119 relations: Adhesive, Adrenaline, Adverse effect, Amino acid, Anticholinergic, Antiparkinson medication, Anxiety, Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, Arvid Carlsson, Auditory hallucination, Awakenings, Awakenings (book), Bandolier (journal), Benserazide, Biology, Biosynthesis, Blood–brain barrier, Canavalia, Carbidopa, Carbidopa/levodopa, Carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone, Cassia (genus), Catalysis, Catechol-O-methyltransferase, Catecholamine, Central nervous system, Chemical compound, Chemical reaction, Ciladopa, Cofactor (biochemistry), Concentration, Confusion, D-DOPA, Dalbergia, Decarboxylation, Dietary supplement, Dopamine, Dopamine agonist, Dopamine dysregulation syndrome, Dosage form, Dream, Droxidopa, Drug resistance, Dyskinesia, Emotion, Enantiomer, Encephalitis lethargica, Enzyme, FOSB, ..., George Cotzias, Hair loss, Heart arrhythmia, Hydrogenation, Hypotension, Insomnia, International nonproprietary name, Isomer, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Kidney, L-Dopaquinone, Lasker Award, Levodopa-induced dyskinesia, Libido, Macular degeneration, Melanin, Merck & Co., Methyldopa, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Mucuna pruriens, Mussel, Narcolepsy, Nausea, Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Neurology, Neurotransmitter, Neurotrophic factors, Nigrostriatal pathway, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Norepinephrine, Ocean, Oleh Hornykiewicz, Oligomer, Oliver Sacks, Orientation (mental), Orion Corporation, Parkinson's disease, Peripheral nervous system, Phanera, Pigment, Piliostigma, Precursor (chemistry), Protein, Psychoactive drug, Pyridoxal phosphate, Pyridoxine, Redox, Research, Respiration (physiology), Restless legs syndrome, Segawa Syndrome, Somnolence, Stimulant psychosis, Substrate (chemistry), Swedes, Symptom, Therapy, Thin-layer chromatography, Tyrosinase, Tyrosine, Tyrosine hydroxylase, UCB (company), Valeant Pharmaceuticals, Vicia faba, Vitamin C, William Standish Knowles, Working memory, 3-O-Methyldopa. Expand index (69 more) » « Shrink index
An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
An antiparkinson medication is a type of drug which is intended to treat and relieve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC or AAAD), also known as DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), tryptophan decarboxylase, and 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase, is a lyase enzyme.
An aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor (synonyms: DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor, DDCI and AAADI) is a drug which inhibits the synthesis of dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC, AAAD, or DOPA decarboxylase).
Arvid Carlsson (25 January 1923 — 29 June 2018) was a Swedish neuropharmacologist who is best known for his work with the neurotransmitter dopamine and its effects in Parkinson's disease.
A paracusia, or auditory hallucination, is a form of hallucination that involves perceiving sounds without auditory stimulus.
Awakenings is a 1990 American drama film based on Oliver Sacks's 1973 memoir of the same title.
Awakenings is a 1973 non-fiction book by Oliver Sacks.
Bandolier was an independent healthcare journal about evidence-based healthcare, written by Oxford University scientists.
Benserazide (also called Serazide or Ro 4-4602) is a peripherally-acting aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) or DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor, which is unable to cross the blood–brain barrier.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Canavalia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family (Fabaceae) and comprises approximately 48 to 50 species of tropical vines.
Carbidopa (Lodosyn) is a drug given to people with Parkinson's disease in order to inhibit peripheral metabolism of levodopa.
Carbidopa/levodopa, also known as levocarb and co-careldopa, is the combination of the two medications carbidopa and levodopa.
Carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone, sold under the brand name Stalevo, is an anti-parkinsonian dopaminergic combination medication that contains carbidopa, levodopa, and entacapone for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
Cassia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae, and the subfamily Caesalpinioideae.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of several enzymes that degrade catecholamines (such as dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), catecholestrogens, and various drugs and substances having a catechol structure.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Ciladopa (AY-27,110) is a dopamine agonist with a similar chemical structure to dopamine.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.
D-DOPA (D-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine; dextrodopa) is similar to L-DOPA (levodopa), but with opposite chirality.
Dalbergia is a large genus of small to medium-size trees, shrubs and lianas in the pea family, Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
A dopamine receptor agonist is a compound that activates dopamine receptors.
Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is a dysfunction of the reward system observed in some individuals taking dopaminergic medications for an extended length of time.
Dosage forms (also called unit doses) are pharmaceutical drug products in the form in which they are marketed for use, with a specific mixture of active ingredients and inactive components (excipients), in a particular configuration (such as a capsule shell, for example), and apportioned into a particular dose.
A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.
Droxidopa (INN; trade name Northera; also known as L-DOPS, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine, L-threo-DOPS and SM-5688) is a synthetic amino acid precursor which acts as a prodrug to the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (noradrenaline).
Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition.
Dyskinesia refers to a category of movement disorders that are characterized by involuntary muscle movements, including movements similar to tics or chorea and diminished voluntary movements.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
Encephalitis lethargica is an atypical form of encephalitis.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, also known as Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, FOSB or FosB, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOSB gene.
George Constantin Cotzias (June 16, 1918 in Chania, Crete – June 13, 1977 in New York City) was a Greek-American scientist who together with his coworkers developed L-Dopa treatment, currently the most commonly used treatment for Parkinson's disease.
Hair loss, also known as alopecia or baldness, refers to a loss of hair from part of the head or body.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and non-proprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or an active ingredient.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
Jazz Pharmaceuticals PLC (a merger of Jazz Pharmaceuticals and Azur Pharma PLC) is an Ireland-based biopharmaceutical company which specializes of identifying, developing and commercializing pharmaceutical products. It was founded in 2003. One of the company's most significant products is the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drug, Xyrem (Sodium Oxybate - another term for the identical substance more commonly referred to as GHB Gamma Hydroxy Butrate). In 2007, the company pled guilty to felony charges related to its illegal marketing of Xyrem for off-label use. The company is also a member of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA).
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
L-Dopaquinone also known as o-dopaquinone is a metabolite of L-DOPA and a precursor of melanin.
The Lasker Awards have been awarded annually since 1945 to living persons who have made major contributions to medical science or who have performed public service on behalf of medicine.
Levodopa-induced dyskinesia is a form of dyskinesia associated with levodopa, used to treat Parkinson's disease.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
Merck & Company, Inc., d.b.a. Merck Sharp & Dohme (MSD) outside the United States and Canada, is an American pharmaceutical company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world.
Methyldopa, sold under the brand name Aldomet among others, is a medication used for high blood pressure.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
Mucuna pruriens is a tropical legume native to Africa and tropical Asia and widely naturalized and cultivated.
Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening reaction that occasionally occurs in response to neuroleptic or antipsychotic medication.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are a family of biomolecules – nearly all of which are peptides or small proteins – that support the growth, survival, and differentiation of both developing and mature neurons.
The nigrostriatal pathway or the nigrostriatal bundle (NSB), is a dopaminergic pathway that connects the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) with the dorsal striatum (i.e., the caudate nucleus and putamen).
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
Oleh Hornykiewicz (born 17 November 1926) is an Austrian biochemist.
An oligomer (oligo-, "a few" + -mer, "parts") is a molecular complex of chemicals that consists of a few monomer units, in contrast to a polymer, where the number of monomers is, in principle, infinite.
Oliver Wolf Sacks, (9 July 1933 – 30 August 2015) was a British neurologist, naturalist, historian of science, and author.
Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions: time, place and person.
Orion Corporation, founded in 1917 and headquartered at Espoo, Finland, is a Finnish company, which develops, manufactures and markets pharmaceuticals, active pharmaceutical ingredients and diagnostic tests for global markets.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Phanera is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Piliostigma is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae.
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, P5P), the active form of vitamin B6, is a coenzyme in a variety of enzymatic reactions.
Pyridoxine, also known as vitamin B6, is a form of vitamin B6 found commonly in food and used as dietary supplement.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move one's legs.
Segawa Syndrome (SS) also known as Dopamine-responsive dystonia (DRD), Segawa's disease, Segawa's dystonia and hereditary progressive dystonia with diurnal fluctuation, is a genetic movement disorder which usually manifests itself during early childhood at around ages 5–8 years (variable start age).
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
Stimulant psychosis, also known as stimulant-induced psychotic disorder, is a psychosis symptom which involves hallucinations, paranoia, and/or delusions and typically occurs following an overdose on psychostimulants; however, it has also been reported to occur in approximately 0.1% of individuals, or 1 out of every 1,000 people, within the first several weeks after starting amphetamine or methylphenidate therapy.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
Swedes (svenskar) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a chromatography technique used to separate non-volatile mixtures.
Tyrosinase is an oxidase that is the rate-limiting enzyme for controlling the production of melanin.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA).
UCB (Union Chimique Belge) is a multinational biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Brussels, Belgium.
Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc. is a multinational specialty pharmaceutical company based in Laval, Canada.
Vicia faba, also known as the broad bean, fava bean, faba bean, field bean, bell bean, or tic bean, is a species of flowering plant in the pea and bean family Fabaceae.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
William Standish Knowles (June 1, 1917 – June 13, 2012) was an American chemist.
Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.
3-O-Methyldopa (3-OMD) is one of the most important metabolites of L-DOPA, a drug used in the treatment of the Parkinson's disease to help increase the dopamine levels.
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, ATC code N04BA01, ATCvet code QN04BA01, Bendopa, Brocadopa, Cidandopa, Deadopa, Dopaflex, Dopaidan, Dopal, Dopal-Fher, Dopalina, Dopar, Doparkine, Doparl, Dopasol, Dopaston, Dopastral, Doprin, El dopa, Eldopa, Eldopal, Eldopar, Eldopatec, Eurodopa, Helfo-Dopa, Insulamina, L Dopa, L-Dopa, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, L-dopa, Laradopa, Larodopa, Ledopa, Levadopa, Levedopa, Levodopa, Levopa, Madopar, Maipedopa, Pardopa, Prodopa, Syndopa, Veldopa, Weldopa.