122 relations: Accelerating expansion of the universe, Air–fuel ratio, Alexandrine grammarians, Alphabet, Ancient Greek Numbers, Ancient Roman units of measurement, Anonymous function, Archaic Greek alphabets, Aspis, Astrophysics, Axiomatic system, Axon, Byzantine units of measurement, Cell membrane, Channel length modulation, Charge density, Chemistry, Clearing the neighbourhood, Computer, Computer science, Coordination complex, Cosmological constant, Cosmology, Coulomb, Crime, Crystal optics, Cubic metre, Cyrillic script, Definition of planet, Diagonal matrix, Distributed Bragg reflector, Dwarf planet, Ecology, Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, El (Cyrillic), Electric charge, Electric field, Electric potential, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electrochemistry, Electrolyte, Electronic engineering, Empty string, Enthalpy of vaporization, Evolution strategy, Evolutionary algorithm, Exponential decay, Failure rate, First-order logic, Formal language, ..., Gas, Gay Activists Alliance, Goodman and Kruskal's lambda, Greek alphabet, Greek letters used in mathematics, science, and engineering, Greek numerals, Half-life, Half-Life (series), Heat transfer, Internal combustion engine, Ion, Iota subscript, L, Lagrange multiplier, Lambda (rocket family), Lambda (unit), Lambda baryon, Lambda calculus, Lambda Legal, Lambda Literary Foundation, Lamedh, Latin, Latin script, Latitude, Lebesgue measure, Length constant, LGBT symbols, Linear algebra, Litre, Locations of Half-Life, Longitude, Mathematical logic, Mathematics, Matrix (mathematics), Mean time between failures, Micro-, Modern Greek, MOSFET, Multivariable calculus, Multivariate analysis of variance, NATO, Neuroscience, Nuclear physics, Number theory, Obsolete and nonstandard symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, Ohsumi (satellite), Oxygen sensor, Phoenician alphabet, Physics, Planet, Poisson distribution, Polis, Proportional reduction in loss, Radioactive decay, Reliability engineering, Russian language, Samuel S. Wilks, Set theory, Solid-state electronics, Sparta, Spartan army, Statistics, Subatomic particle, TeX, Tom Doerr, Unicode block, Valve Corporation, Virtual memory, Von Mangoldt function, Wave, Wavelength, World Wide Web Consortium. Expand index (72 more) » « Shrink index
The accelerating expansion of the universe is the observation that the universe appears to be expanding at an increasing rate, so that the velocity at which a distant galaxy is receding from the observer is continuously increasing with time.
Air–fuel ratio (AFR) is the mass ratio of air to a solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel present in a combustion process.
The Alexandrine grammarians were philologists and textual scholars who flourished in Hellenistic Alexandria in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE, when that city was the center of Hellenistic culture.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Ancient Greek Numbers is a Unicode block containing acrophonic numerals used in ancient Greece, including ligatures and special symbols.
The ancient Roman units of measurement were largely built on the Hellenic system, which in turn was built upon Egyptian and Mesopotamian influences.
In computer programming, an anonymous function (function literal, lambda abstraction, or lambda expression) is a function definition that is not bound to an identifier.
Many local variants of the Greek alphabet were employed in ancient Greece during the archaic and early classical periods, until they were replaced by the classical 24-letter alphabet that is the standard today, around 400 BC.
An aspis (ἀσπίς, plural aspides, ἀσπίδες), sometimes also referred to as a hoplon, was the heavy wooden shield used by the infantry in various periods of ancient Greece.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
In mathematics, an axiomatic system is any set of axioms from which some or all axioms can be used in conjunction to logically derive theorems.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
Byzantine units of measurement were a combination and modification of the ancient Greek and Roman units of measurement used in the Byzantine Empire.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
One of several short-channel effects in MOSFET scaling, channel length modulation (CLM) is a shortening of the length of the inverted channel region with increase in drain bias for large drain biases.
In electromagnetism, charge density is a measure of the amount of electric charge per unit length, surface area, or volume.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
"Clearing the neighbourhood around its orbit" is a criterion for a celestial body to be considered a planet in the Solar System.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
In cosmology, the cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Λ) is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
The coulomb (symbol: C) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of electric charge.
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.
Crystal optics is the branch of optics that describes the behaviour of light in anisotropic media, that is, media (such as crystals) in which light behaves differently depending on which direction the light is propagating.
The cubic metre (in British English and international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or cubic meter (in American English) is the SI derived unit of volume.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
The definition of planet, since the word was coined by the ancient Greeks, has included within its scope a wide range of celestial bodies.
In linear algebra, a diagonal matrix is a matrix in which the entries outside the main diagonal are all zero.
A distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) is a reflector used in waveguides, such as optical fibers.
A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
In linear algebra, an eigenvector or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a non-zero vector that changes by only a scalar factor when that linear transformation is applied to it.
El (Л л; italics: Л л) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications engineering) is an electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and active electrical components (such as semiconductor devices, especially transistors, diodes and integrated circuits) to design electronic circuits, devices, VLSI devices and their systems.
In formal language theory, the empty string, or empty word is the unique string of length zero.
The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas.
In computer science, an evolution strategy (ES) is an optimization technique based on ideas of evolution.
In artificial intelligence, an evolutionary algorithm (EA) is a subset of evolutionary computation, a generic population-based metaheuristic optimization algorithm.
A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.
Failure rate is the frequency with which an engineered system or component fails, expressed in failures per unit of time.
First-order logic—also known as first-order predicate calculus and predicate logic—is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science.
In mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language is a set of strings of symbols together with a set of rules that are specific to it.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
The Gay Activists Alliance (GAA) was founded in New York City on December 21, 1969, almost six months after the Stonewall riots, by dissident members of the Gay Liberation Front (GLF).
In probability theory and statistics, Goodman & Kruskal's lambda (\lambda) is a measure of proportional reduction in error in cross tabulation analysis.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Greek letters are used in mathematics, science, engineering, and other areas where mathematical notation is used as symbols for constants, special functions, and also conventionally for variables representing certain quantities.
Greek numerals, also known as Ionic, Ionian, Milesian, or Alexandrian numerals, are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Half-Life (stylized HλLF-LIFE) is a series of first-person shooter games developed and published by Valve.
Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
The iota subscript is a diacritic mark in the Greek alphabet shaped like a small vertical stroke or miniature iota placed below the letter.
L (named el) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.
In mathematical optimization, the method of Lagrange multipliers (named after Joseph-Louis Lagrange) is a strategy for finding the local maxima and minima of a function subject to equality constraints (i.e., subject to the condition that one or more equations have to be satisfied exactly by the chosen values of the variables).
Lambda is the name of a series of Japanese carrier rockets.
Lambda (written λ, in lowercase) is a legitimate metric unit of volume equal to 10−9 m3, 1 cubic millimeter (mm3) or 1 microlitre (µL).
The Lambda baryons are a family of subatomic hadron particles containing one up quark, one down quark, and a third quark from a higher flavour generation, in a combination where the wavefunction changes sign upon the flavour of any two quarks being swapped (thus differing from a Sigma baryon).
Lambda calculus (also written as λ-calculus) is a formal system in mathematical logic for expressing computation based on function abstraction and application using variable binding and substitution.
Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund, better known as Lambda Legal.
The Lambda Literary Foundation (also referred to as Lambda Literary) is a LGBT literary organization.
Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Lāmed, Hebrew 'Lāmed, Aramaic Lāmadh, Syriac Lāmaḏ ܠ, and Arabic.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
In measure theory, the Lebesgue measure, named after French mathematician Henri Lebesgue, is the standard way of assigning a measure to subsets of n-dimensional Euclidean space.
In neurobiology, the length constant (&lambda) is a mathematical constant used to quantify the distance that a graded electric potential will travel along a neurite via passive electrical conduction.
The LGBT community has adopted certain symbols for self-identification to demonstrate unity, pride, shared values, and allegiance to one another.
Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as linear functions such as and their representations through matrices and vector spaces.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
The '''''Half-Life''''' video game series features many locations set in a dystopian future stemming from the events of the first game, ''Half-Life''.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.
Mean time between failures (MTBF) is the predicted elapsed time between inherent failures of a mechanical or electronic system, during normal system operation.
Micro- (symbol µ) is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of 10−6 (one millionth).
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
MOSFET showing gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (white). surface-mount packages. Operating as switches, each of these components can sustain a blocking voltage of 120nbspvolts in the ''off'' state, and can conduct a continuous current of 30 amperes in the ''on'' state, dissipating up to about 100 watts and controlling a load of over 2000 watts. A matchstick is pictured for scale. A cross-section through an nMOSFET when the gate voltage ''V''GS is below the threshold for making a conductive channel; there is little or no conduction between the terminals drain and source; the switch is off. When the gate is more positive, it attracts electrons, inducing an ''n''-type conductive channel in the substrate below the oxide, which allows electrons to flow between the ''n''-doped terminals; the switch is on. Simulation result for formation of inversion channel (electron density) and attainment of threshold voltage (IV) in a nanowire MOSFET. Note that the threshold voltage for this device lies around 0.45 V The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a type of field-effect transistor (FET), most commonly fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon.
Multivariable calculus (also known as multivariate calculus) is the extension of calculus in one variable to calculus with functions of several variables: the differentiation and integration of functions involving multiple variables, rather than just one.
In statistics, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is a procedure for comparing multivariate sample means.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) possesses a variety of obsolete and nonstandard symbols.
Ōsumi (or Ohsumi) is the name of the first Japanese satellite put into orbit, named after the Ōsumi Province in the southern islands of Japan.
An oxygen sensor (or lambda sensor) is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analysed.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
In probability theory and statistics, the Poisson distribution (in English often rendered), named after French mathematician Siméon Denis Poisson, is a discrete probability distribution that expresses the probability of a given number of events occurring in a fixed interval of time or space if these events occur with a known constant rate and independently of the time since the last event.
Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.
Proportional reduction in loss (PRL) refers to a general framework for developing and evaluating measures of the reliability of particular ways of making observations which are possibly subject to errors of all types.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Reliability engineering is a sub-discipline of systems engineering that emphasizes dependability in the lifecycle management of a product.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Samuel Stanley Wilks (June 17, 1906 – March 7, 1964) was an American mathematician and academic who played an important role in the development of mathematical statistics, especially in regard to practical applications.
Set theory is a branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.
Solid-state electronics means semiconductor electronics; electronic equipment using semiconductor devices such as semiconductor diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits (ICs).
Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.
The Spartan army stood at the center of the Spartan state, whose citizens trained in the disciplines and honor of a warrior society.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.
TeX (see below), stylized within the system as TeX, is a typesetting system (or "formatting system") designed and mostly written by Donald Knuth and released in 1978.
Thomas L. "Tom" Doerr (1947 – August 2, 1987) was an American gay activist.
In Unicode, a block is defined as one contiguous range of code points.
Valve Corporation is an American video game developer and digital distribution company headquartered in Bellevue, Washington.
In computing, virtual memory (also virtual storage) is a memory management technique that provides an "idealized abstraction of the storage resources that are actually available on a given machine" which "creates the illusion to users of a very large (main) memory." The computer's operating system, using a combination of hardware and software, maps memory addresses used by a program, called virtual addresses, into physical addresses in computer memory.
In mathematics, the von Mangoldt function is an arithmetic function named after German mathematician Hans von Mangoldt.
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3).