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Index Lactone

Lactones are cyclic esters of hydroxycarboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure, or analogues having unsaturation or heteroatoms replacing one or more carbon atoms of the ring. [1]

97 relations: Acrylic acid, Alcohol, Aldehyde, Alkene, Alpha-Propiolactone, Amide, Amphotericin B, Angelica archangelica, Antibiotic, Avermectin, Baeyer–Villiger oxidation, Beta-Propiolactone, Bufadienolide, Butenolide, Caprolactone, Carboxylic acid, Cardenolide, Cardiac glycoside, Celery, Chemical equilibrium, Chemotherapy, Civetone, Coumarin, Cyclopentadecanolide, Depolymerization, Di-tert-butyl peroxide, E number, Electrophilic addition, Elimination reaction, Ellagic acid, Enone, Enthalpy, Entropy, Enzyme, Epothilone, Equilibrium constant, Erythromycin, Ester, Fatty alcohol, Flavogallonic acid dilactone, Free-radical addition, Galium odoratum, Gamma-Butyrolactone, Glucono delta-lactone, Greek alphabet, Halogen, Halogenation, Haloketone, Helmut Schwarz, Heteroatom, ..., Hormone, Hydrolysis, Imide, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Iodolactonization, IUPAC books, Kavain, Kavalactone, Lactam, Lactic acid, Lactide, Lactonase, Lead(IV) acetate, Lithium aluminium hydride, Lithium chloride, Lovage, Macrolide, Mass spectrometry, Michael reaction, Molecular geometry, Muscone, Nepetalactone, Neurotransmitter, Nucleophilic abstraction, Organic redox reaction, Organic Syntheses, Osmium tetroxide, Oxandrolone, Phenolphthalein, Phthalide, Phytoestrogens, Polycaprolactone, Polyester, Preferred IUPAC name, Resorcylic acid, Reversible reaction, Royal Society of Chemistry, Sesquiterpene lactone, Shiina macrolactonization, Sodium borohydride, Sodium hydroxide, Spironolactone, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Valoneic acid dilactone, Vernolepin, Vitamin C, Yamaguchi esterification. Expand index (47 more) »

Acrylic acid

Acrylic acid (IUPAC: propenoic acid) is an organic compound with the formula CH2.

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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.

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In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.

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α-Propiolactone, or 2-methyl-α-lactone, is a chemical compound of the lactone family, with a three-membered ring.

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An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).

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Amphotericin B

Amphotericin B is an antifungal medication used for serious fungal infections and leishmaniasis.

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Angelica archangelica

Angelica archangelica, commonly known as garden angelica, wild celery, and Norwegian angelica, is a biennial plant from the Apiaceae family, a subspecies of which is cultivated for its sweetly scented edible stems and roots.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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The avermectins are a series of drugs and pesticides used to treat parasitic worms and insect pests.

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Baeyer–Villiger oxidation

The Baeyer–Villiger oxidation is an organic reaction that forms an ester from a ketone or a lactone from a cyclic ketone, using peroxyacids or peroxides as the oxidant.

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β-Propiolactone is an organic compound of the lactone family, with a four-membered ring.

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Bufadienolide is a chemical compound with steroid structure.

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Butenolides are a class of lactones with a four-carbon heterocyclic ring structure.

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ε-Caprolactone or simply caprolactone is a lactone (a cyclic ester) possessing a seven-membered ring.

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Carboxylic acid

A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.

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Cardenolide is a type of steroid.

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Cardiac glycoside

Cardiac glycosides are a class of organic compounds that increase the output force of the heart and decrease its rate of contractions by acting on the cellular sodium-potassium ATPase pump.

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Celery (Apium graveolens) is a marshland plant in the family Apiaceae that has been cultivated as a vegetable since antiquity.

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Chemical equilibrium

In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system.

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Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

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Civetone is a macrocyclic ketone and the main odorous constituent of civet oil.

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Coumarin (2H-chromen-2-one) is a fragrant organic chemical compound in the benzopyrone chemical class, although it may also be seen as a subclass of lactones.

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Cyclopentadecanolide is a natural macrolide lactone and a synthetic musk.

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Depolymerization (or depolymerisation) is the process of converting a polymer into a monomer or a mixture of monomers.

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Di-tert-butyl peroxide

Di-tert-butyl peroxide or DTBP is an organic compound consisting of a peroxide group bonded to two tert-butyl groups.

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E number

E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA.

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Electrophilic addition

In organic chemistry, an electrophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where, in a chemical compound, a π bond is broken and two new σ bonds are formed.

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Elimination reaction

An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one or two-step mechanism.

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Ellagic acid

Ellagic acid is a natural phenol antioxidant found in numerous fruits and vegetables.

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An enone, also called an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl, is a type of organic compound consisting of an alkene conjugated to a ketone.

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Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.

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In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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The epothilones are a class of potential cancer drugs.

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Equilibrium constant

The equilibrium constant of a chemical reaction is the value of its reaction quotient at chemical equilibrium, a state approached by a dynamic chemical system after sufficient time has elapsed at which its composition has no measurable tendency towards further change.

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Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

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In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.

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Fatty alcohol

Fatty alcohols (or long-chain alcohols) are usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4–6 carbons to as many as 22–26, derived from natural fats and oils.

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Flavogallonic acid dilactone

Flavogallonic acid dilactone is a hydrolysable tannin that can be found in Rhynchosia volubilis seeds, in Shorea laeviforia, in Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennoides.

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Free-radical addition

Free-radical addition is an addition reaction in organic chemistry involving free radicals.

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Galium odoratum

Galium odoratum, the sweetscented bedstraw, is a flowering perennial plant in the family Rubiaceae, native to much of Europe from Spain and Ireland to Russia, as well as Western Siberia, Turkey, Iran, the Caucasus, China and Japan.

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γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless, water-miscible liquid with a weak characteristic odor.

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Glucono delta-lactone

Glucono delta-lactone (GDL), also known as gluconolactone, is a food additive with the E number E575 used as a sequestrant, an acidifier, or a curing, pickling, or leavening agent.

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Greek alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.

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The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

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Halogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of one or more halogens to a compound or material.

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A haloketone in organic chemistry is a functional group consisting of a ketone group or more generally a carbonyl group with an α-halogen substituent.

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Helmut Schwarz

Helmut Schwarz (born 6 August 1943) is a highly cited German organic chemist.

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In chemistry, a heteroatom (from Ancient Greek heteros, "different", + atomos, "uncut") is any atom that is not carbon or hydrogen.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.

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In organic chemistry, an imide is a functional group consisting of two acyl groups bound to nitrogen.

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International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.

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Iodolactonization (or, more generally, Halolactonization) is an organic reaction that forms a ring (the lactone) by the addition of an oxygen and iodine across a carbon-carbon double bond.

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IUPAC books

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry publishes many books, which contain its complete list of definitions.

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Kavain is the main kavalactone found mostly in the roots of the kava plant.

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Kavalactones are a class of lactone compounds found in the kava shrub.

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A lactam is a cyclic amide.

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Lactic acid

Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.

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Lactide is the lactone cyclic di-ester derived from lactic acid (2-hydroxypropionic acid).

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Lactonase (also acyl-homoserine lactonase) is a metalloenzyme, produced by certain species of bacteria, which targets and inactivates acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs).

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Lead(IV) acetate

Lead(IV) acetate or lead tetraacetate is a chemical compound with chemical formula Pb(C2H3O2)4.

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Lithium aluminium hydride

Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH4.

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Lithium chloride

Lithium chloride is a chemical compound with the formula LiCl.

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Lovage, Levisticum officinale, is a tall perennial plant, the sole species in the genus Levisticum in the family Apiaceae, subfamily Apioideae.

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The macrolides are a class of natural products that consist of a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached.

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Mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

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Michael reaction

The Michael reaction or Michael addition is the nucleophilic addition of a carbanion or another nucleophile to an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound.

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Molecular geometry

Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule.

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Muscone is an organic compound that is the primary contributor to the odor of musk.

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Nepetalactone is an organic compound, first isolated from the plant catnip (Nepeta cataria), which acts as a cat attractant.

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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Nucleophilic abstraction

Nucleophilic abstraction is a type of an organometallic reaction which can be defined as a nucleophilic attack on a ligand which causes part or all of the original ligand to be removed from the metal along with the nucleophile.

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Organic redox reaction

Organic reductions or organic oxidations or organic redox reactions are redox reactions that take place with organic compounds.

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Organic Syntheses

Organic Syntheses is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1921.

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Osmium tetroxide

Osmium tetroxide (also osmium(VIII) oxide) is the chemical compound with the formula OsO4.

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Oxandrolone, sold under the brand names Oxandrin and Anavar among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used to help promote weight gain in various situations, to help offset protein catabolism caused by long-term corticosteroid therapy, to support recovery from severe burns, to treat bone pain associated with osteoporosis, to aid in the development of girls with Turner syndrome, and for other indications.

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Phenolphthalein is a chemical compound with the formula C20H14O4 and is often written as "HIn" or "phph" in shorthand notation.

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Phthalide is an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula C8H6O2.

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Phytoestrogens are plant-derived xenoestrogens (see estrogen) not generated within the endocrine system, but consumed by eating phytoestrogenic plants.

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Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a biodegradable polyester with a low melting point of around 60 °C and a glass transition temperature of about −60 °C.

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Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.

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Preferred IUPAC name

In chemical nomenclature, a preferred IUPAC name (PIN) is a unique name, assigned to a chemical substance and preferred among the possible names generated by IUPAC nomenclature.

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Resorcylic acid

Resorcylic acid is a type of dihydroxybenzoic acids.

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Reversible reaction

A reversible reaction is a reaction where the reactants form products, which react together to give the reactants back.

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Royal Society of Chemistry

The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".

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Sesquiterpene lactone

Sesquiterpene lactones are a class of chemical compounds; they are sesquiterpenoids (built from three isoprene units) and contain a lactone ring, hence the name.

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Shiina macrolactonization

Shiina macrolactonization (or Shiina lactonization) is an organic chemical reaction that synthesizes cyclic compounds by using aromatic carboxylic acid anhydrides as dehydration condensation agents.

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Sodium borohydride

Sodium borohydride, also known as sodium tetrahydridoborate and sodium tetrahydroborate, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaBH4.

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Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.

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Spironolactone, sold under the brand name Aldactone among others, is a medication that is primarily used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.

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Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry is a reference work related to industrial chemistry published in English and German.

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Valoneic acid dilactone

Valoneic acid dilactone is a hydrolysable tannin that can be isolated from the heartwood of Shorea laeviforia5A-Reductase inhibitory tannin-related compounds isolated from Shorea laeviforia.

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Vernolepin is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the dried fruit of Vernonia amygdalina.

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Vitamin C

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

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Yamaguchi esterification

The Yamaguchi esterification is the chemical reaction of an aliphatic carboxylic acid and 2,4,6-trichlorobenzoyl chloride (TCBC, Yamaguchi reagent) to form a mixed anhydride which, upon reaction with an alcohol in the presence of stoichiometric amount of DMAP, produces the desired ester.

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Cyclic ester, Delta-lactone, Dilactone, Dilactones, Gamma-lactone, Lactones, Lactonisation, Lactonization, Γ-lactone.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactone

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