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L-DOPA (alt., L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is a chemical that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, some animals and plants. [1]

114 relations: Adhesive, Adverse effect, Amino acid, Anticholinergic, Antiparkinson, Anxiety, Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, Arvid Carlsson, Auditory hallucination, Awakenings, Awakenings (book), Bandolier (journal), Benserazide, Biology, Biosynthesis, Blood–brain barrier, Canavalia, Carbidopa, Cardiac arrhythmia, Cassia (genus), Catalysis, Catechol-O-methyl transferase, Catecholamine, Central nervous system, Chemical compound, Chemical reaction, Ciladopa, Cofactor (biochemistry), Concentration, Cytotoxicity, D-DOPA, Dalbergia, Decarboxylation, Dietary supplement, Disease, Dopamine, Dopamine agonist, Dopamine dysregulation syndrome, Dopamine-responsive dystonia, Dosage form, Dose–response relationship, Dream, Droxidopa, Drug resistance, Dyskinesia, Emotion, Encephalitis lethargica, Enzyme, Epinephrine, ..., FOSB, George Cotzias, Hair loss, Hydrogenation, Hypotension, Insomnia, International Nonproprietary Name, Intracellular, Isomer, Kidney, L-Dopaquinone, Lasker Award, Levodopa-induced dyskinesia, Libido, Marine (ocean), Melanin, Mental confusion, Methyldopa, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Mucuna pruriens, Mussel, Narcolepsy, Nausea, Neurology, Neuron, Neurotransmitter, Nigrostriatal pathway, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Norepinephrine, Oligomer, Oliver Sacks, Orientation (mental), Parkinson's disease, Pathogenesis, Peripheral nervous system, Phanera, Pigment, Precursor (chemistry), Protein, Pseudoword, Psychoactive drug, Pyridoxal phosphate, Pyridoxine, Quinone, Rat, Redox, Research, Respiration (physiology), Restless legs syndrome, Somnolence, Stimulant psychosis, Substrate (chemistry), Swedes, Symptom, Therapy, Toxicity, Tyrosinase, Tyrosine, Tyrosine hydroxylase, Vicia faba, William Standish Knowles, Working memory, 3-O-Methyldopa. Expand index (64 more) »


An adhesive is any substance applied to the surfaces of materials that binds them together and resists separation.

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Adverse effect

In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, usually along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid.

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An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.

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An antiparkinson is a type of drug which is intended to treat and relieve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints and rumination.

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Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (synonyms: DOPA decarboxylase, tryptophan decarboxylase, 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase, AAAD, AADC) is a lyase enzyme.

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Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor

An aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor (synonyms: DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor, DDCI and AAADI) is a drug which inhibits the synthesis of dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD, or DOPA decarboxylase, DDC).

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Arvid Carlsson

Arvid Carlsson (born 25 January 1923) is a Swedish scientist who is best known for his work with the neurotransmitter dopamine and its effects in Parkinson's disease.

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Auditory hallucination

A paracusia, or auditory hallucination, is a form of hallucination that involves perceiving sounds without auditory stimulus.

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Awakenings is a 1990 American drama film based on Oliver Sacks' 1973 memoir of the same title.

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Awakenings (book)

Awakenings is a 1973 non-fiction book by Oliver Sacks.

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Bandolier (journal)

Bandolier was an independent healthcare journal about evidence-based healthcare, written by Oxford University scientists.

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Benserazide (also called Serazide or Ro 4-4602) is a peripherally-acting aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) or DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor, which is unable to cross the blood–brain barrier.

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Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.

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Biosynthesis (also called biogenesis or anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.

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Blood–brain barrier

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective permeability barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid (BECF) in the central nervous system (CNS).

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Canavalia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family (Fabaceae) and comprises approximately 48 to 50 species of tropical vines.

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Carbidopa (Lodosyn) is a drug given to people with Parkinson's disease in order to inhibit peripheral metabolism of levodopa.

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Cardiac arrhythmia

Cardiac arrhythmia, also known as cardiac dysrhythmia or irregular heartbeat, is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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Cassia (genus)

Cassia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae, and the subfamily Caesalpinioideae.

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Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst.

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Catechol-O-methyl transferase

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of several enzymes that degrade catecholamines such as dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.

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A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups) and a side-chain amine.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Chemical compound

A chemical compound (or just compound if used in the context of chemistry) is an entity consisting of two or more different atoms which associate via chemical bonds.

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Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

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Ciladopa (AY-27,110) is a dopamine agonist with a similar chemical structure to dopamine.

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Cofactor (biochemistry)

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound that is required for the protein's biological activity.

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In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.

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Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.

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D-DOPA (D-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine; dextrodopa) is similar to L-DOPA (levodopa), but with opposite chirality.

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Dalbergia is a large genus of small to medium-size trees, shrubs and lianas in the pea family, Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.

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Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).

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Dietary supplement

A dietary supplement is intended to provide nutrients that may otherwise not be consumed in sufficient quantities.

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A disease is a particular abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function, that affects part or all of an organism.

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Dopamine is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays a number of important roles in the human brain and body, as well as elsewhere in biology.

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Dopamine agonist

A dopamine agonist is a compound that activates dopamine receptors in the absence of that receptor's physiological ligand, the neurotransmitter dopamine.

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Dopamine dysregulation syndrome

Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is a dysfunction of the reward system observed in some individuals taking dopaminergic medications for an extended length of time.

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Dopamine-responsive dystonia

Dopamine-responsive dystonia (DRD), also known as hereditary progressive dystonia with diurnal fluctuation, Segawa's disease, or Segawa's dystonia, is a genetic movement disorder which usually manifests itself during early childhood at around ages 5–8 years (variable start age).

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Dosage form

Dosage forms (also called unit doses) are essentially pharmaceutical products in the form in which they are marketed for use, typically involving a mixture of active drug components and nondrug components (excipients), along with other non-reusable material that may not be considered either ingredient or packaging (such as a capsule shell, for example).

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Dose–response relationship

The dose–response relationship, or exposure–response relationship, describes the change in effect on an organism caused by differing levels of exposure (or doses) to a stressor (usually a chemical) after a certain exposure time.

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Dreams are successions of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that occur usually involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.

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Droxidopa (INN; trade name Northera; also known as L-DOPS, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine, L-threo-DOPS and SM-5688) is a synthetic amino acid precursor which acts as a prodrug to the neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).

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Drug resistance

Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a drug such as an antimicrobial, anthelmintic or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition.

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Dyskinesia refers to a category of movement disorders that are characterized by involuntary muscle movements, including movements similar to tics or chorea and diminished voluntary movements.

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Emotion is, in everyday speech, a person's state of feeling in the sense of an affect.

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Encephalitis lethargica

Encephalitis lethargica or von Economo disease is an atypical form of encephalitis.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a medication, hormone and neurotransmitter.

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FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, also known as FOSB or FosB, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOSB gene.

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George Cotzias

George Constantin Cotzias (June 16, 1918 in Chania, Crete – June 13, 1977 in New York City) was a Greek-American scientist who together with his coworkers developed L-Dopa treatment, currently the most commonly used treatment for Parkinson's disease.

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Hair loss

Hair loss, also known as alopecia or baldness, is a loss of hair from the head or body.

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Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.

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Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.

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Insomnia, or trouble sleeping, is a sleep disorder in which there is an inability to fall asleep or to stay asleep as long as desired.

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International Nonproprietary Name

An International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and nonproprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or active ingredient.

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In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".

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An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.

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The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates.

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L-Dopaquinone also known as o-dopaquinone is a metabolite of L-DOPA and a precursor of melanin.

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Lasker Award

The Lasker Awards have been awarded annually since 1945 to living persons who have made major contributions to medical science or who have performed public service on behalf of medicine.

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Levodopa-induced dyskinesia

Levodopa-induced dyskinesia is a form of dyskinesia associated with levodopa used to treat Parkinson's disease.

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Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.

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Marine (ocean)

Marine is an adjective for things relating to the sea or ocean, such as marine biology, marine ecology and marine geology.

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Melanin (μέλας - melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms (arachnids are one of the few groups in which it has not been detected).

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Mental confusion

Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.

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Methyldopa (L-α-Methyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine; Aldomet, Aldoril, Dopamet, Dopegyt, etc.) is an alpha-adrenergic agonist (selective for α2-adrenergic receptors) psychoactive drug used as a sympatholytic or antihypertensive.

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Monoamine neurotransmitter

Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (-CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.

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Mucuna pruriens

Mucuna pruriens is a tropical legume native to Africa and tropical Asia and widely naturalized and cultivated.

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Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of clams or bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.

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Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the loss of the brain's ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles normally.

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Nausea (Latin nausea, from Greek ναυσία - nausia, "ναυτία" - nautia, motion sickness", "feeling sick or queasy") is a sensation of unease and discomfort in the upper stomach with an involuntary urge to vomit.

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Neurology (from νεῦρον, neuron, and the suffix -λογία -logia "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

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A neuron (or; also known as a neurone or nerve cell) is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Nigrostriatal pathway

The nigrostriatal pathway, or the nigrostriatal bundle (NSB), is a dopaminergic pathway that connects the substantia nigra with the dorsal striatum.

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Norepinephrine, also called noradrenaline, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the human brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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In chemistry, an oligomer (oligo-, "a few" + -mer, "parts") is a molecular complex that consists of a few monomer units, in contrast to a polymer, where the number of monomers is, in principle, not limited.

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Oliver Sacks

Oliver Wolf Sacks, CBE, FRCP (9 July 1933 – 30 August 2015) was a British neurologist and author who spent his professional life in the United States.

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Orientation (mental)

Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions: time, place and person.

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD, also known as idiopathic or primary parkinsonism, hypokinetic rigid syndrome (HRS), or paralysis agitans) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system mainly affecting the motor system.

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The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that lead to the diseased state.

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Peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the part of the nervous system that consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord.

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Phanera is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae.

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A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.

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Precursor (chemistry)

In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in the chemical reaction that produces another compound.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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A pseudoword is a unit of speech or text that appears to be an actual word in a certain language, while in fact it has no meaning in the lexicon.

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Psychoactive drug

A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, or consciousness.

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Pyridoxal phosphate

Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, P5P), the active form of vitamin B6, is a coenzyme in a variety of enzymatic reactions.

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Pyridoxine is one form of vitamin B6.

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A quinone is a class of organic compounds that are formally "derived from aromatic compounds by conversion of an even number of –CH.

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Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents of the superfamily Muroidea.

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Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.

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Research comprises "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.

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Respiration (physiology)

In physiology, respiration is defined as the transport of oxygen from the outside air to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.

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Restless legs syndrome

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) also known as Willis-Ekbom disease (WED) or Wittmaack-Ekbom syndrome, is a neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move one's body to stop uncomfortable or odd sensations.

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Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (cf. hypersomnia).

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Stimulant psychosis

Stimulant psychosis is a psychosis symptom which typically occurs following an overdose on psychostimulants, but it also occurs in approximately 0.1% of individuals within the first several weeks after starting amphetamine or methylphenidate therapy.

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Substrate (chemistry)

In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with reagent to generate a product.

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Swedes (svenskar) are a nation and ethnic group native to Sweden, mostly inhabiting Sweden and the other Nordic countries, with descendants living in a number of countries.

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A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.

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Therapy (often abbreviated tx or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.

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Toxicity is the degree to which a substance can damage an organism.

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Tyrosinase is an oxidase that is the rate-limiting enzyme for controlling the production of melanin.

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Tyrosine (abbreviated as Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, is one of the 22 amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.

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Tyrosine hydroxylase

Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA).

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Vicia faba

Vicia faba, also known as the broad bean, fava bean, faba bean, field bean, bell bean, or tic bean, is a species of bean (Fabaceae) native to North Africa, southwest and south Asia, and extensively cultivated elsewhere.

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William Standish Knowles

William Standish Knowles (June 1, 1917 – June 13, 2012) was an American chemist.

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Working memory

Working memory is the system responsible for the transient holding and processing of new and already-stored information, and is an important process for reasoning, comprehension, learning and memory updating.

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3-O-Methyldopa (3-OMD) is one of the most important metabolite of L-DOPA, that is used in the treatment of the Parkinson's disease, particularly to increase the dopamine levels.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L-DOPA

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