84 relations: Adenotrophic viviparity, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Alveolar gland, Anterior white commissure, Antibody, Areola, Autocrine signalling, Breast, Breast pump, Breastfeeding, Charles Darwin, Childbirth, Classical conditioning, Cockroach, Colostrum, Columbidae, Cortisol, Crop milk, Dayak fruit bat, Diploptera punctata, Discus (fish), Endocrine system, Erotic lactation, Estrogen, Female, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Galactagogue, Galactorrhea, Glucocorticoid, Growth hormone, Herring bodies, Hormone, Human chorionic gonadotropin, Human placental lactogen, Hyperprolactinaemia, Hypothalamic–pituitary–prolactin axis, Hypothalamus, Immunoglobulin A, Infertility, Intercostal nerves, Lactation failure, Lactation room, Lactation suppression, Lactational amenorrhea, Lactiferous duct, Luteinizing hormone, Male lactation, Mammary gland, Mammary ridge, Mechanoreceptor, ..., Milk, Monotreme, Mother, Myoepithelial cell, Neurophysin I, Nipple, Nutrition, Oxytocin, Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, Pituitary gland, Pituitary stalk, Placenta, Posterior pituitary, Posterolateral tract, Postpartum period, Pregnancy, Progesterone, Prolactin, Roman Charity, Smooth muscle tissue, Species, Spinothalamic tract, Stress (biology), Supraoptic nucleus, Surgery, Synapsid, Therapsid, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, Tight junction, Tsetse fly, Udder, Uterus, Witch's milk. Expand index (34 more) » « Shrink index
Adenotrophic viviparity means "gland fed, live birth".
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
If glands are categorized by shape, alveolar glands contrast with tubular glands.
The anterior white commissure (ventral white commissure) is a bundle of nerve fibers which cross the midline of the spinal cord just anterior (in front of) to the gray commissure (Rexed lamina X).
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
The human areola (areola mammae, in. or) is the pigmented area on the breast around the nipple.
Autocrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine agent) that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell, leading to changes in the cell.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
A breast pump is a mechanical device that lactating women use to extract milk from their breasts.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).
Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests. The cockroaches are an ancient group, dating back at least as far as the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors however lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living neopteran insects. They are common and hardy insects, and can tolerate a wide range of environments from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species. Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.
Colostrum (known colloquially as beestings, bisnings or first milk) is the first form of milk produced by the mammary glands of mammals (including many humans) immediately following delivery of the newborn.
Pigeons and doves constitute the animal family Columbidae and the order Columbiformes, which includes about 42 genera and 310 species.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Crop milk is a secretion from the lining of the crop of parent birds that is regurgitated to young birds.
The dayak fruit bat or dyak fruit bat (Dyacopterus spadiceus) is a relatively rare frugivorous megabat species found only on the Sunda Shelf of southeast Asia, specifically the Malay Peninsula south of the Isthmus of Kra, and the islands of Borneo and Sumatra.
Diploptera punctata or the Pacific beetle cockroach is a species of cockroach in the family Blaberidae and subfamily Diplopterinae.
Symphysodon, colloquially known as discus, is a genus of cichlids native to the Amazon river basin in South America.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Erotic lactation is sexual arousal by breastfeeding on a woman's breast.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells).
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
A galactagogue, or galactogogue, (from γάλα, milk, + ἀγωγός, leading) is a substance that promotes lactation in humans and other animals.
Galactorrhea (also spelled galactorrhoea) (galacto- + -rrhea) or lactorrhea (lacto- + -rrhea) is the spontaneous flow of milk from the breast, unassociated with childbirth or nursing.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
Herring bodies or neurosecretory bodies are structures found in the posterior pituitary.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation.
Human placental lactogen (hPL), also called human chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS), is a polypeptide placental hormone, the human form of placental lactogen (chorionic somatomammotropin).
Hyperprolactinemia or hyperprolactinaemia is the presence of abnormally high levels of prolactin in the blood.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–prolactin axis (HPP axis), also known as the hypothalamic–pituitary–mammary axis or hypothalamic–pituitary–breast axis, is a hypothalamic–pituitary axis which includes the secretion of prolactin (PRL; luteotropin) from the lactotrophs of the pituitary gland into the circulation and the subsequent action of prolactin on tissues such as, particularly, the mammary glands or breasts.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA, also referred to as sIgA in its secretory form) is an antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of mucous membranes.
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.
The intercostal nerves are part of the somatic nervous system, and arise from the anterior rami of the thoracic spinal nerves from T1 to T11.
In breastfeeding, lactation failure may refer to.
Lactation room (or Lactorium) is an American English term for a private space where a nursing mother can use a breast pump.
Lactation suppression refers to the act of suppressing lactation by medication or other non pharmaceutical means.
Lactiferous ducts are those ducts that converge and form a branched system connecting the nipple to the lobules of the mammary gland.
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
In zoology, male lactation is the production of milk from a male mammal's mammary glands in the presence of physiological stimuli connected with nursing infants.
A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.
The mammary ridge or mammary crest, is a primordium specific for the development of the mammary gland.
A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
Monotremes are one of the three main groups of living mammals, along with placentals (Eutheria) and marsupials (Metatheria).
A mother is the female parent of a child.
Myoepithelial cells (sometimes referred to as myoepithelium) are cells usually found in glandular epithelium as a thin layer above the basement membrane but generally beneath the luminal cells.
Neurophysin I is a carrier protein with a size of 10 KDa and contains 90 to 97 aminoacids.
The nipple is a raised region of tissue on the surface of the breast from which milk leaves the breast through the lactiferous ducts.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.
The paraventricular nucleus (PVN, PVA, or PVH) is a nucleus in the hypothalamus.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
The pituitary stalk (also known as the infundibular stalk, "Fenderson's funnel", or simply the infundibulum) is the connection between the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland which is part of the endocrine system.
The posterolateral tract (fasciculus of Lissauer, Lissauer's tract, tract of Lissauer, dorsolateral fasciculus, dorsolateral tract, zone of Lissauer) is a small strand situated in relation to the tip of the posterior column close to the entrance of the posterior nerve roots.
A postpartum (or postnatal) period begins immediately after the birth of a child as the mother's body, including hormone levels and uterus size, returns to a non-pregnant state.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
Roman Charity (Latin Caritas romana; Italian Carità Romana) is the exemplary story of a woman, Pero, who secretly breastfeeds her father, Cimon, after he is incarcerated and sentenced to death by starvation.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The spinothalamic tract (also known as anterolateral system or the ventrolateral system) is a sensory pathway from the skin to the thalamus.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
The supraoptic nucleus (SON) is a nucleus of magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus of the mammalian brain.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Synapsids (Greek, 'fused arch'), synonymous with theropsids (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes.
Therapsida is a group of synapsids that includes mammals and their ancestors.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or thyroliberin, is a releasing hormone, produced by the hypothalamus, that stimulates the release of thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH) and prolactin from the anterior pituitary.
Tight junctions, also known as occluding junctions or zonulae occludentes (singular, zonula occludens) are multiprotein junctional complex whose general function is to prevent leakage of transported solutes and water and seals the paracellular pathway.
Tsetse, sometimes spelled tzetze and also known as tik-tik flies, are large biting flies that inhabit much of tropical Africa.
An udder is an organ formed of the mammary glands of female four-legged mammals, particularly ruminants such as cattle, goats, sheep and deer.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
Witch's milk or neonatal milk is milk secreted from the breasts of some newborn human infants of either sex.
Female lactation, Galactopoiesis, Human lactation, Induced lactation, Lactating, Lactation reflex, Lactific, Lactosis, Let down reflex, Let-down reflex, Letting down, Milk ejection reflex, Milk let-down reflex, Milk letdown reflex, Milk secretion, Relactate, Relactation.