227 relations: Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, Abraham Isaac Kook, Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, Agriculture, Anglican Communion, Annual leave, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, At-will employment, Basel, Basic income, Ben-Zion Meir Hai Uziel, Benefit incidence, Bharat Forge Co Ltd v Uttam Manohar Nakate, Bombay High Court, Boycott, Brad Wall, Brussels Regime, Cantons of Switzerland, Case law, Child labour, Children's rights, China, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Civil Rights Act of 1991, Collective agreement, Collective bargaining, Collective Redundancies Directive 1998, Common law, Comparative advantage, Compensation and benefits, Confederation of Mexican Workers, Conflict (process), Conflict of laws, Contingent work, Contract, Contrat nouvelle embauche, Corporatism, Cotton mill, Customs, Declaration of Philadelphia, Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, Discrimination, Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, Dispute settlement in the World Trade Organization, Distributism, Dominique de Villepin, Due process, Duncombe v Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families, Economic sanctions, Education, ..., Egypt, Eight-hour day, Employee benefits, Employment, Employment agency, Employment contract, Employment discrimination, Employment Protection Act (of Sweden), Employment Rights Act 1996, Employment Standards Administration, Equal Protection Clause, Equal Remuneration Convention, Equality Framework Directive 2000, Essentialia negotii, Essonne, Estonia, European Commission, European Court of Justice, European Union, European Union–South Korea Free Trade Agreement, Eurostat, Factories Act 1847, Factory Acts, Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, Fair Work Act 2009, Fair Work Commission, Family economics, Family wage, Federal government of the United States, Federation, Feudalism, Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, First Employment Contract, Flag of convenience, Forced Labour Convention, Forty-Hour Week Convention, 1935, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Free market, Freedom of association, Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, Freedom of speech, French Third Republic, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, General strike, German company law, Globalization, Guaranteed minimum income, Halliburton, Health and Morals of Apprentices Act 1802, Holidays with Pay Convention, 1936, Hours of Work (Industry) Convention, 1919, Human rights, Industrial relations, Industrial Revolution, Institutional Revolutionary Party, International Labour Organization, International law, International Transport Workers Federation v Viking Line ABP, International Transport Workers' Federation, Jacques Chirac, James Callaghan, Job description, Journal of Workplace Rights, Justice of the peace, Karl Marx, L'Express, Labor rights, Labour code, Labour Contract Law of the People's Republic of China, Labour economics, Labour market flexibility, Labour movement, Labour Party (UK), Labour standards in the World Trade Organization, Lancashire, Latin, Laval un Partneri Ltd v Svenska Byggnadsarbetareförbundet, Law of obligations, Legal working age, Legislation, Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan, Lionel Jospin, Living wage, Longjumeau, Manchester, Master and Servant Act, Matignon Agreements (1936), Maximum wage, Michael Thomas Sadler, Minimum Age Convention, 1973, Minimum wage, Minimum wage law, Moshe Feinstein, Multinational corporation, National Labor Relations Act of 1935, National Minimum Wage Act 1998, National People's Congress, Negative and positive rights, New Deal, Novated lease, Occupational licensing, Otto von Bismarck, Outline of working time and conditions, Paternalism, Permanent residence (United States), Picketing, Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau, Popular Front (France), Posted Workers Directive 1996, Precarious work, Price floor, Profit sharing, Protective laws, Public-order crime, Racial discrimination, Ravat v Halliburton Manufacturing and Services Ltd, Reform movement, Reichstag (German Empire), Report of the committee of inquiry on industrial democracy, Restaurant, Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949, Right to work, Right-to-work law, Robert Owen, Rome I Regulation, Sabotage, Serco Ltd v Lawson, Sexism, Sick leave, Sit-in, Slowdown, Small business, Social clause, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social security, Solidarity action, Standardization, State law (United States), Strike action, Strikebreaker, Supply and demand, Supreme Court of India, Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, Supreme People's Court, Sweatshop, Swiss Federal Constitution, Swiss labour law, Switzerland, Tariff, Termination of employment, Termination of Employment Convention, 1982, Textile, Thomas Percival, Tourism, Trade Boards Act 1909, Trade union, Treaty of Rome, Treaty of Versailles, U.S. state, Union organizer, United Kingdom labour law, United States Constitution, Vicarious liability, Wildcat strike action, Work permit, Work-to-rule, WorkChoices, Working poor, Working Time Directive 2003, Workplace Fairness, Workweek and weekend, World Bank, World War I, Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, Wrongful dismissal, 2006 youth protests in France, 35-hour workweek. 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Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957, the full title of which is Convention concerning the Abolition of Forced Labour, 1957 (No. 105), is one of the eight ILO fundamental conventions of the International Labour Organization, which cancels certain forms of forced labour still allowed under the Forced Labour Convention of 1930, such as punishment for strikes and as a punishment for holding certain political views.
Abraham Isaac Kook (Abraham Yitshak ha-Kohen Kuk; 8 September 1865 – 11 September 1935) was an Orthodox rabbi, the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of British Mandatory Palestine, the founder of Yeshiva Mercaz HaRav Kook (The Central Universal Yeshiva), a Jewish thinker, Halakhist, Kabbalist, and a renowned Torah scholar.
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA; to) is a US labor law that forbids employment discrimination against anyone at least 40 years of age in the United States (see). In 1967, the bill was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Annual leave is paid time off work granted by employers to employees to be used for whatever the employee wishes.
Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury (28 April 1801 – 1 October 1885), styled Lord Ashley from 1811 to 1851 and then Lord Shaftesbury following the death of his father, was a British politician, philanthropist and social reformer.
At-will employment is a term used in U.S. labor law for contractual relationships in which an employee can be dismissed by an employer for any reason (that is, without having to establish "just cause" for termination), and without warning, as long as the reason is not illegal (e.g. firing because of the employee's race or religion).
Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.
A basic income, also called basic income guarantee, universal basic income (UBI), basic living stipend (BLS) or universal demogrant, is a type of program in which citizens (or permanent residents) of a country may receive a regular sum of money from the government.
Ben-Zion Meir Hai Uziel (born 23 May 1880, died 4 September 1953) was the Sephardi chief rabbi of Mandatory Palestine from 1939 to 1948, and of Israel from 1948 until his death in 1953.
In economics, benefit incidence refers to the availability of a benefit.
Bharat Forge Co Ltd v Uttam Manohar Nakate is an Indian labour law case concerning the dismissal of a worker who was found to be asleep in 1983.
Bombay High Court (IAST) is one of the oldest High Courts of India.
A boycott is an act of voluntary and intentional abstention from using, buying, or dealing with a person, organization, or country as an expression of protest, usually for moral, social, political, or environmental reasons.
Bradley John "Brad" Wall (born November 24, 1965) is a Canadian retired politician who served as the 14th Premier of Saskatchewan from November 21, 2007 until February 2, 2018.
The Brussels Regime is a set of rules regulating which courts have jurisdiction in legal disputes of a civil or commercial nature between individuals resident in different member states of the European Union (EU) and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA).
The 26 cantons of Switzerland (Kanton, canton, cantone, chantun) are the member states of the Swiss Confederation.
Case law is a set of past rulings by tribunals that meet their respective jurisdictions' rules to be cited as precedent.
Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.
Children's rights are the human rights of children with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to minors.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
The Civil Rights Act of 1991 is a United States labor law, passed in response to United States Supreme Court decisions that limited the rights of employees who had sued their employers for discrimination.
A collective agreement, collective labour agreement (CLA) or collective bargaining agreement (CBA) is a special type of commercial agreement, usually as one negotiated "collectively" between management (on behalf of the company) and trade unions (on behalf of employees).
Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between employers and a group of employees aimed at agreements to regulate working salaries, working conditions, benefits, and other aspects of workers' compensation and rights for workers.
The Collective Redundancies Directive is an EU Directive concerning the procedures and warnings that any employer is under a duty to its workforce to follow if it finds it necessary to make more than 20 employees over 90 days (or 10 to 30 employees depending on firm size over 30 days if the member state chooses this option).
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The law or principle of comparative advantage holds that under free trade, an agent will produce more of and consume less of a good for which they have a comparative advantage.
Compensation and benefits (abbreviated “C&B”) is a sub-discipline of human resources, focused on employee compensation and benefits policy-making.
The Confederation of Mexican Workers (Confederación de Trabajadores de México (CTM)) is the largest confederation of labor unions in Mexico.
Conflict refers to some form of friction, or discord arising within a group when the beliefs or actions of one or more members of the group are either resisted by or unacceptable to one or more members of another group.
Conflict of laws concerns relations across different legal jurisdictions between natural persons, companies, corporations and other legal entities, their legal obligations and the appropriate forum and procedure for resolving disputes between them.
Contingent work or casual work is an employment relationship which is considered non-permanent.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
A contrat nouvelle embauche (abbreviated CNE), known as a new employment contract, new recruitment contract or new-job contract in English is a French employment contract proposed by Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin (UMP) which came into force by ordinance on August 2, 2005.
Corporatism is the organization of a society by corporate groups and agricultural, labour, military or scientific syndicates and guilds on the basis of their common interests.
A cotton mill is a factory housing powered spinning or weaving machinery for the production of yarn or cloth from cotton, an important product during the Industrial Revolution when the early mills were important in the development of the factory system.
Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting tariffs and for controlling the flow of goods, including animals, transports, personal, and hazardous items, into and out of a country.
The Declaration of Philadelphia (10 May 1944) restated the traditional objectives of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and then branched out in two new directions: the centrality of human rights to social policy, and the need for international economic planning.
The Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work was adopted in 1998, at the 86th International Labour Conference.
In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.
The Convention concerning Discrimination in Respect of Employment and Occupation or Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention (ILO Convention No.111) is an International Labour Organization Convention on anti-discrimination.
Dispute settlement is regarded by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as the central pillar of the multilateral trading system, and as the organization's "unique contribution to the stability of the global economy".
Distributism is an economic ideology that developed in Europe in the late 19th and early 20th century based upon the principles of Catholic social teaching, especially the teachings of Pope Leo XIII in his encyclical Rerum novarum and Pope Pius XI in Quadragesimo anno.
Dominique Marie François René Galouzeau de Villepin (born 14 November 1953) is a French retired diplomat and politician who served as the Prime Minister of France from 31 May 2005 to 17 May 2007.
Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
and is a UK labour law case, concerning the test for when the continued used of a fixed term contract is objectively justified, and when employees are covered by employment rights during work abroad.
Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The eight-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement, also known as the short-time movement, was a social movement to regulate the length of a working day, preventing excesses and abuses.
Employee benefits and (especially in British English) benefits in kind (also called fringe benefits, perquisites, or perks) include various types of non-wage compensation provided to employees in addition to their normal wages or salaries.
Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee.
An employment agency is an organization which matches employers to employees.
An employment contract or contract of employment is a kind of contract used in labour law to attribute rights and responsibilities between parties to a bargain.
Employment discrimination is a form of discrimination based on race, gender, religion, national origin, physical or mental disability, age, sexual orientation, and gender identity by employers.
The Employment Protection Act, (Lagen om Anställningsskydd, often abbreviated as LAS) is a labour-market regulation in Sweden.
The Employment Rights Act 1996 is a United Kingdom Act of Parliament passed by the Conservative government to codify existing law on individual rights in UK labour law.
The Employment Standards Administration (ESA) was the largest agency within the U.S. Department of Labor.
The Equal Protection Clause is part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
The Convention concerning Equal Remuneration for Men and Women Workers for Work of Equal Value, or Equal Remuneration Convention is the 100th International Labour Organization Convention and the principal one aimed at equal remuneration for work of equal value for men and women.
Council Directive 2000/78/EC, called Employment Equality Framework Directive, is an EU Directive, and a major part of EU labour law which aims to combat discrimination on grounds of disability, sexual orientation, religion or belief and age in the workplace.
Essentialia negotii (essential aspects 'or basic terms) is a Latin legal term used in contract law.
Essonne is a French department in the region of Île-de-France.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The European Union–South Korea Free Trade Agreement is a free trade agreement between the European Union (EU) and South Korea.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
The Factory Act of 1847, also known as the Ten Hours Act was a United Kingdom Act of Parliament which restricted the working hours of women and young persons (13-18) in textile mills to 10 hours per day.
The Factory Acts were a series of UK labour law Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to regulate the conditions of industrial employment.
The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (abbreviated as FLSA) is a United States labor law that creates the right to a minimum wage, and "time-and-a-half" overtime pay when people work over forty hours a week.
The Fair Work Act 2009 is an Australian law passed by the Rudd Government after coming into power in 2007 to reform the industrial relations system in Australia.
The Fair Work Commission (FWC), formerly known as Fair Work Australia (FWA), is the Australian industrial relations tribunal created by the Fair Work Act 2009 as part of the Rudd Government's reforms to industrial relations in Australia.
Family economics applies basic economic concepts such as production, division of labor, distribution, and decision making to the study of the family.
A family wage is a wage that is sufficient to raise a family.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The Fifth Amendment (Amendment V) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights and, among other things, protects individuals from being compelled to be witnesses against themselves in criminal cases.
The contrat première embauche (CPE; first employment contract) was a new form of employment contract pushed in spring 2006 in France by Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin.
Flag of convenience (FOC) is a business practice whereby a ship's owners register a merchant ship in a ship register of a country other than that of the ship's owners, and the ship flies the civil ensign of that country, called the flag state.
The Forced Labour Convention, the full title of which is the Convention Concerning Forced or Compulsory Labour, 1930 (No.29), is one of eight ILO fundamental conventions of the International Labour Organization.
Forty-Hour Week Convention, 1935 is an International Labour Organization Convention.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Freedom of association encompasses both an individual's right to join or leave groups voluntarily, the right of the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of its members, and the right of an association to accept or decline membership based on certain criteria.
The Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention (1948) is an International Labour Organization Convention, and one of eight conventions that form the core of international labour law, as interpreted by the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was a legal agreement between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas.
A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.
German company law (Gesellschaftsrecht) is an influential legal regime for companies in Germany.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Guaranteed minimum income (GMI), also called minimum income, is a system of social welfare provision that guarantees that all citizens or families have an income sufficient to live on, provided they meet certain conditions.
Halliburton is an American multinational corporation.
The Health and Morals of Apprentices Act 1802 (42 Geo III c.73), sometimes known as the Factory Act 1802, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom designed to improve conditions for apprentices working in cotton mills.
Holidays with Pay Convention, 1936 is an International Labour Organization Convention.
Hours of Work (Industry) Convention, 1919 is an International Labour Organization Convention.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Industrial relations is a multidisciplinary field that studies the employment relationship.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI) is a Mexican political party founded in 1929 that held power uninterruptedly in the country for 71 years from 1929 to 2000, first as the National Revolutionary Party (Partido Nacional Revolucionario, PNR), then as the Party of the Mexican Revolution (Partido de la Revolución Mexicana, PRM), and finally renaming itself as the Institutional Revolutionary Party in 1946.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
The Rosella or International Transport Workers Federation v Viking Line ABP (2007) is an EU law case, relevant to all labour law within the European Union, including UK labour law, which held that there is a positive right to strike.
The International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF) is a global union federation of transport workers' trade unions, founded in 1896.
Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007.
Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), often known as Jim Callaghan, served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1976 to 1980.
A job description or JD is a document that describes the general tasks, or other related duties, and responsibilities of a position.
The Journal of Workplace Rights is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering labor-management relations, employment discrimination, and employment law.
A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer, of a lower or puisne court, elected or appointed by means of a commission (letters patent) to keep the peace.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
L'Express is a French weekly news magazine headquartered in Paris.
Labor rights or workers' rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law.
A labour code, (also called a code of labour laws) is a codification of labour laws in legislative form.
The Labour Contract Law of the People's Republic of China (《中华人民共和国劳动合同法》) is the primary source of labour law in China and went into effect on January 1, 2008, following a series of staff-sacking scandals in many companies.
Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.
The degree of labour market flexibility is the speed with which labour markets adapt to fluctuations and changes in society, the economy or production.
The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings, the trade union movement (British English) or labor union movement (American English), also called trade unionism or labor unionism on the one hand, and the political labour movement on the other.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Labour Standards in the World Trade Organization are binding rules, which form a part of the jurisprudence and principles applied within the rule making institutions of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
Lancashire (abbreviated Lancs.) is a county in north west England.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Laval un Partneri Ltd v Svenska Byggnadsarbetareförbundet (2007) is an EU law case, relevant to all labour law within the European Union, which held that there is a positive right to strike.
The law of obligations is one branch of private law under the civil law legal system and so-called "mixed" legal systems.
The legal working age is the minimum age required by law for a person to work, in each country or jurisdiction.
Legislation (or "statutory law") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it.
The Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan is one of two components of the Legislature of Saskatchewan, the other being the Queen of Canada in Right of Saskatchewan, (represented by the Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan).
Lionel Jospin (born 12 July 1937) is a French politician, who served as Prime Minister of France from 1997 to 2002.
A living wage is the minimum income necessary for a worker to meet their basic needs.
Longjumeau is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Master and Servant Acts or Masters and Servants Acts were laws designed to regulate relations between employers and employees during the 18th and 19th centuries.
The Matignon Agreements (French: Accords de Matignon) were signed on 7 June 1936, at one o'clock in the morning, between the Confédération générale de la production française (CGPF) employers' organization, the CGT trade union and the French state.
A maximum wage, also often called a wage ceiling, is a legal limit on how much income an individual can earn.
Michael Thomas Sadler (3 January 1780 – 29 July 1835) was a British Tory Member of Parliament (MP) whose Evangelical Anglicanism and prior experience as a Poor Law administrator in Leeds led him to oppose Malthusian theories of population and their use to decry state provision for the poor.
The Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment, is a convention adopted in 1973 by the International Labour Organization.
A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers.
Minimum wage law is the body of law which prohibits employers from hiring employees or workers for less than a given hourly, daily or monthly minimum wage.
Rabbi Moses Feinstein (משה פײַנשטיין Moshe Faynshteyn; March 3, 1895 – March 23, 1986) was a Haredi Orthodox rabbi, scholar, and posek (an authoritative adjudicator of questions related to Jewish law), who was world-renowned for his expertise in Halakha, gentleness, and compassion, and was regarded by many as the de facto supreme halakhic authority for observant Jews in North America.
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.
The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (49 Stat. 449) (also known as the Wagner Act after New York Senator Robert F. Wagner) is a foundational statute of United States labor law which guarantees basic rights of private sector employees to organize into trade unions, engage in collective bargaining for better terms and conditions at work, and take collective action including strike if necessary.
The National Minimum Wage Act 1998 creates a minimum wage across the United Kingdom, which from 1 April 2018 was £7.83 per hour for workers aged over 25, £7.38 per hour for workers aged 21 to 24, and £5.90 per hour for workers aged 18 to 20.
The National People's Congress (usually abbreviated NPC) is the national legislature of the People's Republic of China. With 2,980 members in 2018, it is the largest parliamentary body in the world. Under China's Constitution, the NPC is structured as a unicameral legislature, with the power to legislate, the power to oversee the operations of the government, and the power to elect the major officers of state. However, the NPC has been described as a "rubber stamp," having "never rejected a government proposal" in its history. The NPC is elected for a term of five years. It holds annual sessions every spring, usually lasting from 10 to 14 days, in the Great Hall of the People on the west side of Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The NPC's sessions are usually timed to occur with the meetings of the National Committee of the People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), a consultative body whose members represent various social groups. As the NPC and the CPPCC are the main deliberative bodies of China, they are often referred to as the Lianghui (Two Assemblies). According to the NPC, its annual meetings provide an opportunity for the officers of state to review past policies and present future plans to the nation.
Negative and positive rights are rights that oblige either action (positive rights) or inaction (negative rights).
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.
The term novated lease is used to refer to a motor vehicle lease which has been novated, that is, the obligations in the contract have been transferred from one party to another.
Occupational licensing, also called occupational licensure, is a form of government regulation requiring a license to pursue a particular profession or vocation for compensation.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
This is a list of topics on working time and conditions.
Paternalism is action limiting a person's or group's liberty or autonomy which is intended to promote their own good.
United States lawful permanent residency, informally known as having a green card, is the immigration status of a person authorized to live and work in the United States of America permanently.
Picketing is a form of protest in which people (called picketers) congregate outside a place of work or location where an event is taking place.
Pierre Marie René Ernest Waldeck-Rousseau (2 December 1846 – 10 August 1904) was a French Republican politician.
The Popular Front (Front populaire) was an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period.
The Posted Workers Directive is an EU directive concerned with the free movement of workers within the European Union.
Precarious work is non-standard employment that is poorly paid, insecure, unprotected, and cannot support a household.
A price floor is a government- or group-imposed price control or limit on how low a price can be charged for a product.
Profit sharing refers to various incentive plans introduced by businesses that provide direct or indirect payments to employees that depend on company's profitability in addition to employees' regular salary and bonuses.
Protective laws were enacted to protect women from certain hazards or difficulties of paid work.
In criminology, public-order crime is defined by Siegel (2004) as "crime which involves acts that interfere with the operations of society and the ability of people to function efficiently", i.e., it is behaviour that has been labelled criminal because it is contrary to shared norms, social values, and customs.
Racial discrimination refers to discrimination against individuals on the basis of their race.
Ravat v Halliburton Manufacturing and Services Ltd is a UK labour law case, concerning the test for when workers are covered by employment rights when they work abroad.
A reform movement is a type of social movement that aims to bring a social or political system closer to the community's ideal.
The Reichstag (Diet of the Realm or Imperial Diet) was the Parliament of Germany from 1871 to 1918.
The Report of the committee of inquiry on industrial democracy (1977) Cmnd 6706, also the Bullock Report for short, was a report proposing for a form of worker participation or workers' control, chaired by Alan Bullock.
A restaurant, or an eatery, is a business which prepares and serves food and drinks to customers in exchange for money.
The Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention (1949) is an International Labour Organization Convention.
The right to work is the concept that people have a human right to work, or engage in productive employment, and may not be prevented from doing so.
"Right-to-work laws" are statutes in 28 U.S. states that prohibit union security agreements between companies and workers' unions.
Robert Owen (14 May 1771 – 17 November 1858) was a Welsh textile manufacturer, philanthropic social reformer, and one of the founders of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement.
The Rome I Regulation (Regulation (EC) No of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 on the law applicable to contractual obligations) is a regulation which governs the choice of law in the European Union.
Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity, effort or organization through subversion, obstruction, disruption or destruction.
Lawson v Serco Ltd is a UK labour law case, concerning the test for when workers are covered by employment rights when they work abroad.
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
Sick leave (or paid sick days or sick pay) is time off from work that workers can use to stay home to address their health and safety needs without losing pay.
A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more people occupying an area for a protest, often to promote political, social, or economic change.
A slowdown (UK: go-slow) is an industrial action in which employees perform their duties but seek to reduce productivity or efficiency in their performance of these duties.
Small businesses are privately owned corporations, partnerships, or sole proprietorships that have fewer employees and/or less annual revenue than a regular-sized business or corporation.
Within the context of international trade, a social clause is the integration of seven core ILO labour rights conventions into trade agreements.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
Solidarity action (also known as secondary action, a secondary boycott, or a sympathy strike) is industrial action by a trade union in support of a strike initiated by workers in a separate corporation, but often the same enterprise, group of companies, or connected firm.
Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality.
In the United States, state law refers to the law of each separate U.S. state.
Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work.
A strikebreaker (sometimes derogatorily called a scab, blackleg, or knobstick) is a person who works despite an ongoing strike.
In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a market.
The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of constitutional review.
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English and Welsh law, Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law.
The Supreme People's Court is the highest level of court in the mainland area of the People's Republic of China.
Sweatshop (or sweat factory) is a pejorative term for a workplace that has very poor, socially unacceptable working conditions.
The Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation (SR 10, Bundesverfassung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft (BV), Constitution fédérale de la Confédération suisse (Cst.), Costituzione federale della Confederazione Svizzera (Cost.), Constituziun federala da la Confederaziun svizra) of 18 April 1999 (SR 101) is the third and current federal constitution of Switzerland.
The Swiss labor law covers all standards governing the employment of some kind.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.
Termination of employment, is an employee's departure from a job and the end of an employee's duration with an employer.
Termination of Employment Convention, 1982 is an International Labour Organization Convention.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
Thomas Percival FRS FRSE FSA (1740–1804) was an English physician, health reformer, ethicist and author, best known for crafting perhaps the first modern code of medical ethics.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
The Trade Boards Act 1909 was a piece of social legislation passed in the United Kingdom in 1909.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome) is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht).
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
A union organizer (or union organiser) is a specific type of trade union member (often elected) or an appointed union official.
United Kingdom labour law regulates the relations between workers, employers and trade unions.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
Vicarious liability is a form of a strict, secondary liability that arises under the common law doctrine of agency, respondeat superior, the responsibility of the superior for the acts of their subordinate or, in a broader sense, the responsibility of any third party that had the "right, ability or duty to control" the activities of a violator.
A wildcat strike action, often referred to as a wildcat strike, is a strike action undertaken by unionized workers without union leadership's authorization, support, or approval; this is sometimes termed an unofficial industrial.
A work permit is the permission to take a job within a foreign country.
Work-to-rule is an industrial action in which employees do no more than the minimum required by the rules of their contract, and precisely follow all safety or other regulations, which may cause a slowdown or decrease in productivity, as they are no longer working during breaks or during unpaid extended hours and weekends (checking email, for instance).
WorkChoices was the name given to changes made to the federal industrial relations laws in Australia by the Howard Government in 2005, being amendments to the Workplace Relations Act 1996 by the Workplace Relations Amendment (Work Choices) Act 2005, that came into effect on 27 March 2006.
The working poor are working people whose incomes fall below a given poverty line due to lack of work hours and/or low wages.
The Working Time Directive, is a Directive of the European Union.
Workplace Fairness is a 501(c)(3) public education and advocacy organization, founded in 1994 as the National Employee Rights Institute.
The workweek and weekend are those complementary parts of the week devoted to labour and rest, respectively.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, known in short as the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, was adopted by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in 1999 as ILO Convention No 182.
In law, wrongful dismissal, also called wrongful termination or wrongful discharge, is a situation in which an employee's contract of employment has been terminated by the employer, where the termination breaches one or more terms of the contract of employment, or a statute provision or rule in employment law.
The 2006 youth protests in France occurred throughout France during February, March, and April 2006 as a result of opposition to a measure set to deregulate labour.
The 35-hour working week is a measure adopted first in France, in February 2000, under Prime Minister Lionel Jospin's Plural Left government.
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