341 relations: Afghanistan, Agriculture, Agriculture in Kyrgyzstan, Agrochemical, Ahmadiyya, Air Kyrgyzstan, Alma-Ata Protocol, Almaty, Almazbek Atambayev, Altai Mountains, Anabaptism, Andijan, Animism, Antimony, Arabic alphabet, Aral Sea, Armenia, Arranged marriage, Ashkenazi Jews, Asian Development Bank, Asian Winter Games, Askar Akayev, Association football, Azerbaijan, Azimzhan Askarov, Ömürbek Babanov, Ürümqi, Baku, Balykchy, Bandy, Barak, Kyrgyzstan, Batken, Batken Region, BBC News, Belarus, Bermet Akayeva, Bishkek, Break of gauge, Bride kidnapping, British Aerospace 146, Buddhism, Bukharan Jews, Buzkashi, Capital city, Catholic Church, Central Asia, Central Asian revolt of 1916, Central bank, China, Chinghiz Aitmatov, ..., Cholpon-Ata, Christianity, Chu River, Chuy Region, Chuy Valley, Coal, Collective Security Treaty Organization, Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, Commonwealth of Independent States, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Constitution of Kyrgyzstan, Continental climate, Corruption Perceptions Index, Cotton, Coup d'état, Dairy product, Daniar Usenov, Democratic Movement of Kyrgyzstan, Desert, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Dmitry Medvedev, Domestic yak, Dubai, Dungan people, Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Fitr, Enclave and exclave, Endorheic basin, Epic of Manas, Epic poetry, Equestrianism, Ethnic group, Eurasian Economic Union, Falconry, Felix Kulov, Felt, Fergana Valley, Fiscal policy, Flag of Kyrgyzstan, Flag of the Soviet Union, Football Federation of the Kyrgyz Republic, Foothills, Fruit, Fuel, Geneva, Glasnost, Gold, Greco-Roman wrestling, Hajj, Hanafi, History of Christianity in Ukraine, History of the Soviet Union (1982–91), Horse, Human rights, Hydroelectricity, Ice hockey, Independent city, Index of Kyrgyzstan-related articles, Indigenous peoples, International Committee of the Red Cross, International Futures, International Ice Hockey Federation, International Monetary Fund, International Organization of Turkic Culture, Iran, IRIN, Isfara, Islam, Islam in Kyrgyzstan, Islamic Golden Age, Israel, Issyk-Kul, Issyk-Kul Region, Istanbul, Jalal-Abad, Jalal-Abad Airport, Jalal-Abad Region, Janish Bakiyev, Jengish Chokusu, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Joseph Stalin, Kanatbek Begaliev, Kant (air base), Kara Darya, Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast, Kara-Suu District, Karakalpak language, Kayragach, Kazakh language, Kazakhs, Kazakhstan, Kerben, Kyrgyzstan, KGB, Khalmion, Khanate of Kokand, Kipchak languages, Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic, Komuz, Kumtor Gold Mine, Kurmanbek Bakiyev, Kyrgyz Air Force, Kyrgyz Army, Kyrgyz language, Kyrgyz people, Kyrgyz presidential election, 2005, Kyrgyz presidential election, 2011, Kyrgyz Revolution of 2010, Kyrgyzstan Championship (ice hockey), Kyrgyzstan Frontier Force, Kyrgyzstan Germans, Kyrgyzstan men's national ice hockey team, Kyrgyzstan national football team, Kyrgyzstan Time, Kyrgyzstani som, Kyz kuu, Lake Titicaca, Landlocked country, Latin alphabet, Library of Congress Country Studies, List of air carriers banned in the European Union, List of cities in Kyrgyzstan, List of countries and dependencies by area, Literacy, Livestock, Local government, Lutheranism, Manas International Airport, Market economy, Maxim Bakiyev, Mayor, Meat, Mecca, Media of Kyrgyzstan, Metallurgy, Moldomusa Kongantiyev, Mongol Empire, Mongolia, Mosque, Mountain, Mountain pass, Muhammad bin Jamil Zeno, Muhammetkaliy Abulgaziyev, Naryn Region, Naryn River, Natalya Timakova, National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic, National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic, National Guard (Kyrgyzstan), Natural gas, Networked Readiness Index, New Year, Nogai language, Nomad, Non-denominational Muslim, Nowruz, Oblast, Official language, Ombudsman, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Organized crime, Osh, Osh Airport, Osh Region, Osh riots (1990), Outline of Kyrgyzstan, Pamir Mountains, Parliamentary republic, Parliamentary system, Petroleum, Pew Research Center, Polar climate, Polo, Population density, Potato, Prayer flag, President of Kyrgyzstan, Press Freedom Index, Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan, Proselytism, Proto-Mongols, Qing dynasty, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Raion, Rare-earth element, Region, Remittance, Reporters Without Borders, Roza Otunbayeva, Rugby football, Rural area, Ruslan Tyumenbayev, Russia, Russian Air Force, Russian Empire, Russian language, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russians, Russification, Sayan Mountains, Scythians, Secular state, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, Sheep, Sheikh, Shohimardon, Siberia, Silk Road, Slavs, So‘x District, Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan, Social safety net, Sokh River, Sooronbay Jeenbekov, Sovereign state, Soviet Union, State atheism, State Committee on the State of Emergency, Subtropics, Sufism, Sugar beet, Summer, Sunni Islam, Supreme Council (Kyrgyzstan), Syr Darya, Tajikistan, Tajiks, Talas Region, Talas River, Talas, Kyrgyzstan, Tashkent, Team sport, Telephone numbers in Kyrgyzstan, Temir Sariyev, Temperate climate, Textile, The Guardian, The New York Times, The World Factbook, Tian Shan, Tobacco, Transhumance, Transit Center at Manas, Transport in China, Transport in Kazakhstan, Transport in Tajikistan, Transport in Uzbekistan, Treaty of Tarbagatai, Tulip Revolution, Turkic Council, Turkic languages, Turkic peoples, Tush kyiz, Ukrainians, Unitary state, United Nations, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Security Council Resolution 736, United States Armed Forces, University of Central Asia, University of Michigan Press, Uranium, Uyghur Khaganate, Uyghurs, Uzbek language, Uzbekistan, Uzbeks, Value-added tax, Vasily Vereshchagin, Vegetable, Victory Day (9 May), Vladimir Putin, Vorukh, Wheat, Wool, World Bank, World Trade Organization, World War II, Wrestling, Yurt, .kg, 1993 Constitution of Kyrgyzstan, 2008 Summer Olympics, 2010 South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes, 2011 Asian Winter Games, 2012 Bandy World Championship, 39th parallel north, 44th parallel north, 69th meridian east, 81st meridian east. 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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Agriculture in Kyrgyzstan is a significant sector of the economy.
An agrochemical or agrichemical, a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a chemical product used in agriculture.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Kyrgyzstan Air Company, operating as Air Kyrgyzstan (Эйр Кыргызстан Авиакомпаниясы, Eýr Kyrgyzstan Aviakompaniýasy; Авиакомпания «Эйр Кыргызстан», Aviakompaniya «Eyr Kyrgyzstan»), is the flag carrier of Kyrgyzstan based in Bishkek.
The Alma-Ata Protocols are the founding declarations and principles of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.
Almazbek Sharshenovich Atambayev (Almazbek Şarşenoviç (Şarşen uulu) Atambayev; born 17 September 1956) was the President of Kyrgyzstan from 1 December 2011 to 24 November 2017.
The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.
Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- "re-" and βαπτισμός "baptism", Täufer, earlier also WiedertäuferSince the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term "Wiedertäufer" (translation: "Re-baptizers"), considering it biased. The term Täufer (translation: "Baptizers") is now used, which is considered more impartial. From the perspective of their persecutors, the "Baptizers" baptized for the second time those "who as infants had already been baptized". The denigrative term Anabaptist signifies rebaptizing and is considered a polemical term, so it has been dropped from use in modern German. However, in the English-speaking world, it is still used to distinguish the Baptizers more clearly from the Baptists, a Protestant sect that developed later in England. Cf. their self-designation as "Brethren in Christ" or "Church of God":.) is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation.
Andijan (sometimes spelled Andizhan in English) (Andijon / Андижон / ئەندىجان; اندیجان, Andijân/Andīǰān; Андижан, Andižan) is a city in Uzbekistan.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Arranged marriage is a type of marital union where the bride and groom are selected by individuals other than the couple themselves, particularly family members, such as the parents.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966, which is headquartered in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines.
The Asian Winter Games (AWG) is an international multi-sport event held every four years for members of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) which features winter events.
Askar Akayevich Akayev (Kyrgyz: Аскар Акаевич Акаев, Asqar Aqayeviç Aqayev) (born 10 November 1944) is a Kyrgyz politician who served as President of Kyrgyzstan from 1990 until his overthrow in the March 2005 Tulip Revolution.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Azimzhan Askarov (Azimjon Asqarov, Азимжон Асқаров; born 1951) is an ethnically Uzbek Kyrgyzstani political activist who founded the group Vozduh in 2002 to investigate police brutality.
Ömürbek Toktogulovich Babanov (Kyrgyz: Өмүрбек Токтогулович (Токтогул уулу) Бабанов, Ömürbek Toqtoğuloviç (Toqtoğul uulu) Babanov; born 20 May 1970) is a Kyrgyz politician who was Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan from 1 December 2011 to 1 September 2012.
Ürümqi (yengi; from Oirat "beautiful pasture") is the capital of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the far northwest of the People's Republic of China.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
Balykchy (Балыкчы - Balıkçı) is a town at the western end of Lake Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan, at an elevation of about 1,900 metres.
Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal.
Barak is a Kyrgyz village that is surrounded by what is arguably the territory of Uzbekistan.
Batken (also called Batkent) is a small town in southwestern Kyrgyzstan, on the southern fringe of the Fergana Valley.
Batken Region (Kyrgyz: Баткен облусу, Batken oblusu; Баткенская область) is a region (oblast) of Kyrgyzstan.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Bermet Askarevna Akayeva (Kyrgyz:Бермет Аскаревна Акаева; born June 3, 1972 in Leningrad) is a Kyrgyz politician and former MP.
Bishkek (Бишке́к, BISHKEK, بىشکەک;; bʲɪʂˈkʲɛk), formerly Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic).
With railways, a break of gauge occurs where a line of one gauge meets a line of a different gauge.
Bride kidnapping, also known as marriage by abduction or marriage by capture, is a practice in which a man abducts the woman he wishes to marry.
The British Aerospace 146 (also BAe 146) is a short-haul airliner and a regional airliner that was manufactured in the United Kingdom by British Aerospace, later part of BAE Systems.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bukharan Jews, also Bukharian Jews or Bukhari Jews (Бухарские евреи Bukharskie evrei; בוכרים Bukharim; Tajik and Bukhori Cyrillic: яҳудиёни бухороӣ Yahudiyoni bukhoroī (Bukharan Jews) or яҳудиёни Бухоро Yahudiyoni Bukhoro (Jews of Bukhara), Bukhori Hebrew Script: and), are Jews of the Mizrahi branch from Central Asia who historically spoke Bukhori, a Tajik dialect of the Persian language.
Buzkashi (بزکشی, literally "goat pulling" in Persian) is a Central Asian sport in which horse-mounted players attempt to place a goat or calf carcass in a goal.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Central Asian revolt of 1916, known as Urkun in Kyrgyzstan, was an anti-Russian uprising by the Muslim inhabitants of Russian Turkestan.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chyngyz Aitmatov (Чыңгыз Айтматов, Çıñğız Aytmatov, چىڭعىز ايتماتوۋ; Чинги́з Тореку́лович Айтма́тов, Chingiz Torekulovich Aytmatov) (12 December 1928 – 10 June 2008) was a Soviet and Kyrgyz author who wrote in both Russian and Kyrgyz.
Cholpon-Ata (Чолпон-Ата, Çolpon-Ata, چولپون-اتا, pronounced, literally "Venus-father", the name of a mythological protecting spirit) is a resort town on the northern shore of Lake Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan with a population of 10,525 (2009 census).
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Chu (Shu or Chui, Chuy) (Шу/Şuw, شۋ; Чүй, Çüy, چۉي; Чў, Çw (from 楚 chǔ); Чу) is a river in northern Kyrgyzstan and southern Kazakhstan.
Chuy Region or Chui Region (Kyrgyz: Чүй облусу, Çüy oblusu; Чуйская область, Čujskaja oblastj) is the northernmost region (oblast) of the Kyrgyz Republic.
The Chuy Valley (Чүй өрөөнү, Шу аңғары, Чуйская долина) is a large valley located in north Tian-Shan.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; Организация Договора о Коллективной Безопасности, Organizacija Dogovora o Kollektivnoj Bezopasnosti, ODKB) is an intergovernmental military alliance that was signed on 15 May 1992.
The Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), also known as the U.S. Helsinki Commission, is an independent U.S. government agency created by Congress in 1975 to monitor and encourage compliance with the Helsinki Final Act and other Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) commitments.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The current constitution of Kyrgyzstan was passed by referendum on June 27, 2010, replacing the previous constitution.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
Daniar Toktogulovich Usenov (Данияр Токтогулович Үсөнов) is a Kyrgyz banker and politician who served as the Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan from October 2009 to April 2010.
Democratic Movement of Kyrgyzstan is a political party active in Kyrgyzstan.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (p; born 14 September 1965) is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012.
The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired domesticated bovid found throughout the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent, the Tibetan Plateau and as far north as Mongolia and Russia.
Dubai (دبي) is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Dungan (Хуэйзў, Xuejzw xwɛitsu, Xiao'erjing: حُوِ ظُ;; Xiao'erjing: دْوقًا ظُ; Дунгане, Dungane; Дунгандар, Dunğandar, دۇنغاندار; Дүңгендер, Du'n'gender, دٷڭگەندەر) is a term used in territories of the former Soviet Union to refer to a group of Muslim people of Chinese origin.
Eid al-Adha (lit), also called the "Festival of Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year (the other being Eid al-Fitr), and considered the holier of the two.
Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر) is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.
An endorheic basin (also endoreic basin or endorreic basin) (from the ἔνδον, éndon, "within" and ῥεῖν, rheîn, "to flow") is a limited drainage basin that normally retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps, permanent or seasonal, that equilibrate through evaporation.
The Epic of Manas (Манас дастаны, ماناس دستانی, Manas Dastanı, Manas Destanı) is a traditional epic poem dating to the 18th century but claimed by the Kyrgyz people to be much older.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
The Eurasian Economic Union (officially EAEU, but sometimes called EEU or EAU)The acronym is used in the.
Falconry is the hunting of wild animals in their natural state and habitat by means of a trained bird of prey.
Felix Sharshenbayevich Kulov (Russian: Феликс Шаршенбаевич Кулов; Kyrgyz: Феликс Шаршенбаевич (Шаршенбай уулу) Кулов, Feliks Şarşenbayeviç (Şarşenbay uulu) Kulov; born 29 October 1948) is a Kyrgyz politician who was Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan from 2005 to 2007, following the Tulip Revolution.
Felt is a textile material that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers together.
The Fergana Valley (alternatively Farghana or Ferghana; Farg‘ona vodiysi, Фарғона водийси, فەرغانە ۉادىيسى; Фергана өрөөнү, Ferğana öröönü, فەرعانا ۅرۅۅنۉ; Водии Фарғона, Vodiyi Farğona / Vodiji Farƣona; Ферганская долина, Ferganskaja dolina; وادی فرغانه., Vâdiye Ferqâna; Фыйрганна Пенды, Xiao'erjing: فِ عَر قًا نَ پٌ دِ) is a valley in Central Asia spread across eastern Uzbekistan, southern Kyrgyzstan and northern Tajikistan.
In economics and political science, fiscal policy is the use of government revenue collection (mainly taxes) and expenditure (spending) to influence the economy.
The flag of Kyrgyzstan consists of a red field charged with a yellow sun that contains a depiction of a yurt (traditional tent).
The State Flag of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; commonly known as the Soviet flag was the official national flag of the Soviet Union from 1923 to 1991.
The Football Federation of the Kyrgyz Republic.
Foothills are geographically defined as gradual increase in elevation at the base of a mountain range, higher hill range or an upland area.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Greco-Roman (US) or Graeco-Roman (UK) wrestling is a style of wrestling that is practiced worldwide.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
The history of Christianity in Ukraine dates back to the earliest centuries of the apostolic church and according to Radziwiłł Chronicle Saint Andrew has ascended on hills of the future city of Kiev.
The history of the Soviet Union from 1982 through 1991 spans the period from Leonid Brezhnev's death and funeral until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
An independent city or independent town is a city or town that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity (such as a county).
Football Federation of Kyrgyz Republic - Kanatbek Begaliev - Kyrgyzstan men's national ice hockey team - Kyrgyzstan national football team - Ruslan Tyumenbayev Kyrgyzstan Category:Kyrgyzstan-related lists.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF; Fédération internationale de hockey sur glace; Internationale Eishockey-Föderation) is a worldwide governing body for ice hockey and in-line hockey.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Organization of Turkic Culture (Turkish: Uluslararası Türk Kültürü Teşkilatı, Türksoy) is an international cultural organization of countries with Turkic populations, speaking languages belonging to the Turkic language family.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
IRIN (formerly Integrated Regional Information Networks) is a news agency focusing on humanitarian stories in regions that are often forgotten, under-reported, misunderstood or ignored.
Isfara (Исфара, اسفره) is a city in Sughd Province in northern Tajikistan, situated on the border with Kyrgyzstan.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The vast majority of people in Kyrgyzstan are Muslims, as 86.3% of the country's population are followers of Islam.
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Issyk-Kul (also Ysyk Köl, Issyk-Kol: Ысык-Көл, Isıq-Köl, ىسىق-كۅل,; Иссык-Куль, Issyk-Kulj) is an endorheic lake in the northern Tian Shan mountains in eastern Kyrgyzstan.
Issyk-Kul Region (Ысык-Көл облусу, Isıq-Köl oblusu, ىسىق-كۅل وبلاستى; Иссык-Кульская область, Issyk-Kuljskaja oblastj) is one of the regions of Kyrgyzstan.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Jalal-Abad (also spelled Dzhalal-Abad, Djalal-Abat, Jalalabat; Жалал-Aбат, Calal-Abat/Jalal-Abat, جالال-ابات) is the administrative and economic centre of Jalal-Abad Region in southwestern Kyrgyzstan.
Jalal-Abad Airport (Kyrgyz: Жалал-Абад аэропорту, Russian: Джалал-Абадский аэропорт) is an airport serving Jalal-Abad, the capital of the Jalal-Abad Region (oblast) of Kyrgyzstan.
Jalal-Abad Region, also known as Jalalabat (Жалалабат облусу, Calalabat oblusu, جالالابات وبلۇسۇ; Jalolobod viloyati, Жалолобод вилояти, جەلالاباد ۋىلايەتى; Джала́л-Аба́дская о́бласть, Džalál-Abádskaja óblastj), is a region (oblast) of Kyrgyzstan. Its capital is the city of the same name, Jalal-Abad. It is surrounded by (clockwise from the north) Talas Region, Chuy Region, Naryn Region, Osh Region, and Uzbekistan. Jalal-Abad Region was established on 21 November 1939. On 27 January 1959 it became a part of Osh Region, but regained its old status as a region on 14 December 1990. Jalal-Abad Region consist of 8 districts, and includes 5 towns, 8 urba-type settlements, and 415 villages.
Janysh Bakiyev (Kyrgyz: Жаныш Салиевич (Сали уулу) Бакиев, Janış Saliyeviç (Sali uulu) Baqiyev) is the former chief of the State Security Service of Kyrgyzstan and brother of former president Kurmanbek Bakiyev.
Jengish Chokusu (Жеңиш чокусу, Ceñiş çoqusu, جەڭىش چوقۇسۇ; Пик Победы, Pik Pobedy) is the highest mountain in the Tian Shan mountain system at.
The Jewish Autonomous Oblast (Евре́йская автоно́мная о́бласть, Yevreyskaya avtonomnaya oblast; ייִדישע אװטאָנאָמע געגנט, yidishe avtonome GegntIn standard Yiddish: ייִדישע אױטאָנאָמע געגנט, Yidishe Oytonome Gegnt) is a federal subject of Russia in the Russian Far East, bordering Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Oblast in Russia and Heilongjiang province in China.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Kanatbek Begaliev (born 14 February 1984 in Talas, Kyrgyz SSR) is a Kyrgyz wrestler who won the silver medal in the Men's Greco-Roman 66 kg at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.
Kant Air Base (Авиабаза Кант Aviabaza Kant) is a military air base in Ysyk-Ata District of Chuy Oblast in Kyrgyzstan.
The Kara Darya (Кара-Дарыя, Qara-Darıya/Kara-Daryýa, قارا-دارىيا; Qoradaryo, Қорадарё, قارەدەريا - literally black river) or Qaradaryo (Карадарья) is a tributary of the Syr Darya in Kyrgyzstan and eastern Uzbekistan.
The Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast (Кара-Киргизская автономная область; Кыргыз автономия облусу), abbreviated as Kara-Kirghiz AO (Кара-Киргизская АО; Кыргыз АО) or KAO (КАО; КАО) in the former region of Soviet Central Asia, was created on 14 October 1924 within the Russian SFSR from the predominantly Kyrgyz part of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
Kara-Suu is a raion (district) of Osh Region in south-western Kyrgyzstan.
Karakalpak is a Turkic language spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan.
Kayragach (also known as "Western Qal'acha") is a small exclave of Tajikistan, which is just across the international border inside Kyrgyzstan.
Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.
The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Қазақ, Qazaq, قازاق, Qazaqtar, Қазақтар, قازاقتار; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the southern part of Eastern Europe and the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia and Mongolia), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kerben (Кербен, older name Karavan) is a town in Jalal-Abad Region of Kyrgyzstan.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
Khalmion (Халмион) is a village in Kadamjay District, Batken Region in south-west Kyrgyzstan, sitting practically on the border with Uzbekistan's Fergana Region.
The Khanate of Kokand (Qo‘qon Xonligi, Қўқон Хонлиги, قۇقان خانلىگى; Qoqon xandığı, قوقون حاندىعى; Xânâte Xuqand) was a Central Asian state in Fergana Valley that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan, eastern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and southeastern Kazakhstan.
The Kipchak languages (also known as the Kypchak, Qypchaq, or Northwestern Turkic languages) are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family spoken by approximately 26–28 million people in much of Central Asia and Eastern Europe, spanning from Ukraine to China.
Kirghizia, officially the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic (Kirghiz SSR; Кыргыз Советтик Социалисттик Республикасы Qığız Sovettik Soţialisttik Respublikası; Киргизская Советская Социалистическая Республика Kirgizskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika) and the Republic of Kirghizia, also referred to as Soviet Kirghizia, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1936 to 1991.
The komuz or qomuz (Kyrgyz: комуз), Azeri Qopuz, Turkish Kopuz, is an ancient fretless string instrument used in Central Asian music, related to certain other Turkic string instruments and the lute.
The Kumtor gold mine (Кумтөр,; Кумтор) is an open-pit gold mining site in Issyk-Kul Region of Kyrgyzstan located about 350 km (220 mi) southeast of the capital Bishkek and 80 km (50 mi) south of Lake Issyk-Kul near the border with China.
Kurmanbek Saliyevich Bakiyev (Kyrgyz: Курманбек Салиевич (Сали уулу) Бакиев, Qurmanbek Saliyeviç (Sali Uulu) Baqiyev; born 1 August 1949) is a politician who served as the second President of Kyrgyzstan, from 2005 to 2010.
The Kyrgyz Air Force is the official air force of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan.
The Kyrgyz Land Forces, also commonly known as the Kyrgyz Army is the infantry branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan.
Kyrgyz (natively кыргызча, قىرعىزچه, kyrgyzcha or кыргыз тили, قىرعىز تيلى, kyrgyz tili) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia.
The Kyrgyz people (also spelled Kyrghyz and Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan.
Kyrgyzstan held a presidential election on 10 July 2005.
Early presidential elections were held in Kyrgyzstan on 30 October 2011 to replace Interim President Roza Otunbayeva.
The Kyrgyz Revolution of 2010, also known as the Second Kyrgyz Revolution, began in April 2010 with the ousting of Kyrgyz president Kurmanbek Bakiyev in the capital Bishkek.
The Kyrgyzstan Championship is the national ice hockey championship in Kyrgyzstan.
The Kyrgyz Frontier Forces are the border guard of Kyrgyzstan.
There is a small population of Germans in Kyrgyzstan.
The Kyrgyzstan national ice hockey team (Кыргыз Республикасынын улуттук шайбалуу хоккей командасы; Сборная Киргизии по хоккею с шайбой) is the national ice hockey team of Kyrgyzstan.
The Kyrgyzstan national football team (Кыргыз Республикасынын улуттук курама командасы (Kırgız Respublikasının uluttuk kurama komandası); Сборная Киргизии по футболу (Sbornaya Kirgizii po Futbolu)) is the national team of Kyrgyzstan and is controlled by the Football Federation of the Kyrgyz Republic.
Kyrgyzstan Time (KGT)is the time zone of Kyrgyzstan.
The som (Kyrgyz: сом) is the currency of the Kyrgyz Republic.
Kyz kuu (qız-qov, қыз қуу) or kyz kuumai, (pron), literally "girl chasing", is an equestrian traditional sport among Turkic peoples such as Azerbaijanis, Kazakhs and Kyrgyz.
Lake Titicaca (Lago Titicaca, Titiqaqa Qucha) is a large, deep lake in the Andes on the border of Bolivia and Peru.
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
The list of air carriers banned in the European Union is a list of airlines failing to meet regulatory oversight standards of the EU, and which are banned from entering the airspace of any member state.
This is a list of the 32 official cities (шаар, город) in Kyrgyzstan.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Manas International Airport (Манас эл аралык аэропорту, Manas el aralıq aeroportu; Международный Аэропорт Манас, Mezhdunarodnyi Aeroport Manas) (formerly UAFM) is the main international airport in Kyrgyzstan located north-northwest of the capital Bishkek.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Maksim Kurmanbekovich Bakiyev (Максим Курманбекович Бакиев; born 27 October 1977, Samara, RSFSR), is the youngest son of former president of Kyrgyzstan, Kurmanbek Bakiyev, from his marriage to Russian-born Tatyana Petrova.
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
The media of Kyrgyzstan experience greater freedom compared to neighbouring countries in the region, and the constitution guarantees freedom of the press and prohibits censorship.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Moldomusa Tashbolotovich Kongantiyev (Молдомуса Ташболотович Конгантиев; born 31 March 1958) is a Kyrgyzstani politician and former Interior Minister of Kyrgyzstan until April 2010.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.
A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge.
Muhammad bin Jamil Zeno (1925 – Oct 2010) was an Islamic scholar and author.
Muhammetkaliy Abulgaziyev (Мухамметкалый Дүшекеевич (Дүшеке уулу) Абулгазиев, Muhammetkalıy Düşekeyeviç (Düşeke uulu) Abulgaziyev; born 20 January, 1968) has served as the Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan since 20 April 2018.
Naryn Region (Нарын облусу, Narın oblusu/Naryn oblusu, نارىن وبلاستى) is the largest region (oblast) of Kyrgyzstan.
The Naryn River (Нарын, Нарын, Norin) rises in the Tian Shan mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, flowing west through the Fergana Valley into Uzbekistan.
Natalya Aleksandrovna Timakova (Наталья Александровна Тимакова) (born 12 April 1975) is a Russian journalist.
The National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic (Qırğız Respublikasının Mamlekettik Gimni) was adopted on 18 December 1992 by a resolution of the Supreme Council of Kyrgyzstan (Jogorku Kenesh).
The National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Uluttuk Banky) is the central bank of Kyrgyzstan.
The National Guard of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz:Кыpгыз Pecпyбликacынын Улуттук гвардия; Russian:Национальной гвардии Киргизии) is the National Guard of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
The World Economic Forum's Networked Readiness Index (NRI), also referred to as Technology Readiness, measures the propensity for countries to exploit the opportunities offered by information and communications technology (ICT).
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
Nogai (also Nogay or Nogai Tatar) is a Turkic language spoken in southwestern European Russia.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.
Nowruz (نوروز,; literally "new day") is the name of the Iranian New Year, also known as the Persian New Year, which is celebrated worldwide by various ethno-linguistic groups as the beginning of the New Year.
An oblast is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
An ombudsman, ombud, or public advocate is an official who is charged with representing the interests of the public by investigating and addressing complaints of maladministration or a violation of rights.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.
Osh (Ош, Ош, O'sh) is the second largest city in Kyrgyzstan, located in the Fergana Valley in the south of the country and often referred to as the "capital of the south".
Osh International Airport (Ош эл аралык аэропорту; Международный аэропорт "Ош") is an airport serving Osh, the capital of Osh province (oblast) of Kyrgyzstan.
Osh Region (Ош облусу, Oş oblusu/Osh oblusu, وش وبلاستى; Ошская область, Oshskaya oblast’/Ošskaja oblastj) is a region (oblast) of Kyrgyzstan. Its capital is Osh. It is bounded by (clockwise) Jalal-Abad Region, Naryn Region, Xinjiang, China, Tajikistan, Batken Region, and Uzbekistan.
The Osh riots (Ош окуясы; Oʻsh voqeasi, Ўш воқеаси; Ошская резня) were an ethnic conflict between Kirghiz (Kyrgyz) and Uzbeks that took place in June 1990 in the cities of Osh and Uzgen, part of the Kirghizia.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Kyrgyzstan: Kyrgyzstan – sovereign country located in Central Asia.
The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
The polar climate regions are characterized by a lack of warm summers.
Polo is a team sport played on horseback.
Population density (in agriculture: standing stock and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
A prayer flag is a colorful rectangular cloth, often found strung along mountain ridges and peaks high in the Himalayas.
The President of Kyrgyzstan is the head of state and the highest official of the Kyrgyz Republic.
The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.
The Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan is the head of government of Kyrgyzstan.
Proselytism is the act of attempting to convert people to another religion or opinion.
The proto-Mongols emerged from an area that had been inhabited by humans and predecessor hominin species as far back as the Stone Age over 800,000 years ago.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast).
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography).
A remittance is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to an individual in their home country.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
Roza Isakovna Otunbayeva (Kyrgyz: Роза Исаковна (Исак кызы) Отунбаева, Roza İsaqovna (İsaq qızı) Otunbayeva; born August 23, 1950) is a Kyrgyz diplomat and politician who served as the President of Kyrgyzstan from 7 April 2010 until 1 December 2011.
Rugby football refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union.
In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities.
Ruslan Tyumenbayev (Руслан Түмөнбай уулу; Руслан Самаганович Тюменбаев; born May 28, 1986 in Frunze) is a Kyrgyz wrestler who won the bronze medal in the Men's Greco-Roman 60 kg in the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Air Force (r, literally "military air forces of Russia") is a branch of the Russian Aerospace Forces, the latter being formed on 1 August 2015 with the merger of the Russian Air Force and the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
The Sayan Mountains (Саяны Sajany; Соёны нуруу, Soyonï nurû; Kogmen Mountains during the period of the Göktürks) are a mountain range in southern Siberia, Russia (the Tyva Republic specifically) and northern Mongolia.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and security organisation, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai, China by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter, formally establishing the organisation, was signed in June 2002 and entered into force on 19 September 2003.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Sheikh (pronounced, or; شيخ, mostly pronounced, plural شيوخ)—also transliterated Sheik, Shykh, Shaik, Shayk, Shaykh, Cheikh, Shekh, and Shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic language.
Shohimardon (also Shahimardan or Shakhimardan, Шахимардан) is a small town in Fergana District of Fergana Region in eastern Uzbekistan.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
So‘x District (also spelled as Sokh, So‘x tumani) is a tuman (district) of the Fergana Region.
Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan (Russian: Социал-демократическая партия Кыргызстана, Sotsial-demokraticheskaya partiya Kyrgyzstana; Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан Sоциал-дeмoкратиялык Пaртиясы, Qırğızstan sotsial-demokratiyalıq Partiyası) is a political party in Kyrgyzstan.
The social safety net is a collection of services provided by the state or other institutions such as friendly societies.
The Sokh River (Сох) is a river in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan.
Sooronbay Sharipovich Jeenbekov (Сооронбай Шарипович (Шарип уулу) Жээнбеков, Sooronbay Şaripoviç (Şarip uulu) Jéénbekov; or Sooronbay Zheenbekov; born 16 November 1958) is a Kyrgyz politician, and the President of Kyrgyzstan.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
State atheism, according to Oxford University Press's A Dictionary of Atheism, "is the name given to the incorporation of positive atheism or non-theism into political regimes, particularly associated with Soviet systems." In contrast, a secular state purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
The State Committee on the State of Emergency, abbreviated as SCSE, American publicist Georges Obolensky also called it the Gang of Eight, was a group of eight high-level Soviet officials within the Soviet government, the Communist Party, and the KGB, who attempted a coup d'état against Mikhail Gorbachev on 19 August 1991.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production.
Summer is the hottest of the four temperate seasons, falling after spring and before autumn.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Supreme Council (Жогорку Кеңеш, Joğorqu Keñeş, جوعورقۇ كەڭەش) is the unicameral Parliament of the Kyrgyz Republic.
The Syr Darya is a river in Central Asia. The Syr Darya originates in the Tian Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan and eastern Uzbekistan and flows for west and north-west through Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan to the northern remnants of the Aral Sea. It is the northern and eastern of the two main rivers in the endorrheic basin of the Aral Sea, the other being the Amu Darya. In the Soviet era, extensive irrigation projects were constructed around both rivers, diverting their water into farmland and causing, during the post-Soviet era, the virtual disappearance of the Aral Sea, once the world's fourth-largest lake.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Tajik (تاجيک: Tājīk, Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of native Persian-speaking people of Iranian origin, with current traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
Talas Region (Kyrgyz: Талас облусу, Talas oblusu Russian: Таласская область) is a region (oblast) of Kyrgyzstan.
The Talas River (Kyrgyz, Талас) rises in the Talas Region of Kyrgyzstan and flows west into Kazakhstan.
Talas is a town in northwestern Kyrgyzstan, located in the Talas River valley between two mountain ranges.
Tashkent (Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت,; Ташкент) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in Central Asia with a population in 2012 of 2,309,300.
A team sport includes any sport which involves two or more players working together towards a shared objective.
Temir Agrembaevich Sariyev (Темир Агрембаевич Сариев, Temir Agrembayeviç (Agrembay uulu) Sariyev) (born 17 June 1963) is a Kyrgyz politician who was Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan from 2015 to 2016.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
The Tian Shan,, also known as the Tengri Tagh, meaning the Mountains of Heaven or the Heavenly Mountain, is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Transhumance is a type of nomadism or pastoralism, a seasonal movement of people with their livestock between fixed summer and winter pastures.
Transit Center at Manas (formerly Manas Air Base and unofficially Ganci Air Base) is a former U.S. military installation at Manas International Airport, near Bishkek, the capital of Kyrgyzstan.
Transport in China has experienced major growth and expansion in recent years.
The vast territory of Kazakhstan spans across.
Most of rugged Tajikistan's transportation system was built during the Soviet era, and since that time the system has deteriorated badly because of insufficient investment and maintenance.
As of 2007, Uzbekistan's overland transportation infrastructure declined significantly in the post-Soviet era due to low investment and poor maintenance.
The Treaty of Tarbagatai (or Chuguchak) of 7 October 1864 was a border protocol between China and Russia that defined most of the western extent of their border in central Asia, between Outer Mongolia and the Khanate of Kokand.
The Tulip Revolution or First Kyrgyz Revolution led to President of Kyrgyzstan, Askar Akayev's fall from power.
The Turkic Council (Türk Şurası; Түрік кеңесі; Түрк кеңеш; Türk Keneşi; Turkiy Kengash, Туркий Кенгаш; or, in full, the Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States (CCTS; Turkish: Türk Dili Konuşan Ülkeler İşbirliği Konseyi), is an international organization comprising some of the Turkic countries. It was founded on 3 October 2009 in Nakhchivan. The General Secretariat is in İstanbul, Turkey. The member countries are Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkey. The remaining two Turkic states, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are not currently official members of the council due to their neutral stance; however, they are possible future members of the council. Uzbekistan announced its intention to join the council on 30 April 2018. The idea of setting up this cooperative council was first put forward by Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev back in 2006.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Tush kyiz (туш кийиз, туш — side, the edge, кийиз — felt; тұс киіз) are large, elaborately embroidered wall hangings, traditionally made in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan by women to commemorate the marriage of a son or daughter.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
United Nations Security Council resolution 736, adopted without a vote on 29 January 1992, after examining the application of the Kyrgyz Republic for membership in the United Nations, the Council recommended to the General Assembly that Kyrgyzstan be admitted.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The University of Central Asia was established in 2000 with the first campus opened in 2016.
The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
The Uyghur Khaganate (or Uyghur Empire or Uighur Khaganate or Toquz Oghuz Country) (Modern Uyghur: ئورخۇن ئۇيغۇر خانلىقى), (Tang era names, with modern Hanyu Pinyin: or) was a Turkic empire that existed for about a century between the mid 8th and 9th centuries.
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.
A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of tax that is assessed incrementally, based on the increase in value of a product or service at each stage of production or distribution.
Vasily Vasilyevich Vereshchagin (Васи́лий Васи́льевич Вереща́гин, October 26, 1842April 13, 1904), was one of the most famous Russian war artists and one of the first Russian artists to be widely recognised abroad.
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.
Victory DayДень Победы, Den' Pobedy День Перемоги, Den' Peremohy Дзень Перамогі, Dzień Pieramohi Gʻalaba kuni, Ғалаба куни Жеңіс Күні, Jeñis Küni გამარჯვების დღე, gamarjvebis dghe Qələbə Günü Ziua Victoriei, Зиуа Викторией Uzvaras diena Жеңиш майрамы, Jengish Mayramy Рӯзи Ғалаба, Rūzi Ghalaba Հաղթանակի օրը, Haght’anaki ory Ýeňişlar Harçlaarsiň, Йеңишлар Харчлаарсиң Võidupüha ("Victory Holiday") Ciñü köne Dan pobjede/pobede, Дан победе/побједе יום הניצחון, Yóm HaNicaħón عيد النصر, ʿīd al-Naṣir is a holiday that commemorates the surrender of Nazi Germany in 1945.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Vorukh is a jamoat in northern Tajikistan.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
A traditional yurt (from the Turkic languages) or ger (Mongolian) is a portable, round tent covered with skins or felt and used as a dwelling by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia.
.kg is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Kyrgyzstan.
The Constitution of Kyrgyzstan is the supreme law of the Kyrgyz Republic (Article 10).
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.
The 2010 South Kyrgyzstan riots (Ош коогалаңы; Qirgʻiziston janubidagi tartibsizliklar, Қирғизистон жанубидаги тартибсизликлар; Беспорядки на юге Киргизии) were clashes between ethnic Kyrgyz and Uzbeks in southern Kyrgyzstan, primarily in the cities of Osh and Jalal-Abad, in the aftermath of the ouster of former President Kurmanbek Bakiyev on 7 April.
The 2011 Asian Winter Games was a multi sporting event that was held in Astana and Almaty, Kazakhstan and that began on January 30, 2011 and ended on February 6, 2011.
The 2012 Bandy World Championship was an edition of the top annual event in international bandy, held between January 29 and February 5, 2012, in Almaty, Kazakhstan.
The 39th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 39 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 44th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 44 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 69° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 81° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
Aiyl, Aiyl okmotu, Ayıl ökmötü, Hinduism in Kyrgyzstan, ISO 3166-1:KG, KGN, KGZ, KYRGYZSTAN, Khirghistan, Khirghizia, Khirghizstan, Khirgistan, Khirgizia, Khirgizstan, Khirgystan, Khirgyzia, Khirgyzstan, Khyrghystan, Khyrghyzia, Khyrghyzstan, Khyrgystan, Khyrgyzia, Khyrgyzstan, Kirghistan, Kirghiz Republic, Kirghizia, Kirghizistan, Kirghizstan, Kirghyzia, Kirgisistan, Kirgistan, Kirgiz Republic, Kirgizia, Kirgizistan, Kirgiziya, Kirgizstan, Kirgiztan, Kirgystan, Kirgyzstan, Kirzighia, Krygyzstan, Krygzstan, Kyr., Kyrgestan, Kyrghizia, Kyrghizistan, Kyrghizstan, Kyrghystan, Kyrghyz Republic, Kyrghyzia, Kyrghyzstan, Kyrgistan, Kyrgizia, Kyrgizstan, Kyrgyg, Kyrgystan, Kyrgysztan, Kyrgyz Republic, Kyrgyz Respublikasy, Kyrgyzia, Kyrgyzistan, Kyrgyzskaya Respublika, Kyrgyztan, Kyrgzstan, Kyrgzystan, Kyrzygstan, Kyrzygystan, Kırgız Respublikası, Languages of Kyrgyzstan, Name of Kyrgyzstan, Okmotu, Quirghyzia, Republic of Kirgizstan, Republic of Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Kyrgyztan, Sport in Kyrgyzstan, Киргизия, Кыргызстан, Қырғызстан.