurdistanê), refers to portions of Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region and Southeastern Anatolia Region where Kurds form the predominant ethnic group.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Turkish military operation in Afrin

In January 2018, the Turkish military launched a military operation, code-named Operation Olive Branch (Zeytin Dalı Harekâtı) by Turkey, in the SDF-controlled Afrin District and the Tell Rifaat Subdistrict.

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Turkish nationalism

Turkish nationalism is a political ideology that promotes and glorifies the Turkish people, as either a national, ethnic, or linguistic group.

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Turkish occupation of northern Syria

The Turkish occupation of northern Syria refers to areas of Syria captured by the Turkish Armed Forces and their proxy forces since August 2016 during the Syrian Civil War.

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Turkish people

Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.

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Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army

The Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army (abbreviated as TFSA), partially reorganized as the Syrian National Army (al-Jayš al-Watanī as-Sūrī, Suriye Millî Ordusu) by Turkey since 30 May 2017, is an armed Syrian opposition structure mainly composed of Syrian Arab and Syrian Turkmen rebels operating in northern Syria, mostly being a part of Operation Euphrates Shield or groups active in the area that are allied to the groups participating in the operation.

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Turkmens

The Turkmens (Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Security Council

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 688

United Nations Security Council Resolution 688, adopted on 5 April 1991, after receiving letters from the representatives of France, Iran, and Turkey and expressing its concern over political repression of the Iraqi people, including those in Iraqi Kurdistan, the Council condemned the repression and demanded that Iraq, as a contribution to removing the threat to international peace and security, end the repression and respect the human rights of its population.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Census Bureau

The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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Urartu

Urartu, which corresponds to the biblical mountains of Ararat, is the name of a geographical region commonly used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands.

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Urfa

Urfa, officially known as Şanlıurfa (Riha); Ուռհա Uṙha in Armenian, and known in ancient times as Edessa, is a city with 561,465 inhabitants in south-eastern Turkey, and the capital of Şanlıurfa Province.

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Utu-hengal

Utu-hengal (also written Utu-heg̃al, Utu-heĝal, and sometimes transcribed as Utu-hegal, Utu-hejal) was one of the first native kings of Sumer after centuries of Akkadian and Gutian rule.

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Van, Turkey

Van (Van; Վան; Wan; فان; Εύα, Eua) is a city in eastern Turkey's Van Province, located on the eastern shore of Lake Van.

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Vice President of Iran

The Vice President of Iran (معاون ریاست جمهوری اسلامی ایران) is defined by article 124 of the Constitution of Iran, as anyone appointed by the President of Iran to lead an organization related to Presidential affairs.

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Viva World Cup

The VIVA World Cup was an international association football tournament organized by the New Federation Board, an umbrella association for teams unaffiliated with FIFA, held five times between 2006 and 2012.

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Warp and weft

Warp and weft are terms for the two basic components used in weaving to turn thread or yarn into fabric.

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West Azerbaijan Province

West Azerbaijan Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Western Armenia

Western Armenia (Western Armenian: Արեւմտեան Հայաստան, Arevmdian Hayasdan) is a term used to refer to eastern parts of Turkey (formerly the Ottoman Empire) that were part of the historical homeland of Armenians.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Western Iranian languages

The Western Iranian languages are a branch of the Iranian languages, attested from the time of Old Persian (6th century BC) and Median.

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White Revolution

The White Revolution (انقلاب سفید Enqelāb-e Sefid) or the Shah and People Revolution (انقلاب شاه و مردم Enqelāb-e Shāh va Mardom) was a far-reaching series of reforms in Iran launched in 1963 by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and lasted until 1978.

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Work song

A work song is a piece of music closely connected to a form of work, either sung while conducting a task (usually to coordinate timing) or a song linked to a task which might be a connected narrative, description, or protest song.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Wrestling in Iran

Iranian wrestling (koshti) is a form of submission grappling that has been practiced since ancient times in Iran.

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Xenophon

Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.

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Yarsanism

The Yarsan or Ahl-e Haqq (Kurdish:, Yarsan, اهل حق Ahl-e Haqq "People of Truth"), is a syncretic religion founded by Sultan Sahak in the late 14th century in western Iran.

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Yazdânism

Yazdânism, or the Cult of Angels, is a pre-Islamic, native religion of the Kurds.

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Yazidi Black Book

The Yazidi Black Book (مسحە‌فا ڕه‌ش Meṣḥefa reş) is one of two books written in the style of a holy book of the Yazidis in Northern Kurdish, the other being the Yazidi Book of Revelation (Kitēba jilwe).

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Yazidi Book of Revelation

The Yazidi Book of Revelation (Kitêba Cilwe in Kurdish; also transliterated as Kitab Al Jilwah) is one of two books on the Yazidi religion written in the style of a holy book in the Kurmanji dialect of the Northern Kurdish language, the other being the Yazidi Black Book (Mishefa Reş in Kurdish).

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Yazidis

The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.

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Yılmaz Erdoğan

Yılmaz Erdoğan (born 4 November 1967) is a Turkish filmmaker, actor and poet of Kurdish descent, who is most famous for his box-office record-breaking debut comedy film Vizontele (2001) and the television series Bir Demet Tiyatro (1995–2002/2006-2007).

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Yılmaz Güney

Yılmaz Güney (born Yılmaz Pütün, 1 April 1937 – 9 September 1984) was a Zaza and Kurdish film director, scenarist, novelist, and actor, who produced movies in Turkish.

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Yerevan

Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.

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Yol

Yol is a 1982 Turkish film directed by Yılmaz Güney.

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Young Turks

Young Turks (Jön Türkler, from Les Jeunes Turcs) was a Turkish nationalist party in the early 20th century that consisted of Ottoman exiles, students, civil servants, and army officers.

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Zabdicene

Zabdicene or Bezabde (translit; translit; Zabdiccena; translit) was a Carduchian principality in southeastern Anatolia, in today's south east Turkey.

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Zakarids-Mkhargrzeli

The Zakarids or Zakarians (Զաքարյաններ, Zak'aryanner), also known by their Georgian name as Mkhargrdzeli (მხარგრძელი), were a noble Armenian–Georgian dynasty of at least partial Kurdish or Kipchak origin.

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Zakho

Zakho (Zaxo,; زاخۆ, زاخو; זאכו;; ܙܵܟ̣ܘ̇; Zākhō) is a city in Iraq, at the centre of the eponymous Zakho District of the Dohuk Governorate of Iraqi Kurdistan, located a few kilometers from the Iraqi-Turkish border.

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Zakho FC

Zakho Sport Club (یانا زاخو یا وه‌رزشی / Yana Zaxo ya Werzişî) is a sports club based in Zakho, Dohuk, Iraq.

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Zand dynasty

The Zand dynasty (سلسله زندیه) was an Iranian dynasty of Lak a branch of Lurs origin founded by Karim Khan Zand that initially ruled southern and central Iran in the 18th century.

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Zand tribe

The Zand tribe was a tribe of Lak origin,...the bulk of the evidence points to their being one of Lak tribes, who may originally have been immigrants of Kurdish origin., Peter Avery, William Bayne Fisher, Gavin Hambly, Charles Melville (ed.), The Cambridge History of Iran: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic, Cambridge University Press, 1991,, a branch of Lur Persians who may have been originally Kurdish, though there isn't enough evidence to suggest such a thing as fact.

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Zaza language

Zaza language, also called Zazaki, Kirmanjki and Dimli, is an Indo-European language spoken primarily in eastern Turkey by the Zazas.

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Zaza–Gorani languages

Zaza–Gorani is a group of Northwestern Iranian languages.

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Zazas

The Zazas (also known as Kird, Kirmanc or Dimili) are a people in eastern Anatolia who natively speak the Zaza language.

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Zed Books

Zed Books is an independent non-fiction publishing company based in London, UK.

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Zengid dynasty

The Zengid or Zangid dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turk origin, which ruled parts of the Levant and Upper Mesopotamia on behalf of the Seljuk Empire.

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Zoroaster

Zoroaster (from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, was an ancient Iranian-speaking prophet whose teachings and innovations on the religious traditions of ancient Iranian-speaking peoples developed into the religion of Zoroastrianism.

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Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.

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1960 Turkish coup d'état

The 1960 Turkish coup d'état (27 Mayıs Darbesi) was the first coup d'état in the Republic of Turkey.

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1967 Kurdish revolt in Iran

The 1967 Kurdish revolt in Iran erupted in March 1967, as part of the long-running Kurdish separatist struggle.

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1975 Algiers Agreement

The 1975 Algiers Agreement (commonly known as the Algiers Accord, sometimes as the Algiers Declaration) was an agreement between Iran and Iraq to settle their border disputes and conflicts (such as the Shatt al-Arab, known as Arvand Rud in Iran), and it served as basis for the bilateral treaties signed on 13 June and 26 December 1975.

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1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran

The 1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran erupted in mid-March 1979, some two months after the completion of the Iranian Revolution.

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1980 Turkish coup d'état

The 12 September 1980 Turkish coup d'état (12 Eylül Darbesi), headed by Chief of the General Staff General Kenan Evren, was the third coup d'état in the history of the Republic, the previous having been the 1960 coup and the 1971 "Coup by Memorandum".

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2007 Yazidi communities bombings

The 2007 Yazidi communities bombings occurred on August 14, 2007, when four co-ordinated suicide bomb attacks detonated in the Yazidi towns of Qahtaniyah (Til Ezer) and Jazeera (Siba Sheikh Khidir), near Mosul in Iraq.

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2012 Summer Olympics

The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom.

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Redirects here:

Demographics of Kurds, Demographics of the kurdish people, Ethnic Kurds, Kurd, Kurdish Cities, Kurdish Cultural Region, Kurdish Moslems, Kurdish People, Kurdish architecture, Kurdish cities, Kurdish demographics, Kurdish ethnicity, Kurdish film, Kurdish people, Kurdish peoples, Kurmanc, Kurmanj, List of major cities with Kurdish population, Mountain Turk, Mountain Turks, Turks of the mountains, كوردي, کورد.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurds

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