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Lagrangian point

Index Lagrangian point

In celestial mechanics, the Lagrangian points (also Lagrange points, L-points, or libration points) are positions in an orbital configuration of two large bodies, wherein a small object, affected only by the gravitational forces from the two larger objects, will maintain its position relative to them. [1]

150 relations: Aditya-L1, Advanced Composition Explorer, Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics, Al Gore, An Inconvenient Truth, Angular velocity, Apollo program, Astronomical unit, Azimuth, B612 Foundation, Barycenter, Binary star, Calypso (moon), Canadian Space Agency, Celestial mechanics, Center of mass, Centripetal force, Chang'e 2, Chang'e 4, Chang'e 5-T1, China National Space Administration, Circular orbit, Co-orbital configuration, Comic book, Communications satellite, Coordinate system, Coronal mass ejection, Cosmic microwave background, Counter-Earth, CubeSat, Deep Space Climate Observatory, Dione (moon), Dynamic equilibrium, Dynamical system, Earth, Epimetheus (moon), Equilateral triangle, EQUULEUS, Euclid (spacecraft), Euler's three-body problem, European Space Agency, Exploration Gateway Platform, Exploration Mission 1, Far side of the Moon, Gaia (spacecraft), Gegenschein, Gerard K. O'Neill, Giant-impact hypothesis, Graveyard orbit, Gravitational field, ..., Gravity, Halo orbit, Helene (moon), Heliocentric orbit, Herschel Space Observatory, Hilda asteroid, Hill sphere, Hiten, Homer, Horseshoe orbit, Icarus (journal), Iliad, Indian Space Research Organisation, Infrared astronomy, International Cometary Explorer, Interplanetary dust cloud, Interplanetary Transport Network, James Webb Space Telescope, Janus (moon), JAXA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Joseph-Louis Lagrange, Jupiter, Kidney bean, Klemperer rosette, Kordylewski cloud, L5 Society, Lagrange point colonization, Lagrangian mechanics, Leonhard Euler, LISA Pathfinder, Lissajous curve, Lissajous orbit, List of Jupiter trojans (Greek camp), List of Jupiter trojans (Trojan camp), List of objects at Lagrangian points, List of Solar System probes, Lunar space elevator, Mars, Mass, Mechanical equilibrium, Moon, NASA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Near-Earth object, Neil deGrasse Tyson, Neptune, Neptune trojan, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Oberth effect, Orbit, Orbital period, Orbital resonance, Orbital station-keeping, Pamela L. Gay, Parallelogram law, Planck (spacecraft), PLATO (spacecraft), Polydeuces (moon), Propellant depot, Pulp magazine, Quintic function, Ratio, Roche lobe, Rotating reference frame, Satellite, Science fiction, Sentinel Space Telescope, Sign function, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, Solar System, Solar telescope, Solar wind, Space Launch System, Space weather, Space Weather Prediction Center, SPICA (spacecraft), Sun, Telesto (moon), Tethys (moon), The Blue Marble, The New York Times, The Planetary Society, THEMIS, Three-body problem, Trojan (astronomy), Umbra, penumbra and antumbra, United States Department of Energy, University of Tokyo, Venus, Wave interference, Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, WIND (spacecraft), Wolfram Demonstrations Project, 1,000,000,000, 3753 Cruithne, 4179 Toutatis, 5261 Eureka. Expand index (100 more) »


Aditya (publisher) or Aditya-L1 is a spacecraft whose mission is to study the Sun.

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Advanced Composition Explorer

Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) is a NASA Explorers program Solar and space exploration mission to study matter comprising energetic particles from the solar wind, the interplanetary medium, and other sources.

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Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics

The Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics (ATHENA) is a future X-ray telescope of the European Space Agency, under development for launch around 2028.

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Al Gore

Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.

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An Inconvenient Truth

An Inconvenient Truth is a 2006 American documentary film directed by Davis Guggenheim about former United States Vice President Al Gore's campaign to educate citizens about global warming via a comprehensive slide show that, by his own estimate made in the film, he has given more than a thousand times.

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Angular velocity

In physics, the angular velocity of a particle is the rate at which it rotates around a chosen center point: that is, the time rate of change of its angular displacement relative to the origin.

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Apollo program

The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.

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Astronomical unit

The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.

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An azimuth (from the pl. form of the Arabic noun "السَّمْت" as-samt, meaning "the direction") is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system.

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B612 Foundation

The B612 Foundation is a private nonprofit foundation headquartered in Mill Valley, California, United States, dedicated to planetary defense against asteroids and other near-Earth object (NEO) impacts.

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The barycenter (or barycentre; from the Ancient Greek βαρύς heavy + κέντρον centre) is the center of mass of two or more bodies that are orbiting each other, which is the point around which they both orbit.

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Binary star

A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter.

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Calypso (moon)

Calypso (Καλυψώ) is a moon of Saturn.

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Canadian Space Agency

The Canadian Space Agency (CSA; Agence spatiale canadienne, ASC) was established by the Canadian Space Agency Act which received Royal Assent on May 10, 1990.

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Celestial mechanics

Celestial mechanics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the motions of celestial objects.

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Center of mass

In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.

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Centripetal force

A centripetal force (from Latin centrum, "center" and petere, "to seek") is a force that makes a body follow a curved path.

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Chang'e 2

Chang'e 2 is a Chinese unmanned lunar probe that was launched on 1 October 2010.

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Chang'e 4

Chang'e 4 is a planned Chinese lunar exploration mission, to be launched in December 2018, that will incorporate an orbiter, a robotic lander and rover.

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Chang'e 5-T1

Chang'e 5-T1 is an experimental unmanned lunar mission that was launched on 23 October 2014 by the China National Space Administration (CNSA) to conduct atmospheric re-entry tests on the capsule design planned to be used in the Chang'e 5 mission.

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China National Space Administration

The China National Space Administration (CNSA) is the national space agency of China.

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Circular orbit

A circular orbit is the orbit with a fixed distance around the barycenter, that is, in the shape of a circle.

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Co-orbital configuration

In astronomy, a co-orbital configuration is a configuration of two or more astronomical objects (such as asteroids, moons, or planets) orbiting at the same, or very similar, distance from their primary, i.e. they are in a 1:1 mean-motion resonance.

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Comic book

A comic book or comicbook, also called comic magazine or simply comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes.

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Communications satellite

A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.

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Coordinate system

In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.

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Coronal mass ejection

A coronal mass ejection (CME) is a significant release of plasma and magnetic field from the solar corona.

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Cosmic microwave background

The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.

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The Counter-Earth is a hypothetical body of the Solar system hypothesized by the pre-Socratic Greek philosopher Philolaus (c. 470 – c. 385 BC) to support his non-geocentric cosmology, in which all objects in the universe revolve around an unseen "Central Fire" (distinct from the Sun which also revolves around it).

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A CubeSat (U-class spacecraft) is a type of miniaturized satellite for space research that is made up of multiples of 10×10×10 cm cubic units.

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Deep Space Climate Observatory

Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR; formerly known as Triana, unofficially known as GoreSat) is a NOAA space weather and Earth observation satellite.

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Dione (moon)

Dione (Διώνη) is a moon of Saturn.

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Dynamic equilibrium

In chemistry, a dynamic equilibrium exists once a reversible reaction ceases to change its ratio of reactants/products, but substances move between the chemicals at an equal rate, meaning there is no net change.

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Dynamical system

In mathematics, a dynamical system is a system in which a function describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Epimetheus (moon)

Epimetheus is an inner satellite of Saturn.

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Equilateral triangle

In geometry, an equilateral triangle is a triangle in which all three sides are equal.

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EQUULEUS (EQUilibriUm Lunar-Earth point 6U Spacecraft) is a nanosatellite of the 6-Unit CubeSat format that will measure the distribution of plasma that surrounds the Earth (plasmasphere) to help scientists understand the radiation environment in that region.

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Euclid (spacecraft)

Euclid is a visible to near-infrared space telescope currently under development by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Euclid Consortium.

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Euler's three-body problem

In physics and astronomy, Euler's three-body problem is to solve for the motion of a particle that is acted upon by the gravitational field of two other point masses that are fixed in space.

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European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.

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Exploration Gateway Platform

The Exploration Gateway Platformhttp://www.nasa.gov/pdf/604659main_6%20-%20Panel%203_Raftery_Final.pdf was a design proposed by Boeing in December 2011 to drastically reduce the cost of Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), or Mars missions by using components already designed to construct a refueling depot and servicing station located at one of the Earth–Moon Lagrange points, L1 or L2.

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Exploration Mission 1

Exploration Mission 1 or EM-1 (previously known as Space Launch System 1 or SLS-1) is the uncrewed first planned flight of the Space Launch System and the second flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle.

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Far side of the Moon

The far side of the Moon (sometimes figuratively known as the dark side of the Moon) is the hemisphere of the Moon that always faces away from Earth.

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Gaia (spacecraft)

Gaia is a space observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA) designed for astrometry: measuring the positions and distances of stars with unprecedented precision.

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Gegenschein (German for "countershine") is a faintly bright spot in the night sky, around the antisolar point.

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Gerard K. O'Neill

Gerard Kitchen O'Neill (February 6, 1927 – April 27, 1992) was an American physicist and space activist.

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Giant-impact hypothesis

The giant-impact hypothesis, sometimes called the Big Splash, or the Theia Impact suggests that the Moon formed out of the debris left over from a collision between Earth and an astronomical body the size of Mars, approximately 4.5 billion years ago, in the Hadean eon; about 20 to 100 million years after the solar system coalesced.

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Graveyard orbit

A graveyard orbit, also called a junk orbit or disposal orbit, is an orbit that lies away from common operational orbits.

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Gravitational field

In physics, a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body.

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Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Halo orbit

A halo orbit is a periodic, three-dimensional orbit near the L1, L2 or L3 Lagrange points in the three-body problem of orbital mechanics.

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Helene (moon)

Helene (Ἑλένη) is a moon of Saturn.

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Heliocentric orbit

A heliocentric orbit (also called circumsolar orbit) is an orbit around the barycenter of the Solar System, which is usually located within or very near the surface of the Sun.

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Herschel Space Observatory

The Herschel Space Observatory was a space observatory built and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA).

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Hilda asteroid

The Hilda asteroids (adj. Hildian) are a dynamical group of asteroids in a 3:2 orbital resonance with Jupiter.

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Hill sphere

An astronomical body's Hill sphere is the region in which it dominates the attraction of satellites.

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The Hiten Spacecraft (ひてん), given the English name Celestial Maiden and known before launch as MUSES-A (Mu Space Engineering Spacecraft A), part of the MUSES Program, was built by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science of Japan and launched on January 24, 1990.

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Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.

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Horseshoe orbit

A horseshoe orbit is a type of co-orbital motion of a small orbiting body relative to a larger orbiting body (such as Earth).

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Icarus (journal)

Icarus is a scientific journal dedicated to the field of planetary science.

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The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.

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Indian Space Research Organisation

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bangalore.

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Infrared astronomy

Infrared astronomy is the branch of astronomy and astrophysics that studies astronomical objects visible in infrared (IR) radiation.

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International Cometary Explorer

The International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft (designed and launched as the International Sun-Earth Explorer-3 (ISEE-3) satellite), was launched August 12, 1978, into a heliocentric orbit.

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Interplanetary dust cloud

The interplanetary dust cloud, or zodiacal cloud, consists of cosmic dust (small particles floating in outer space) that pervades the space between planets in the Solar System and other planetary systems.

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Interplanetary Transport Network

The Interplanetary Transport Network (ITN) is a collection of gravitationally determined pathways through the Solar System that require very little energy for an object to follow.

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James Webb Space Telescope

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space telescope developed in collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Canadian Space Agency that will be the scientific successor to the Hubble Space Telescope.

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Janus (moon)

Janus is an inner satellite of Saturn.

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The is the Japanese national aerospace and space agency.

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Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.

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Joseph-Louis Lagrange

Joseph-Louis Lagrange (or;; born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia, Encyclopædia Britannica or Giuseppe Ludovico De la Grange Tournier, Turin, 25 January 1736 – Paris, 10 April 1813; also reported as Giuseppe Luigi Lagrange or Lagrangia) was an Italian Enlightenment Era mathematician and astronomer.

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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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Kidney bean

The kidney bean is a variety of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

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Klemperer rosette

A Klemperer rosette is a gravitational system of heavier and lighter bodies orbiting in a regular repeating pattern around a common barycenter.

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Kordylewski cloud

Kordylewski clouds are large concentrations of dust that may exist at the and Lagrangian points of the Earth–Moon system.

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L5 Society

The L5 Society was founded in 1975 by Carolyn Meinel and Keith Henson to promote the space colony ideas of Gerard K. O'Neill.

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Lagrange point colonization

Lagrange point colonization is the colonization of the five equilibrium points in the orbit of a planet or its primary moon, called Lagrangian points.

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Lagrangian mechanics

Lagrangian mechanics is a reformulation of classical mechanics, introduced by the Italian-French mathematician and astronomer Joseph-Louis Lagrange in 1788.

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Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.

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LISA Pathfinder

LISA Pathfinder, formerly Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology-2 (SMART-2), was an ESA spacecraft that was launched on 3 December 2015.

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Lissajous curve

In mathematics, a Lissajous curve, also known as Lissajous figure or Bowditch curve, is the graph of a system of parametric equations which describe complex harmonic motion.

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Lissajous orbit

In orbital mechanics, a Lissajous orbit, named after Jules Antoine Lissajous, is a quasi-periodic orbital trajectory that an object can follow around a Lagrangian point of a three-body system without requiring any propulsion.

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List of Jupiter trojans (Greek camp)

This is a list of Jupiter trojans that lie in the Greek camp, an elongated, curved region around the leading Lagrangian point, 60° ahead of Jupiter's orbit.

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List of Jupiter trojans (Trojan camp)

This is a list of Jupiter trojans that lie in the Trojan camp, an elongated, curved region around the trailing Lagrangian point 60° behind Jupiter.

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List of objects at Lagrangian points

This is a list of known objects which occupy, have occupied, or are planned to occupy any of the five Lagrangian points of two-body systems in space.

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List of Solar System probes

This is a list of space probes that have left Earth orbit (or were launched with that intention but failed), organized by their planned destination.

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Lunar space elevator

A lunar space elevator or lunar spacelift is a proposed transportation system for moving a mechanical climbing vehicle up and down a ribbon-shaped tethered cable that is set between the surface of the Moon "at the bottom" and a docking port suspended tens of thousands of kilometers above in space at the top.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

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Mechanical equilibrium

In classical mechanics, a particle is in mechanical equilibrium if the net force on that particle is zero.

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The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.

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Near-Earth object

A near-Earth object (NEO) is any small Solar System body whose orbit can bring it into proximity with Earth.

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Neil deGrasse Tyson

Neil deGrasse Tyson (born October 5, 1958) is an American astrophysicist, author, and science communicator.

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Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.

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Neptune trojan

Neptune trojans are bodies that orbit the Sun near one of the stable Lagrangian points of Neptune, similar to the trojans of other planets.

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Netherlands Institute for Space Research

SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research is the Dutch expertise institute for space research.

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Oberth effect

In astronautics, a powered flyby, or Oberth maneuver, is a maneuver in which a spacecraft falls into a gravitational well, and then accelerates when its fall reaches maximum speed.

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In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.

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Orbital period

The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.

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Orbital resonance

In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their orbital periods are related by a ratio of small integers.

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Orbital station-keeping

In astrodynamics, the orbital maneuvers made by thruster burns that are needed to keep a spacecraft in a particular assigned orbit are called orbital station-keeping.

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Pamela L. Gay

Pamela L. Gay (born December 12, 1973) is an American astronomer, educator, podcaster, and writer, best known for her work in astronomical podcasting and citizen science astronomy projects.

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Parallelogram law

In mathematics, the simplest form of the parallelogram law (also called the parallelogram identity) belongs to elementary geometry.

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Planck (spacecraft)

Planck was a space observatory operated by the European Space Agency (ESA) from 2009 to 2013, which mapped the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at microwave and infra-red frequencies, with high sensitivity and small angular resolution.

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PLATO (spacecraft)

PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars (PLATO) is a space observatory under development by the European Space Agency for launch in 2026.

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Polydeuces (moon)

Polydeuces, or Saturn XXXIV (34), is a small natural satellite of Saturn that is co-orbital with the moon Dione and librates around its trailing Lagrangian point.

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Propellant depot

An orbital propellant depot is a cache of propellant that is placed in orbit around Earth or another body to allow spacecraft or the transfer stage of the spacecraft to be fueled in space.

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Pulp magazine

Pulp magazines (often referred to as "the pulps") were inexpensive fiction magazines that were published from 1896 to the 1950s.

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Quintic function

In algebra, a quintic function is a function of the form where,,,, and are members of a field, typically the rational numbers, the real numbers or the complex numbers, and is nonzero.

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In mathematics, a ratio is a relationship between two numbers indicating how many times the first number contains the second.

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Roche lobe

The Roche lobe (or Roche limit) is the region around a star in a binary system within which orbiting material is gravitationally bound to that star.

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Rotating reference frame

A rotating frame of reference is a special case of a non-inertial reference frame that is rotating relative to an inertial reference frame.

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In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.

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Science fiction

Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.

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Sentinel Space Telescope

The Sentinel Space Telescope washttp://spacenews.com/b612-studying-smallsat-missions-to-search-for-near-earth-objects/http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3255059/Nasa-pulls-plug-killer-asteroid-hunter-Sentinel-mission-set-search-dangerous-space-rocks-loses-30-million-support.html a space observatory being designed and built for the B612 Foundation, and under development by Ball Aerospace & Technologies.

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Sign function

In mathematics, the sign function or signum function (from signum, Latin for "sign") is an odd mathematical function that extracts the sign of a real number.

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Solar and Heliospheric Observatory

The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is a spacecraft built by a European industrial consortium led by Matra Marconi Space (now Astrium) that was launched on a Lockheed Martin Atlas II AS launch vehicle on December 2, 1995, to study the Sun, and has discovered over 3000 comets.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Solar telescope

A solar telescope is a special purpose telescope used to observe the Sun.

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Solar wind

The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.

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Space Launch System

The Space Launch System (SLS) is an American Space Shuttle-derived heavy-lift expendable launch vehicle.

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Space weather

Space weather is a branch of space physics and aeronomy concerned with the time varying conditions within the Solar System, including the solar wind, emphasizing the space surrounding the Earth, including conditions in the magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere.

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Space Weather Prediction Center

The Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), titled the Space Environment Center (SEC) until 2007, is a laboratory and service center of the US National Weather Service (part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)) located in Boulder, Colorado.

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SPICA (spacecraft)

The Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), initially called HII-L2 after the launch vehicle and orbit, is a proposed infrared space telescope, follow-on to the successful Akari space observatory.

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The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Telesto (moon)

Telesto (Τελεστώ) is a moon of Saturn.

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Tethys (moon)

Tethys (or Saturn III) is a mid-sized moon of Saturn about across.

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The Blue Marble

The Blue Marble is an image of planet Earth made on December 7, 1972, by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft at a distance of about from the surface.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Planetary Society

The Planetary Society is an American internationally active, non-governmental, nonprofit foundation.

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The Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) mission began in February 2007 as a constellation of five NASA satellites (THEMIS A through THEMIS E) to study energy releases from Earth's magnetosphere known as substorms, magnetic phenomena that intensify auroras near Earth's poles.

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Three-body problem

In physics and classical mechanics, the three-body problem is the problem of taking an initial set of data that specifies the positions, masses, and velocities of three bodies for some particular point in time and then determining the motions of the three bodies, in accordance with Newton's laws of motion and of universal gravitation, which are the laws of classical mechanics.

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Trojan (astronomy)

In astronomy, a trojan is a minor planet or moon that shares the orbit of a planet or larger moon, wherein the trojan remains in the same, stable position relative to the larger object.

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Umbra, penumbra and antumbra

The umbra, penumbra and antumbra are three distinct parts of a shadow, created by any light source after impinging on an opaque object.

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United States Department of Energy

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.

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University of Tokyo

, abbreviated as or UTokyo, is a public research university located in Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan.

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Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

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Wave interference

In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.

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Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope

The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is a NASA infrared space observatory that was recommended in 2010 by United States National Research Council Decadal Survey committee as the top priority for the next decade of astronomy.

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Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a NASA infrared-wavelength astronomical space telescope launched in December 2009, and placed in hibernation in February 2011.

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Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), originally known as the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), was a spacecraft operating from 2001 to 2010 which measured temperature differences across the sky in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) – the radiant heat remaining from the Big Bang.

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WIND (spacecraft)

The Global Geospace Science (GGS) Wind satellite is a NASA science spacecraft launched at 04:31:00 EST on November 1, 1994, from launch pad 17B at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in Merritt Island, Florida aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II 7925-10 rocket.

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Wolfram Demonstrations Project

The Wolfram Demonstrations Project is an organized, open-source collection of small (or medium-size) interactive programs called Demonstrations, which are meant to visually and interactively represent ideas from a range of fields.

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1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.

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3753 Cruithne

3753 Cruithne (For instance, on the British television show Q.I. (Season 1; aired 11 Sept 2003).) is a Q-type, Aten asteroid in orbit around the Sun in 1:1 orbital resonance with Earth, making it a co-orbital object.

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4179 Toutatis

4179 Toutatis, provisional designation, is an elongated, stony asteroid and slow rotator, classified as near-Earth object and potentially hazardous asteroid of the Apollo and Alinda group, approximately 2.5 kilometers in diameter.

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5261 Eureka

5261 Eureka is the first Mars trojan discovered.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lagrangian_point

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