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The Kwantung Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the first half of the 20th century. [1]

130 relations: Actions in Inner Mongolia (1933–36), Akira Mutō, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Armies of the Imperial Japanese Army, Army group, Artillery, Assassination, Ōke, Baron, Battalion, Battle of Beiping–Tianjin, Battle of Lake Khasan, Battles of Khalkhin Gol, Biological warfare, Central China, Changchun, Chemical warfare, Chief of staff, Commander-in-chief, Coup d'état, Defense of the Great Wall, Division (military), Douglas MacArthur, Emperor of Japan, Empire of Japan, February 26 Incident, Field marshal, Fifth Army (Japan), Fifty-Eighth Army (Japan), Fort Leavenworth, Forty-Fourth Army (Japan), Fourth Army (Japan), Garrison, Gekokujō, General officer, Harbin, Heitarō Kimura, Hideki Tojo, Hirohito, Hokushin-ron, Huanggutun incident, Human subject research, Imperial General Headquarters, Imperial Japanese Army, Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office, Imperial Way Faction, Infantry, Inner Mongolia, International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Iwane Matsui, ..., Japanese First Area Army, Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, Japanese Seventeenth Area Army, Japanese Third Area Army, Japanese war crimes, Jirō Minami, Jo Iimura, Junior officer, Kansas, Kenji Doihara, Kenkichi Ueda, Khabarovsk War Crime Trials, Kuniaki Koiso, Kwantung Leased Territory, Labor camp, Lüshunkou District, Legal immunity, Lieutenant general, Major general, Manchukuo, Manchukuo Imperial Army, Manchuria, Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Military history of Japan, Mongolia, Mukden Incident, Nobuyoshi Mutō, North China Buffer State Strategy, Northern and southern China, Oceania, Operation Chahar, Operation Ichi-Go, Organization of the Kwantung Army, Otozō Yamada, Pacific War, Pacification of Manchukuo, Philippines, Prisoner-of-war camp, Puyi, Red Army, Rensuke Isogai, Resident Commissioner, Russian Far East, Russo-Japanese War, Second Sino-Japanese War, Seishirō Itagaki, Shanhai Pass, Shōwa Restoration, Shigeru Honjō, Shinobu Ohno, Shirō Ishii, Shunroku Hata, Siberia, South China, South Manchuria Railway, South Manchuria Railway Zone, Southeast Asia, Soviet invasion of Manchuria, Soviet–Japanese border conflicts, Statism in Shōwa Japan, Strategic reserve, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, Surrender of Japan, Tachibana Koichirō, Takashi Hishikari, Third Army (Japan), Thirtieth Army (Japan), Thirty-Fourth Army (Japan), Toshizō Nishio, Totalitarianism, Unit 731, War crime, Weapon of mass destruction, World War II, Yoshijirō Umezu, Yoshinori Shirakawa, Yukio Kasahara, Zhang Zuolin, Zhongma Fortress. Expand index (80 more) »

Actions in Inner Mongolia (1933–36)

The Campaigns in Inner Mongolia from 1933-1936 were part of the ongoing invasion of northern China by the Empire of Japan prior to the official start of hostilities in the Second Sino-Japanese War.

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Akira Mutō

was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.

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Aleksandr Vasilevsky

Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Vasilevsky (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Василе́вский,, Vichuga – December 5, 1977) was a Russian career officer in the Red Army who was promoted to the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union in 1943.

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Armies of the Imperial Japanese Army

The term in the Imperial Japanese Army was used in a different ways to designate a variety of large military formations, corresponding to the army group, field army and corps in the militaries of western nations.

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Army group

An army group is a military organization consisting of several field armies, which is self-sufficient for indefinite periods.

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Artillery

Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.

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Assassination

Assassination is the murder of a prominent person, often but not always a political leader or ruler, usually for political reasons or payment.

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Ōke

The, were branches of the Japanese Imperial Family created from branches of the Fushimi-no-miya house.

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Baron

Baron is a title of honour, often hereditary, and ranks as one of the lower titles in the various nobiliary systems of Europe.

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Battalion

A battalion is a military unit.

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Battle of Beiping–Tianjin

The Battle of Beiping–Tianjin, also known as the "Peiking-Tientsin Operation" or by the Japanese as the (25–31 July 1937) was a series of battles of the Second Sino-Japanese War fought in the proximity of Beiping (now Beijing) and Tianjin.

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Battle of Lake Khasan

The Battle of Lake Khasan (July 29, 1938 – August 11, 1938) and also known as the Changkufeng Incident (Russian: Хасанские бои, Chinese and Japanese: 張鼓峰事件; Chinese Pinyin: Zhānggǔfēng Shìjiàn; Japanese Romaji: Chōkohō Jiken) in China and Japan, was an attempted military incursion by Manchukuo (Japanese) into the territory claimed by the Soviet Union.

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Battles of Khalkhin Gol

The Battles of Khalkhyn Gol (Халхын голын дайн; ノモンハン事件; Japanese Romaji Nomon-Han Jiken; бои на реке Халхин-Гол) were the decisive engagement of the undeclared Soviet–Japanese border conflicts fought among the Soviet Union, Mongolia and the Empire of Japan in 1939.

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Biological warfare

Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.

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Central China

Central China is a geographical and a loosely defined cultural region that covers the central area of China.

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Changchun

Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin Province, located in the northeast of the People's Republic of China.

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Chemical warfare

Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.

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Chief of staff

The title chief of staff identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer.

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Commander-in-chief

A commander-in-chief is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces or significant elements of those forces.

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état (literally "blow of state"; plural: coups d'état, pronounced like the singular form), also known simply as a coup, or an overthrow, is the sudden and (usually) illegal seizure of a state, usually instigated by a small group of the existing government establishment to depose the established regime and replace it with a new ruling body.

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Defense of the Great Wall

The Defense of the Great Wall (January 1, 1933 – May 31, 1933) was a campaign between the armies of Republic of China and Empire of Japan, which took place before the Second Sino-Japanese War officially commenced in 1937.

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Division (military)

A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.

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Douglas MacArthur

Douglas MacArthur (26 January 18805 April 1964) was an American five-star general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army.

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Emperor of Japan

The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and is the ceremonial head of state of Japan's system of constitutional monarchy.

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Empire of Japan

The was the historical Japanese nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration on January 3, 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

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February 26 Incident

The (also known as the 2-26 Incident) was an attempted coup d'état in Japan on 26 February 1936.

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Field marshal

Field marshal is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks.

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Fifth Army (Japan)

The was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army based in Manchukuo from the Russo-Japanese War until the end of World War II.

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Fifty-Eighth Army (Japan)

The was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army during the final days of World War II.

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Fort Leavenworth

Fort Leavenworth is a United States Army installation located in Leavenworth County, Kansas, immediately north of the city of Leavenworth in the upper northeast portion of the state.

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Forty-Fourth Army (Japan)

The was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army during the final stages of World War II.

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Fourth Army (Japan)

The was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army based in Manchukuo from the Russo-Japanese War until the end of World War II.

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Garrison

Garrison (various spellings) (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip") is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base.

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Gekokujō

is a Japanese term for "overthrowing or surpassing one's superiors".

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General officer

A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.

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Harbin

is the capital and largest city of Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China.

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Heitarō Kimura

was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army.

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Hideki Tojo

Hideki Tojo (Kyūjitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;; December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), the leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association, and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 17, 1941, to July 22, 1944.

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Hirohito

was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926, until his death on January 7, 1989.

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Hokushin-ron

The was a pre-World War II political doctrine of the Empire of Japan which stated that Manchuria and Siberia were Japan's sphere of interest and that the potential value to Japan for economic and territorial expansion in those areas was greater than elsewhere.

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Huanggutun incident

Huanggutun incident (Japanese) was an assassination plotted by the Japanese Kwantung Army that targeted Fengtian warlord Zhang Zuolin.

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Human subject research

Human subject research is systematic, scientific investigation that can be either interventional (a "trial") or observational (no "test article") and involves human beings as research subjects.

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Imperial General Headquarters

The as part of the Supreme War Council was established in 1893 to coordinate efforts between the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy during wartime.

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Imperial Japanese Army

The, literally "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire", was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan, from 1871 to 1945.

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Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office

, also called the Army General Staff, was one of the four principal agencies charged with overseeing the Imperial Japanese Army.

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Imperial Way Faction

The was a political faction in the Imperial Japanese Army, active in the 1920s and 1930s and largely supported by junior officers aiming to establish a military government that promoted totalitarian, militarist, and expansionist ideals.

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Infantry

The infantry is the branch of a military force that fights on foot.

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Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: in Mongolian script, and in Mongolian Cyrillic), officially Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in the north of the country, containing most of China's border with Mongolia (the rest of the China-Mongolia border is taken up by the Xinjiang autonomous region and Gansu province) and a small section of the border with Russia.

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International Military Tribunal for the Far East

The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trials, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, or simply the Tribunal, was convened on April 29, 1946, to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of war crimes.

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Iwane Matsui

was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army and the commander of the expeditionary force sent to China in 1937.

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Japanese First Area Army

The was a field army of the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II, based in northern Manchukuo and active in combat against the Soviet Union in the closing stages of the war.

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Japanese invasion of Manchuria

The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on September 18, 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.

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Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union

By the end of:World War II there were from 560,000 to 760,000 Japanese POWs in the Soviet Union and Mongolia interned to work in labor camps.

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Japanese Seventeenth Area Army

The was a field army of the Imperial Japanese Army during the final stages of World War II.

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Japanese Third Area Army

The was a field army of the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II, based in southern Manchukuo and active in combat against the Soviet Union in the very final stages of the war.

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Japanese war crimes

Japanese war crimes occurred in many Asian and Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.

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Jirō Minami

was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army and Governor-General of Korea between 1936 and 1942.

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Jo Iimura

was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army in the Pacific War.

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Junior officer

Junior officer, company officer or company grade officer refers to the lowest operational commissioned officer category of ranks in a military or paramilitary organization.

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Kansas

Kansas is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern United States.

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Kenji Doihara

was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II.

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Kenkichi Ueda

was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.

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Khabarovsk War Crime Trials

Khabarovsk War Crime Trials were hearings held between 25–31 December 1949, in the Soviet Union's industrial city of Khabarovsk (Хабáровск) situated on the Russian Far East (Дáльний Востóк).

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Kuniaki Koiso

was a Japanese general in the Imperial Japanese Army, Governor-General of Korea and 41st Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944 to April 7, 1945.

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Kwantung Leased Territory

The Kwantung Leased Territory was a territory in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula (遼東半島) in Manchuria that existed from 1898 to 1945.

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Labor camp

A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are forced to engage in penal labor.

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Lüshunkou District

Lüshunkou District or Lyushunkou District is one of six districts of Dalian, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.

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Legal immunity

Legal immunity, or immunity from prosecution, is a legal status wherein an individual or entity can not be held liable for a violation of the law, in order to facilitate societal aims that outweigh the value of imposing liability in such cases.

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Lieutenant general

Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.

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Major general

Major-general (or major general) is a military rank used in many countries.

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Manchukuo

Manchukuo was a puppet state in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia, which was governed under a form of constitutional monarchy.

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Manchukuo Imperial Army

The Manchukuo Imperial Army was the armed force of the Japanese dominated puppet state of Manchukuo, serving as the land forces, along with the Manchukuo Imperial Guards.

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Manchuria

Manchuria is a modern name given to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.

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Marco Polo Bridge Incident

The Marco Polo Bridge Incident, also known as the Lugouqiao (Lugou Bridge) Incident (盧溝橋事變) or the July 7 Incident (七七事變), was a battle between the Republic of China's National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army, often used as the marker for the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945).

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Military history of Japan

The military history of Japan is characterized by a long period of clan warfare until the 12th century AD, followed by feudal wars which sometimes culminated in a military government called a shogunate.

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Mongolia

Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠤᠰ in Mongolian script; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked country in east-central Asia.

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Mukden Incident

The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a staged event engineered by rogue Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria.

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Nobuyoshi Mutō

Baron was Commander of the Kwantung Army in 1933, Japanese ambassador to Manchukuo, and a field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army.

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North China Buffer State Strategy

The is the general term for a series of political manoeuvrings Japan undertook in the five provinces of northern China, Hebei, Chahar, Suiyuan, Shanxi, and Shandong.

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Northern and southern China

Northern China and southern China are two approximate regions within China. The exact boundary between these two regions has never been precisely defined. Nevertheless, the self-perception of Chinese people, especially regional stereotypes, has often been dominated by these two concepts, given that regional differences in culture and language have historically fostered strong regional identities (乡土, xiāngtǔ, 'localism') of the Chinese people.

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Oceania

Oceania (Pronunciation: The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) ISBN 0-19-861263-X — p.1282 "Oceania /ˌəʊsɪˈɑːnɪə, -ʃɪ-/". or), also known as Oceanica, is a region centered on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean.

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Operation Chahar

Nankou Campaign, a.k.a. Operation Chahar, known by the Japanese as チャハル作戦 (Operation Chahar) and by the Chinese as the 南口戰役 (Nankou Campaign), occurred in August 1937, following the Battle of Beiping-Tianjin at the beginning of the China's War of Resistance against Japan and the Second World War.

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Operation Ichi-Go

Operation Ichi-Go (一号作戦 Ichi-gō Sakusen, lit. "Operation Number One") was a campaign of a series of major battles between the Imperial Japanese Army forces and the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, fought from April to December 1944.

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Organization of the Kwantung Army

Organization of the Kwantung Army of Japan The following are commanders and units of the Japanese army which was stationed in the Kwantung peninsula of Manchuria from 1910 to 1945.

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Otozō Yamada

was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.

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Pacific War

The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theatre of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and East Asia.

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Pacification of Manchukuo

The Pacification of Manchukuo was a campaign to pacify the resistance to the newly established puppet state of Manchukuo between the Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies of Manchuria and later the Communist Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army and the Imperial Japanese Army and the forces of the Manchukuo government during the Second Sino-Japanese War which took place from March 1932 until 1941, which resulted in a Japanese victory.

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Philippines

The Philippines (Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Prisoner-of-war camp

A prisoner-of-war camp is a site for the containment of enemy combatants captured by a belligerent power in time of war.

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Puyi

Puyi (7 February 1906 – 17 October 1967), of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, commonly known as Henry Pu Yi (Pu-yi), was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия; РККА, or Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya: RKKA, frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия; KA, in English: Red Army) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and after 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Rensuke Isogai

was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army and Governor of Hong Kong under Japanese occupation from February 20, 1942 to December 24, 1944.

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Resident Commissioner

Resident Commissioner is the title of several, quite different types of Commissioner in overseas possession or protectorate of the British Crown or of the United States.

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Russian Far East

The Russian Far East (p) is the Russian part of the Far East, i.e. the extreme east parts of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.

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Russo-Japanese War

The Russo-Japanese War (8 February 1904 – 5 September 1905) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.

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Second Sino-Japanese War

The Second Sino-Japanese War (July 7, 1937 – September 9, 1945), so named due to the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95, was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1945.

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Seishirō Itagaki

was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II and a War Minister.

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Shanhai Pass

Shanhai Pass, known in Chinese as Shanhaiguan (formerly Shan-hai-kwan or Shan-hai-kuan), also called Yu Pass, is one of the major passes in the Great Wall of China.

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Shōwa Restoration

The Shōwa Restoration (昭和維新 shōwaishin) was promoted by Japanese author Kita Ikki, with the goal of restoring power to the newly enthroned Japanese Emperor Hirohito and abolishing the liberal Taishō democracy.

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Shigeru Honjō

General Baron was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army during the early period of the Second Sino-Japanese War.

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Shinobu Ohno

is a Japanese football player who plays as a forward for INAC Kobe Leonessa in Japan.

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Shirō Ishii

Surgeon General was a Japanese army medical officer, microbiologist and the director of Unit 731, a biological warfare unit of the Imperial Japanese Army involved in forced and frequently lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945).

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Shunroku Hata

was a Gensui (Marshal-General) in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.

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Siberia

Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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South China

South China is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China.

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South Manchuria Railway

South Manchuria Railway was built as a part of the Chinese Eastern Railway in 1898-1903 by Imperial Russia according to the Russian-Chinese convention and the Convention of Peking 1860.

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South Manchuria Railway Zone

The, or SMR Zone, was the area of Japanese extraterritorial rights in northeast China, in connection with the operation of the South Manchurian Railway.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Soviet invasion of Manchuria

The Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция, lit. Manchzhurskaya Strategicheskaya Nastupatelnaya Operaciya) began on 9 August 1945, with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo and was the last campaign of the Second World War and the largest of the 1945 Soviet–Japanese War which resumed hostilities between the Soviet Union and the Empire of Japan after almost six years of peace.

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Soviet–Japanese border conflicts

The Soviet–Japanese border conflicts was a series of combats and skirmishes, without any formal declaration of war, occurred between 1932 and 1945.

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Statism in Shōwa Japan

was a political syncretism of Japanese right-wing political ideologies, developed over a period of time from the Meiji Restoration.

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Strategic reserve

For the military term see: Military reserve A strategic reserve is the reserve of a commodity or items that is held back from normal use by governments, organisations, or businesses in pursuance of a particular strategy or to cope with unexpected events.

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Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers

The Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) (originally briefly styled Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers) was the title held by General Douglas MacArthur during the Allied occupation of Japan following World War II.

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Surrender of Japan

The surrender of the Empire of Japan was announced by Imperial Japan on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.

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Tachibana Koichirō

Baron was a general in the early Imperial Japanese Army, and later a politician in the Diet of the Empire of Japan.

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Takashi Hishikari

was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army.

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Third Army (Japan)

The was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army based in Manchukuo as a garrison force under the overall command of the Kwantung Army during World War II, but its history dates to the Russo-Japanese War.

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Thirtieth Army (Japan)

The was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army during the final days of World War II.

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Thirty-Fourth Army (Japan)

The was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army during the final stages of World War II.

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Toshizō Nishio

was a Japanese general, considered to be one of the Imperial Japanese Army's most successful and ablest strategists during the Second Sino-Japanese War, who commanded the Japanese Second Army during the first years after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident.

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Totalitarianism

Totalitarianism is a political system in which the state holds total control over the society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever possible.

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Unit 731

was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) of World War II.

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War crime

A war crime is a serious violation of the laws and customs of war (also known as international humanitarian law) giving rise to individual criminal responsibility.

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Weapon of mass destruction

A weapon of mass destruction (WMD or WoMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g. buildings), natural structures (e.g. mountains), or the biosphere.

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World War II

World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.

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Yoshijirō Umezu

(January 4, 1882 – January 8, 1949) was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II.

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Yoshinori Shirakawa

was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army.

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Yukio Kasahara

was a leading general in the Imperial Japanese Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War.

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Zhang Zuolin

Zhang Zuolin ((1875–1928) was the warlord of Manchuria from 1916 to 1928 (see Warlord Era in China). He successfully invaded China proper in October 1924 in the Second Zhili-Fengtian War. He gained control of Peking, including China's internationally recognized government, in April 1926. The economy of Manchuria, the basis of Zhang's power, was overtaxed by his adventurism and collapsed in the winter of 1927-1928. Zhang was defeated by the Nationalists under Chiang Kai-shek in May 1928. He was killed by a bomb planted by a Japanese Kwantung Army officer on 4 June 1928. Although Zhang had been Japan's proxy in China, Japanese militarists were infuriated by his failure to stop the advance of the Nationalists. Zhang was fiercely anti-Republican and supported the restoration of the Qing dynasty. His nicknames include the "Old Marshal" (大帥, P: Dàshuài, W: Ta-shuai), "Rain Marshal" (雨帥, P: Yǔshuài, W: Yü-shuai) and "Mukden Tiger". The American press referred to him as "Marshal Chang Tso-lin, Tuchun of Manchuria.".

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Zhongma Fortress

Zhongma Fortress — or Zhong Ma Prison Camp, or Unit Tōgō — was a prison camp where the Japanese Kwantung Army carried out covert biological warfare research on human test subjects.

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Redirects here:

Guandong Army, Guandong army, Guandongjun, Japanese Kwantung Army, Kanto Army, Kanto-gun, Kantogun, Kantou-gun, Kantōgun, Kwangtung Army, Kwantung Theater Army, Kwantung army, Kwantung garrison.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwantung_Army

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