124 relations: Anat Ninio, Animal communication, Animal language, Aphasia, B. F. Skinner, Behaviorism, Black box, Brian MacWhinney, Broca's area, Catherine E. Snow, Cerebral cortex, Charles F. Hockett, Chunking (psychology), Cochlear implant, Cognition, Cognitive linguistics, Competition model, Connectionism, Constituent (linguistics), Context (language use), Corrective feedback, Creole language, Critical period, Developmental psychology, Elissa L. Newport, Elizabeth Bates, Ellen Markman, Emergentism, Empirical research, Empiricism, Eric Lenneberg, Evolutionary linguistics, Evolutionary psychology of language, Feral child, Fernand Gobet, Fis phenomenon, FOXP2, Frontal lobe, Functional contextualism, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Functional neuroimaging, Functional theories of grammar, Generative grammar, Geoffrey K. Pullum, Glossary of language education terms, Grammar, Heuristic, Infant, Jean Piaget, Jenny Saffran, ..., Jerome Bruner, Jerry Fodor, John Locke, KE family, Kuniyoshi Sakai, Language acquisition by deaf children, Language acquisition device, Language attrition, Language delay, Language deprivation experiments, Language development, Latent semantic analysis, Learning, Lectures on Government and Binding, Lev Vygotsky, Lexical item, List of language acquisition researchers, Machine learning, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Melissa Bowerman, Mental lexicon, Metalinguistic awareness, Michael Tomasello, Morphology (linguistics), Natural language processing, Nature versus nurture, Neuroscience, Noam Chomsky, Noun, Operant conditioning, Operator (linguistics), Origin of language, Passive speakers (language), Past tense, Phoneme, Phonology, Plato, Positron emission tomography, Poverty of the stimulus, Premotor cortex, Principles and parameters, Psychological nativism, Recursion, Regular and irregular verbs, Reinforcement, Relational frame theory, ROBO1, Rudolf Carnap, Second language, Second-language acquisition, Second-language attrition, Semantics, Sentence (linguistics), Sign language, Social interactionist theory, Speech perception, Speech production, Speech repetition, Spoken language, Statistical learning theory, Syllable, Syntactic category, Syntactic Structures, Syntax, Temporal lobe, Thomas Hobbes, Universal grammar, Verbal Behavior, Vocabulary, Vocabulary development, Vyākaraṇa, Wernicke's area, Word, Zone of proximal development. Expand index (74 more) » « Shrink index
Anat Ninio (born August 10, 1944) is a professor of psychology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
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Animal communication is the transfer of information from one or a group of animals (sender or senders) to one or more other animals (receiver or receivers) which affects either the current or future behavior of the receivers.
Animal language are forms of non-human animal communication that show similarities to human language.
Aphasia is the name given to a collection of language disorders caused by damage to the brain.
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Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990), commonly known as B. F. Skinner, was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher.
Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is an approach to psychology that focuses on an individual's behavior.
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In science, computing, and engineering, a black box is a device, system or object which can be viewed in terms of its inputs and outputs (or transfer characteristics), without any knowledge of its internal workings.
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Brian James MacWhinney (born August 22, 1945) is a Professor of Psychology and Modern Languages at Carnegie Mellon University.
Broca's area or the Broca area or is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere (usually the left) of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.
Catherine Elizabeth Snow (born December 14, 1945) is an educational psychologist and applied linguist.
The cerebral cortex is the cerebrum's (brain) outer layer of neural tissue in humans and other mammals.
Charles Francis Hockett (January 17, 1916 – November 3, 2000) was an American linguist who developed many influential ideas in American structuralist linguistics.
Chunking, in psychology, is a phenomenon whereby individuals group responses when performing a memory task.
A cochlear implant (CI) is a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing.
Cognition is the set of all mental abilities and processes related to knowledge, attention, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language, etc.
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Cognitive linguistics (CL) refers to the branch of linguistics that interprets language in terms of the concepts, sometimes universal, sometimes specific to a particular tongue, which underlie its forms.
The Competition Model is a psycholinguistic theory of language acquisition and sentence processing developed by Elizabeth Bates and Brian MacWhinney.
Connectionism is a set of approaches in the fields of artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and philosophy of mind, that models mental or behavioral phenomena as the emergent processes of interconnected networks of simple units.
In syntactic analysis, a constituent is a word or a group of words which function(s) as a single unit within a hierarchical structure.
Context is a notion used in the language sciences (linguistics, sociolinguistics, systemic functional linguistics, discourse analysis, pragmatics, semiotics, etc.) in two different ways, namely as.
Corrective feedback is a frequent practice in the field of education and in learning generally.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language that has developed from a pidgin (i.e. a simplified language or simplified mixture of languages used by non-native speakers) becoming nativized by children as their first language, with the accompanying effect of a fully developed vocabulary and system of grammar.
In developmental psychology and developmental biology, a critical period is a maturational stage in the lifespan of an organism during which the nervous system is especially sensitive to certain environmental stimuli.
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.
Elissa L. Newport is a Professor of Neurology at Georgetown University.
Elizabeth Bates (July 26, 1947 – December 13, 2003) was a Professor of psychology and cognitive science at the University of California, San Diego.
Ellen Markman is Lewis M. Terman Professor of Psychology at Stanford University.
In philosophy, emergentism is the belief in emergence, particularly as it involves consciousness and the philosophy of mind, and as it contrasts (or not) with reductionism.
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Empirical research is research using empirical evidence.
Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
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Eric Heinz Lenneberg (19 September 1921 – 31 May 1975) was a linguist and neurologist who pioneered ideas on language acquisition and cognitive psychology, particularly in terms of the concept of innateness.
Evolutionary linguistics the scientific study of the psychosocial development and cultural evolution of individual languages as well as the origins and development of human language itself.
Evolutionary psychology of language is the study of the evolutionary history of language as a psychological faculty within the discipline of evolutionary psychology.
A feral child (also called wild child) is a human child who has lived isolated from human contact from a very young age, and has little or no experience of human care, behavior, or, crucially, of human language.
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Fernand Gobet (born February 12, 1962 in Switzerland) is a cognitive scientist and a cognitive psychologist, currently Professor of Cognitive Psychology at the University of Liverpool.
Fis phenomenon is a phenomenon of child language acquisition that demonstrates that perception of phonemes occurs earlier than the ability of the child to produce those phonemes.
Forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOXP2 gene, also known as CAGH44, SPCH1 or TNRC10, and is required for proper development of speech and language.
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The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.
Functional contextualism is a modern philosophy of science rooted in philosophical pragmatism and contextualism.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) is a functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting associated changes in blood flow.
Functional neuroimaging is the use of neuroimaging technology to measure an aspect of brain function, often with a view to understanding the relationship between activity in certain brain areas and specific mental functions.
Functional theories of grammar are those approaches to the study of language that see the functions of language and its elements to be the key to understanding linguistic processes and structures.
Generative grammar is a linguistic theory that considers grammar to be a system of rules that is intended to generate exactly those combinations of words which form grammatical sentences in a given language.
Geoffrey Keith "Geoff" Pullum (born March 8, 1945) is a British-American linguist specialising in the study of English.
Language teaching, like other educational activities, may employ specialized vocabulary and word use.
In linguistics, grammar is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
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A heuristic technique (εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a heuristic, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method not guaranteed to be optimal or perfect, but sufficient for the immediate goals.
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An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the very young offspring of a human or animal.
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Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children.
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Jenny Saffran is a Professor of Psychology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Jerome Seymour Bruner (born October 1, 1915) is an American psychologist who has made significant contributions to human cognitive psychology and cognitive learning theory in educational psychology.
Jerry Alan Fodor (born 1935) is an American philosopher and cognitive scientist.
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John Locke FRS (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism".
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The KE family is a medical name designated for a British family of Pakistani origin, about half of whom exhibit a severe speech disorder called developmental verbal dyspraxia.
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Kuniyoshi Sakai is an associate professor at the University of Tokyo.
In the United States, one in a thousand children is born profoundly deaf.
The Language Acquisition Device (LAD) is a hypothetical module of the human mind posited to account for children's innate predisposition for language acquisition.
Language attrition is the loss of a first or second language or a portion of that language.
Language delay is a failure in children to develop language abilities on the usual age appropriate for their developmental timetable.
Language deprivation experiments have been attempted several times through history, isolating infants from the normal use of spoken or signed language in an attempt to discover the fundamental character of human nature or the origin of language.
Language development is a process starting early in human life.
Latent semantic analysis (LSA) is a technique in natural language processing, in particular in vectorial semantics, of analyzing relationships between a set of documents and the terms they contain by producing a set of concepts related to the documents and terms.
Learning is the act of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information.
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Lectures on Government and Binding: The Pisa Lectures is a book by American linguist Noam Chomsky, published in 1981.
Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (Лев Семёнович Вы́готский or Выго́тский, born Лев Симхович Выгодский Lev Simkhovich Vygodsky, – June 11, 1934) was a Soviet psychologist, the founder of a theory of human cultural and bio-social development commonly referred to as cultural-historical psychology, and leader of the Vygotsky Circle.
A lexical item (or lexical unit, lexical entry) is a single word, a part of a word, or a chain of words (.
Below are some notable researchers in language acquisition listed by intellectual orientation and research topic.
Machine learning is a subfield of computer sciencehttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1116194/machine-learning that evolved from the study of pattern recognition and computational learning theory in artificial intelligence.
The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (Max-Planck-Institut für evolutionäre Anthropologie) is a research institute based in Leipzig, Germany, founded in 1997.
Melissa Bowerman (April 3, 1942 – October 31, 2011) was a leading researcher in the area of language acquisition.
The mental lexicon is defined as a mental dictionary that contains information regarding a word's meaning, pronunciation, syntactic characteristics, and so on. Although this definition has been challenged over the years, this remains the most consistent definition of the term.
Metalinguistic awareness refers to the ability to objectify language as a process as well as an artifact.
Michael Tomasello (born January 18, 1950) is an American developmental and comparative psychologist.
In linguistics, morphology is the identification, analysis and description of the structure of a given language's morphemes and other linguistic units, such as root words, affixes, parts of speech, intonations and stresses, or implied context.
Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science, artificial intelligence, and computational linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages.
The phrase nature and nurture relates to the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities ("nature" in the sense of nativism or innatism) as compared to an individual's personal experiences ("nurture" in the sense of empiricism or behaviorism) in causing individual differences, especially in behavioral traits.
Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher,, by Zoltán Gendler Szabó, in Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers, 1860–1960, ed.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
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Operant conditioning (also, “instrumental conditioning”) is a learning process in which behavior is sensitive to, or controlled by its consequences.
In generative grammar, the technical term operator denotes a type of expression that enters into an a-bar movement dependency.
The origin of language in the human species has been the topic of scholarly discussions for several centuries.
A passive speaker (also referred to as a receptive bilingual or passive bilingual) is someone who has had enough exposure to a language in childhood to have a native-like comprehension of it, but has little or no active command of it.
The past tense is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to place an action or situation in past time.
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A phoneme is all the phones that share the same signifier for a particular language's phonology.
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Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
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Plato (Greek: Πλάτων Plátōn "broad" in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher and mathematician in Classical Greece, and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
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Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine, functional imaging technique that produces a three-dimensional image of functional processes in the body.
In linguistics, the poverty of the stimulus (POS) is the assertion that natural language grammar is unlearnable given the relatively limited data available to children learning a language, and therefore that this knowledge is supplemented with some sort of innate linguistic capacity.
The premotor cortex is an area of motor cortex lying within the frontal lobe of the brain just anterior to the primary motor cortex.
Principles and parameters is a framework within generative linguistics in which the syntax of a natural language is described in accordance with general principles (i.e. abstract rules or grammars) and specific parameters (i.e. markers, switches) that for particular languages are either turned on or off.
In the field of psychology, nativism is the view that certain skills or abilities are "native" or hard-wired into the brain at birth.
Recursion is the process of repeating items in a self-similar way.
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A regular verb is any verb whose conjugation follows the typical pattern, or one of the typical patterns, of the language to which it belongs.
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.
Relational frame theory (RFT) is a psychological theory of human language.
Roundabout homolog 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ROBO1 gene.
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Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 – September 14, 1970) was a German-born philosopher who was active in Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter.
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
Second-language acquisition, second-language learning, or L2 acquisition, is the process by which people learn a second language.
Second-language attrition is the decline of second-language skills, which occurs whenever the learner uses the second language to an insufficient degree (De Bot & Weltens 1991:43) or due to environmental changes the language use is limited and another language is becoming the dominant one (Olshtain 1989: 151).
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the study of meaning.
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A sentence is a linguistic unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
A sign language (also signed language or simply signing) is a language which uses manual communication and body language to convey meaning, as opposed to acoustically conveyed sound patterns.
Social interactionist theory is an explanation of language development emphasizing the role of social interaction between the developing child and linguistically knowledgeable adults.
Speech perception is the process by which the sounds of language are heard, interpreted and understood.
Speech production is the process by which spoken words are selected to be produced, have their phonetics formulated and then finally are articulated by the motor system in the vocal apparatus.
Children copy with their own mouths the words spoken by the mouths of those around them. This enables them to learn the pronunciation of words not already in their vocabulary. Speech repetition is the saying by one individual of the spoken vocalizations made by another individual.
Spoken language, is language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to written language.
Statistical learning theory is a framework for machine learning drawing from the fields of statistics and functional analysis.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
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A syntactic category is a type of syntactic unit that theories of syntax assume.
Syntactic Structures is a book in linguistics by American linguist Noam Chomsky, first published in 1957.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language.
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The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbs of Malmsbury, was an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy.
Universal Grammar (UG) is a theory in linguistics, usually credited to Noam Chomsky, proposing that the ability to learn grammar is hard-wired into the brain.
Verbal Behavior is a 1957 book by psychologist B. F. Skinner that inspects human behavior, describing what is traditionally called linguistics.
A person's vocabulary is the set of words within a language that are familiar to that person.
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Vocabulary development is a process by which people acquire words.
The Sanskrit grammatical tradition of (व्याकरण) is one of the six Vedanga disciplines.
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Wernicke's area, also called Wernicke's speech area, is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex linked, since the late nineteenth century, to speech (the other is Broca's area).
In linguistics a word is the smallest element that may be uttered in isolation with semantic or pragmatic content (with literal or practical meaning).
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The zone of proximal development, often abbreviated as ZPD, is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help.
Acquisition (linguistic), Communication between children, First language acquisition, How children acquire language, Infant language acquisition, L1 acquisition, Langauge acquisition, Language Acquisition, Language aquisition, Language learning, Language-learning, Languge acquisition, Lanugage learning, Lanugage teaching, Learning foreign languages, Learning language, Vocabulary acquisition.