40 relations: Alphabet (formal languages), Ambiguous grammar, Backtracking, Bottom-up parsing, Cambridge University Press, Canonical LR parser, Compiler-compiler, Computer science, Context-free grammar, Context-free language, CYK algorithm, Dangling else, Deterministic context-free language, Donald Knuth, Earley parser, Emphasis (typography), Finite-state machine, Formal grammar, GLR parser, GNU bison, LALR parser, Left corner parser, Lexical analysis, LL parser, Operator-precedence parser, Parse tree, Parsing, Programming language, Prolog, Recursive ascent parser, Recursive descent parser, Shift-reduce parser, Simple LR parser, Simple precedence parser, SLR grammar, Stack (abstract data type), Substring, Terminal and nonterminal symbols, Top-down parsing, Yacc.

## Alphabet (formal languages)

In formal language theory, a non-empty set is called alphabet when its intended use in string operations shall be indicated.

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## Ambiguous grammar

In computer science, an ambiguous grammar is a context-free grammar for which there exists a string that can have more than one leftmost derivation, while an unambiguous grammar is a context-free grammar for which every valid string has a unique leftmost derivation.

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## Backtracking

Backtracking is a general algorithm for finding all (or some) solutions to some computational problems, notably constraint satisfaction problems, that incrementally builds candidates to the solutions, and abandons each partial candidate c ("backtracks") as soon as it determines that c cannot possibly be completed to a valid solution.

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## Bottom-up parsing

In computer science, parsing reveals the grammatical structure of linear input text, as a first step in working out its meaning.

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## Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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## Canonical LR parser

In computer science, a canonical LR parser or LR(1) parser is an LR(k) parser for k.

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## Compiler-compiler

In computer science, a compiler-compiler or compiler generator is a programming tool that creates a parser, interpreter, or compiler from some form of formal description of a language and machine.

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## Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations Computer science is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications.

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## Context-free grammar

In formal language theory, a context-free grammar (CFG) is a formal grammar in which every production rule is of the form where V is a single nonterminal symbol, and w is a string of terminals and/or nonterminals (w can be empty).

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## Context-free language

In formal language theory, a context-free language (CFL) is a language generated by some context-free grammar (CFG).

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## CYK algorithm

In computer science, the Cocke–Younger–Kasami algorithm (alternatively called CYK, or CKY) is a parsing algorithm for context-free grammars, named after its inventors, John Cocke, Daniel Younger and Tadao Kasami.

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## Dangling else

The dangling else is a problem in computer programming in which an optional else clause in an if–then(–else) statement results in nested conditionals being ambiguous.

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## Deterministic context-free language

In formal language theory, deterministic context-free languages (DCFL) are a proper subset of context-free languages.

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## Donald Knuth

Donald Ervin Knuth (born January 10, 1938) is an American computer scientist, mathematician, and professor emeritus at Stanford University.

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## Earley parser

In computer science, the Earley parser is an algorithm for parsing strings that belong to a given context-free language, though (depending on the variant) it may suffer problems with certain nullable grammars.

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## Emphasis (typography)

In typography, emphasis is the exaggeration of words in a text with a font in a different style from the rest of the text—to emphasize them.

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## Finite-state machine

A finite-state machine (FSM) or finite-state automaton (plural: automata), or simply a state machine, is a mathematical model of computation used to design both computer programs and sequential logic circuits.

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## Formal grammar

In formal language theory, a grammar (when the context is not given, often called a formal grammar for clarity) is a set of production rules for strings in a formal language.

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## GLR parser

A GLR parser (GLR standing for "generalized LR", where L stands for "left-to-right" and R stands for "rightmost (derivation)") is an extension of an LR parser algorithm to handle nondeterministic and ambiguous grammars.

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## GNU bison

GNU bison, commonly known as Bison, is a parser generator that is part of the GNU Project.

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## LALR parser

In computer science, an LALR parser or Look-Ahead LR parser is a simplified version of a canonical LR parser, to parse (separate and analyze) a text according to a set of production rules specified by a formal grammar for a computer language.

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## Left corner parser

In computer science, a left corner parser is a type of chart parser used for parsing context-free grammars.

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## Lexical analysis

In computer science, lexical analysis is the process of converting a sequence of characters (such as a computer program or web page) into a sequence of tokens (strings with an identified "meaning").

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## LL parser

In computer science, an LL parser is a top-down parser for a subset of context-free languages.

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## Operator-precedence parser

In computer science, an operator precedence parser is a bottom-up parser that interprets an operator-precedence grammar.

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## Parse tree

A parse tree or parsing tree or derivation tree or (concrete) syntax tree is an ordered, rooted tree that represents the syntactic structure of a string according to some context-free grammar.

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## Parsing

Parsing or syntactic analysis is the process of analysing a string of symbols, either in natural language or in computer languages, conforming to the rules of a formal grammar.

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## Programming language

A programming language is a formal constructed language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer.

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## Prolog

Prolog is a general purpose logic programming language associated with artificial intelligence and computational linguistics.

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## Recursive ascent parser

In computer science, recursive ascent parsing is a technique for implementing an LALR parser which uses mutually-recursive functions rather than tables.

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## Recursive descent parser

In computer science, a recursive descent parser is a kind of top-down parser built from a set of mutually recursive procedures (or a non-recursive equivalent) where each such procedure usually implements one of the productions of the grammar.

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## Shift-reduce parser

A shift-reduce parser is a class of efficient, table-driven bottom-up parsing methods for computer languages and other notations formally defined by a grammar.

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## Simple LR parser

In computer science, a Simple LR or SLR parser is a type of LR parser with small parse tables and a relatively simple parser generator algorithm.

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## Simple precedence parser

In computer science, a simple precedence parser is a type of bottom-up parser for context-free grammars that can be used only by simple precedence grammars.

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## SLR grammar

In computer science, SLR grammars are the class of formal grammars accepted by a Simple LR parser.

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## Stack (abstract data type)

In computer science, a stack or LIFO (last in, first out) is an abstract data type that serves as a collection of elements, with two principal operations: push, which adds an element to the collection, and pop, which removes the last element that was added.

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## Substring

A substring of a string S is another string S' that occurs "in" S. For example, "the best of" is a substring of "It was the best of times".

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## Terminal and nonterminal symbols

In computer science, terminal and nonterminal symbols are the lexical elements used in specifying the production rules constituting a formal grammar.

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## Top-down parsing

In computer science, top-down parsing is a parsing strategy where one first looks at the highest level of the parse tree and works down the parse tree by using the rewriting rules of a formal grammar.

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## Yacc

Yacc is a computer program for the Unix operating system.

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LR Parser, LR grammar, LR parsers, LR parsing, LR(0), LR(0) parser, LR(1) grammar, LR(k), LR(k) grammar, Lr parser, Shift-reduce conflict.