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Index Laissez-faire

Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies. [1]

151 relations: Adam Smith, Age of Enlightenment, Alexander Hamilton, American Civil War, American Economic Association, American School (economics), American System (economic plan), Anarcho-capitalism, Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Anti-Corn Law League, Articles of Confederation, Austrian School, Ayn Rand, Benjamin Franklin, Bernard Mandeville, British Empire, Businessperson, Cambridge University Press, Capitalism, Central bank, Christian Gerlach, Classical economics, Classical liberalism, Cobden–Chevalier Treaty, Competition (economics), Constitutional Convention (United States), Cormac Ó Gráda, Corn Laws, Corporatocracy, Corps of Discovery, Corps of Topographical Engineers, Cyberpunk, David Ricardo, Democracy, Democratic-Republican Party, Deregulation, Dingley Act, Durability, Economic liberalism, Economic nationalism, Economic system, Environmental protection, Federal government of the United States, Federalist Party, First Bank of the United States, First Transcontinental Railroad, Founding Fathers of the United States, François Quesnay, Free market, Free trade, ..., Free-market anarchism, Freedom of thought, French language, Friedrich Hayek, George Washington, George Whatley, Government, Great Depression, Great Famine (Ireland), Harvard University Press, Henry Clay, Henry David Thoreau, Herbert Spencer, History of economic thought, Income tax, Infrastructure, Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, Invisible hand, Ireland, Jacques Claude Marie Vincent de Gournay, James Madison, James Mill, James Wilson (businessman), Japan, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Jeremy Bentham, John Maynard Keynes, Laissez-faire, Land value tax, Lewis and Clark Expedition, Liberism, Libertarianism, List of Finance Ministers of France, Louis XV of France, Macroeconomics, Manchester Liberalism, Market fundamentalism, McKinley Tariff, Mercantilism, Mixed economy, Morality, Nation state, Natural law, Neoliberalism, New Deal, Night-watchman state, Objectivism (Ayn Rand), Pacific Railroad Acts, Physiocracy, Pierre Le Pesant, sieur de Boisguilbert, Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours, Political economy, Political Science Quarterly, Private property, Privatization, Privilege (law), Profit motive, Progressive Era, Progressive tax, Protectionism, Public works, Regulation, René Louis de Voyer de Paulmy d'Argenson, Revenue Act of 1861, Richard Cobden, Robert Kuttner, Ronald Reagan, Science (journal), Second Bank of the United States, Sherman Antitrust Act, Spain, Spontaneous order, Subsidy, Sustainability, Sweden, Syndicate (2012 video game), Tariff, Tariff of Abominations, The Economist, The Fable of the Bees, The Historical Journal, The New Freedom, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, The Wealth of Nations, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, Thomas Robert Malthus, Transport, Tuscany, U.S. National Geodetic Survey, United Kingdom, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United States, United States Army, United States Patent and Trademark Office, Victor de Riqueti, marquis de Mirabeau, Washington, D.C., Whig Party (United States), Woodrow Wilson, World War I, Wu wei. Expand index (101 more) »

Adam Smith

Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Alexander Hamilton

Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was a statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.

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American Economic Association

The American Economic Association (AEA) is a learned society in the field of economics, headquartered in Nashville, Tennessee.

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American School (economics)

The American School, also known as the National System, represents three different yet related constructs in politics, policy and philosophy.

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American System (economic plan)

The American System was an economic plan that played an important role in American policy during the first half of the 19th century.

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Anarcho-capitalism is a political philosophy and school of anarchist thought that advocates the elimination of centralized state dictum in favor of self-ownership, private property and free markets.

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Anne Robert Jacques Turgot

Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de l'Aulne (10 May 172718 March 1781), commonly known as Turgot, was a French economist and statesman.

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Anti-Corn Law League

The Anti-Corn Law League was a successful political movement in Great Britain aimed at the abolition of the unpopular Corn Laws, which protected landowners’ interests by levying taxes on imported wheat, thus raising the price of bread at a time when factory-owners were trying to cut wages.

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Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution.

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Austrian School

The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism—the concept that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.

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Ayn Rand

Ayn Rand (born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum; – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher.

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Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

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Bernard Mandeville

Bernard Mandeville, or Bernard de Mandeville (15 November 1670 – 21 January 1733), was an Anglo-Dutch philosopher, political economist and satirist.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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A business person (also businessman or businesswoman) is a person involved in the business sector – in particular someone undertaking activities (commercial or industrial) for the purpose of generating cash flow, sales, and revenue utilizing a combination of human, financial, intellectual and physical capital with a view to fuelling economic development and growth.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Central bank

A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.

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Christian Gerlach

Hans Christian Gerlach is professor of Modern History at the University of Bern.

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Classical economics

Classical economics or classical political economy (also known as liberal economics) is a school of thought in economics that flourished, primarily in Britain, in the late 18th and early-to-mid 19th century.

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Classical liberalism

Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.

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Cobden–Chevalier Treaty

The Cobden–Chevalier Treaty was an Anglo-French free trade agreement signed between the United Kingdom and France on 23 January 1860.

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Competition (economics)

In economics, competition is a condition where different economic firmsThis article follows the general economic convention of referring to all actors as firms; examples in include individuals and brands or divisions within the same (legal) firm.

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Constitutional Convention (United States)

The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention, the Federal Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in the old Pennsylvania State House (later known as Independence Hall because of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence there eleven years before) in Philadelphia.

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Cormac Ó Gráda

Cormac Ó Gráda or Cormac O'Grada (born 1945) is an Irish economic historian and professor emeritus of economics at University College Dublin.

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Corn Laws

The Corn Laws were tariffs and other trade restrictions on imported food and grain ("corn") enforced in Great Britain between 1815 and 1846.

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Corporatocracy, a portmanteau of corporate and -ocracy (form of government), short form corpocracy, is a recent term used to refer to an economic and political system controlled by corporations or corporate interests.

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Corps of Discovery

The Corps of Discovery was a specially-established unit of the United States Army which formed the nucleus of the Lewis and Clark Expedition that took place between May 1804 and September 1806.

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Corps of Topographical Engineers

The U.S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers, authorized on 4 July 1838, consisted only of officers and was used for mapping and the design and construction of federal civil works such as lighthouses and other coastal fortifications and navigational routes.

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Cyberpunk is a subgenre of science fiction in a futuristic setting that tends to focus on a "combination of lowlife and high tech" featuring advanced technological and scientific achievements, such as artificial intelligence and cybernetics, juxtaposed with a degree of breakdown or radical change in the social order.

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David Ricardo

David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill.

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Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Democratic-Republican Party

The Democratic-Republican Party was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison around 1792 to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton, who was secretary of the treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration.

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Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere.

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Dingley Act

The Dingley Act of 1897 (ch. 11,, July 24, 1897), introduced by U.S. Representative Nelson Dingley, Jr., of Maine, raised tariffs in United States to counteract the Wilson–Gorman Tariff Act of 1894, which had lowered rates.

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Durability is the ability of a physical product to remain functional, without requiring excessive maintenance or repair, when faced with the challenges of normal operation over its design lifetime.

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Economic liberalism

Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations.

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Economic nationalism

Economic nationalism, or economic patriotism, refers to an ideology that favors state interventionism in the economy, with policies that emphasize domestic control of the economy, labor, and capital formation, even if this requires the imposition of tariffs and other restrictions on the movement of labor, goods and capital.

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Economic system

An economic system is a system of production, resource allocation and distribution of goods and services within a society or a given geographic area.

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Environmental protection

Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organization controlled or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the environment and humans.

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Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.

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Federalist Party

The Federalist Party, referred to as the Pro-Administration party until the 3rd United States Congress (as opposed to their opponents in the Anti-Administration party), was the first American political party.

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First Bank of the United States

The President, Directors and Company, of the Bank of the United States, commonly known as the First Bank of the United States, was a national bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, by the United States Congress on February 25, 1791.

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First Transcontinental Railroad

The First Transcontinental Railroad (also called the Great Transcontinental Railroad, known originally as the "Pacific Railroad" and later as the "Overland Route") was a continuous railroad line constructed between 1863 and 1869 that connected the existing eastern U.S. rail network at Omaha, Nebraska/Council Bluffs, Iowa with the Pacific coast at the Oakland Long Wharf on San Francisco Bay.

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Founding Fathers of the United States

The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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François Quesnay

François Quesnay (4 June 1694 – 16 December 1774) was a French economist and physician of the Physiocratic school.

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Free market

In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.

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Free trade

Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.

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Free-market anarchism

Free-market anarchism, or market anarchism, includes several branches of anarchism that advocate an economic system based on voluntary market interactions without the involvement of the state.

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Freedom of thought

Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience or ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, independent of others' viewpoints.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Friedrich Hayek

Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.

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George Washington

George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.

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George Whatley

George Whatley, Esq, was a contemporary, friend and correspondent of Benjamin Franklin.

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A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Great Famine (Ireland)

The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Henry Clay

Henry Clay Sr. (April 12, 1777 – June 29, 1852) was an American lawyer, planter, and statesman who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and House of Representatives.

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Henry David Thoreau

Henry David Thoreau (see name pronunciation; July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862) was an American essayist, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, and historian.

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Herbert Spencer

Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.

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History of economic thought

The history of economic thought deals with different thinkers and theories in the subject that became political economy and economics, from the ancient world to the present day in the 21st Century.

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Income tax

An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).

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Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.

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Interstate Commerce Act of 1887

The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 is a United States federal law that was designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly its monopolistic practices.

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Invisible hand

The invisible hand is a term used by Adam Smith to describe the unintended social benefits of an individual's self-interested actions.

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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Jacques Claude Marie Vincent de Gournay

Jacques Claude Marie Vincent de Gournay (28 May 1712, Saint-Malo – 27 June 1759, Cádiz) was a French economist and intendant of commerce.

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James Madison

James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.

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James Mill

James Mill (born James Milne, 6 April 1773 – 23 June 1836) was a Scottish historian, economist, political theorist, and philosopher.

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James Wilson (businessman)

James Wilson (3 June 1805 – 11 August 1860) was a Scottish businessman, economist, and Liberal politician who founded The Economist weekly and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, which merged with Standard Bank in 1969 to form Standard Chartered.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jean-Baptiste Colbert

Jean-Baptiste Colbert (29 August 1619 – 6 September 1683) was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV.

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Jeremy Bentham

Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.

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John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.

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Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.

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Land value tax

A land/location value tax (LVT), also called a site valuation tax, split rate tax, or site-value rating, is an ad valorem levy on the unimproved value of land.

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Lewis and Clark Expedition

The Lewis and Clark Expedition from May 1804 to September 1806, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross the western portion of the United States.

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Liberism (derived from the Italian term liberismo) is a term for the economic doctrine of laissez-faire capitalism first used by the philosopher Benedetto Croce and popularized in English by the Italian-American political scientist Giovanni Sartori.

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Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.

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List of Finance Ministers of France

This is a list of French finance ministers, including the equivalent positions of Superintendent of Finances and Controller-General of Finances during the ancien régime.

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Louis XV of France

Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.

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Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.

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Manchester Liberalism

Manchester Liberalism, Manchester School, Manchester Capitalism and Manchesterism are terms for the political, economic and social movements of the 19th century that originated in Manchester, England.

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Market fundamentalism

Market fundamentalism (also known as free market fundamentalism) is a term applied to a strong belief in the ability of unregulated laissez-faire or free market policies to solve most economic and social problems.

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McKinley Tariff

The Tariff Act of 1890, commonly called the McKinley Tariff, was an act of the United States Congress framed by Representative William McKinley that became law on October 1, 1890.

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Mercantilism is a national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation and, historically, to maximize the accumulation of gold and silver (as well as crops).

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Mixed economy

A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.

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Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.

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Nation state

A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.

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Natural law

Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.

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Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.

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New Deal

The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.

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Night-watchman state

In libertarian political philosophy, a night-watchman state is a model of a state whose only functions are to provide its citizens with the military, the police and courts, thus protecting them from aggression, theft, breach of contract and fraud and enforcing property laws.

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Objectivism (Ayn Rand)

Objectivism is a philosophical system developed by Russian-American writer Ayn Rand (1905–1982).

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Pacific Railroad Acts

The Pacific Railroad Acts were a series of acts of Congress that promoted the construction of a "transcontinental railroad" (the Pacific Railroad) in the United States through authorizing the issuance of government bonds and the grants of land to railroad companies.

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Physiocracy (from the Greek for "government of nature") is an economic theory developed by a group of 18th century Enlightenment French economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from the value of "land agriculture" or "land development" and that agricultural products should be highly priced.

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Pierre Le Pesant, sieur de Boisguilbert

Pierre le Pesant, sieur de Boisguilbert or Boisguillebert (17 February 164610 October 1714) was a French law-maker and a Jansenist, one of the inventors of the notion of an economical market.

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Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours

Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours (14 December 1739 – 7 August 1817) was a French writer, economist, publisher and government official.

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Political economy

Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.

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Political Science Quarterly

Political Science Quarterly is an American double blind peer-reviewed academic journal covering government, politics, and policy, published since 1886 by the Academy of Political Science.

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Private property

Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.

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Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.

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Privilege (law)

A privilege is a certain entitlement to immunity granted by the state or another authority to a restricted group, either by birth or on a conditional basis.

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Profit motive

In economics, the profit motive is the motivation of firms that operate so as to maximize their profits.

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Progressive Era

The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States that spanned from the 1890s to the 1920s.

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Progressive tax

A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.

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Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations.

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Public works

Public works (or internal improvements historically in the United States)Carter Goodrich, (Greenwood Press, 1960)Stephen Minicucci,, Studies in American Political Development (2004), 18:2:160-185 Cambridge University Press.

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Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.

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René Louis de Voyer de Paulmy d'Argenson

René-Louis de Voyer de Paulmy, Marquis d'Argenson (18 October 169426 January 1757) was a French statesman.

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Revenue Act of 1861

The Revenue Act of 1861, formally cited as, included the first U.S. Federal income tax statute (see). The Act, motivated by the need to fund the Civil War, imposed an income tax to be "levied, collected, and paid, upon the annual income of every person residing in the United States, whether such income is derived from any kind of property, or from any profession, trade, employment, or vocation carried on in the United States or elsewhere, or from any other source whatever " The tax imposed was a flat tax, with a rate of 3% on incomes above $800.

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Richard Cobden

Richard Cobden (3 June 1804 – 2 April 1865) was an English manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with two major free trade campaigns, the Anti-Corn Law League and the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty.

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Robert Kuttner

Robert Kuttner (born April 17, 1943) is an American journalist and writer whose works present a liberal / progressive point of view.

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Ronald Reagan

Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Second Bank of the United States

The Second Bank of the United States, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was the second federally authorized Hamiltonian national bank in the United States during its 20-year charter from February 1816 to January 1836.

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Sherman Antitrust Act

The Sherman Antitrust Act (Sherman Act) is a landmark federal statute in the history of United States antitrust law (or "competition law") passed by Congress in 1890 under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spontaneous order

Spontaneous order, also named self-organization in the hard sciences, is the spontaneous emergence of order out of seeming chaos.

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A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.

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Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Syndicate (2012 video game)

Syndicate is a cyberpunk first-person shooter video game developed by Starbreeze Studios and published by Electronic Arts for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360.

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A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.

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Tariff of Abominations

The "Tariff of Abominations" was a protective tariff passed by the Congress of the United States on May 19, 1828, designed to protect industry in the northern United States.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Fable of the Bees

The Fable of The Bees: or, Private Vices, Public Benefits is a book by Bernard Mandeville, consisting of the poem The Grumbling Hive: or, Knaves turn’d Honest, along with prose discussion of the poem.

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The Historical Journal

The Historical Journal is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Cambridge University Press.

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The New Freedom

The New Freedom was Woodrow Wilson's campaign platform in the 1912 presidential election in which he called for limited government, and is also used to refer to the progressive programs enacted by Wilson during his first term as president from 1913 to 1916 while the Democrats controlled Congress.

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The Theory of Moral Sentiments

The Theory of Moral Sentiments is a 1759 book by Adam Smith.

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The Wealth of Nations

An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.

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Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.

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Thomas Paine

Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.

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Thomas Robert Malthus

Thomas Robert Malthus (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.

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Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.

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Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).

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U.S. National Geodetic Survey

The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), formerly the United States Survey of the Coast (1807–1836), United States Coast Survey (1836–1878), and United States Coast and Geodetic Survey (USC&GS) (1878–1970), is a United States federal agency that defines and manages a national coordinate system, providing the foundation for transportation and communication; mapping and charting; and a large number of applications of science and engineering.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Patent and Trademark Office

The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification.

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Victor de Riqueti, marquis de Mirabeau

Victor de Riqueti, Marquis de Mirabeau (5 October 1715, Pertuis – 13 July 1789, Argenteuil) was a French economist of the Physiocratic school.

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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Whig Party (United States)

The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States.

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Woodrow Wilson

Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Wu wei

Wu wei is a concept literally meaning non-action or non-doing.

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Redirects here:

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laissez-faire

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