303 relations: Adamorobe Sign Language, Advanced and retracted tongue root, African French, African Union, Afrikaans, Afrikaners, Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic Urheimat, Agreement (linguistics), Akan language, Akkadian language, Algeria, Algerian Sign Language, Alpha Oumar Konaré, Amharic, Angola, Anuak language, Arab sign-language family, Arabic, Asa language, Atlas languages, Austronesian languages, Autonomous Regions of Portugal, Banda languages, Bangime language, Bantu expansion, Bantu languages, Bayot language, Belgian overseas colonies, Benue–Congo languages, Berber languages, Berlin Conference, Bete language (Nigeria), Botswana, Bung language, Burundi, Cameroon, Camfranglais, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Cape Verdean Creole, Capsian culture, Carl Meinhof, Central Africa, Central African Republic, Ceuta, Chad, Chadic languages, Chairperson of the African Union Commission, Chewa language, ..., Click consonant, Colonialism, Comorian language, Comoros, Creole language, Cross-border language, Cushitic languages, Defaka language, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dialect, Dialect levelling, Diedrich Hermann Westermann, Dinka language, Diphthong, Djibouti, Dogon languages, Dompo language, Dutch language, Dyula language, Egypt, Egyptian language, Ejective consonant, Endangered language, English language, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ethiopian sign languages, Ethnologue, Ewe language, Fer language, First language, Françafrique, French language, French Sign Language family, Front vowel, Fula language, Fur language, Gbaya languages, German colonial empire, German language, Germanic languages, Ghana, Gomba language, Grammatical case, Grammatical tense, Great Lakes Bantu languages, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea-Bissau Creole, Gujarati language, Gumuz language, Gur languages, Hadza language, Hassaniya Arabic, Hausa language, Hebrew language, Hollandic dialect, Horn of Africa, Ibibio language, Igbo language, Imeraguen language, Implosive consonant, Indo-European languages, Italian language, Jalaa language, Joseph Greenberg, Journal of West African Languages, Juba Arabic, Kabyle language, Kadu languages, Kalahari Desert, Kanuri language, Karl Richard Lepsius, Kenya, Khoe languages, Khoisan, Khoisan languages, Kikuyu language, Kinyarwanda, Kirundi, Kitara language, Koiné language, Koine Greek, Koman languages, Kongo language, Kordofanian languages, Krio language, Kujargé language, Kunama language, Kwa languages, Kwadi language, Kx'a languages, Laal language, Labial–velar consonant, Labiodental flap, Language, Language contact, Language family, Language isolate, Languages of India, Languages of the African Union, Latin, Lesotho, Libya, Lingala, Lingua franca, List of territorial entities where English is an official language, List of territorial entities where French is an official language, Luba-Kasai language, Lufu language, Luganda, Luo dialect, Luo language (Cameroon), Luo languages, Maasai language, Madagascar, Makhuwa language, Malagasy language, Malawi, Mali, Mande languages, Manding languages, Masalit language, Mauritania, Mauritian Creole, Mauritius, Mawa language (Nigeria), Mbre language, Melilla, Meroitic language, Morocco, Morphology (linguistics), Mossi language, Mpra language, N'Ko alphabet, Namibia, Nandi–Markweta languages, Nara language, National language, Nationalencyklopedin, Niger River, Niger–Congo languages, Nigeria, Nile, Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilotic languages, Nobiin language, North Africa, Northern Ndebele language, Northern Sotho language, Nostratic languages, Noun class, Nuba peoples, Nubi language, Nubian languages, Nuer language, Oblo language, Official language, Old Persian, Ongota language, Oromo language, Oropom language, Paget Gorman Sign System, Persian language, Polyglotta Africana, Portuguese language, Portuguese language in Africa, Portuguese-speaking African countries, Prenasalized consonant, Rer Bare people, Rimba language, Robert Needham Cust, Roger Blench, Romance languages, Rwanda, Saharan languages, Sahel, Sandawe language, Sango language, Sara languages, Semitic languages, Senegal, Senegambian languages, Seychelles, Seychellois Creole, Shabo language, Sheng slang, Shilluk language, Shona language, Sierra Leone, Sign language, SIL International, Somali language, Somalia, Songhay languages, Soninke language, Sotho language, South Africa, South Asia, South Cushitic languages, South Holland, South Sudan, Southeast Africa, Southern Africa, Southern Ndebele language, Spanish language, Standard language, Sudan, Sudanese sign languages, Swahili language, Swazi language, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tanzanian sign languages, The Economist, The Languages of Africa, Tigrinya language, Tone (linguistics), Tone contour, Tone sandhi, Tsonga language, Tswana language, Tuareg languages, Tunisia, Tunisian Sign Language, Tuu languages, Ubangian languages, Uganda, Umbundu, Unclassified language, Uvular consonant, Vandalic language, Varieties of Arabic, Venda language, Volta–Niger languages, West Africa, West African Pidgin English, Western Asia, Weyto language, White Namibians, Wilhelm Bleek, Wolof language, Writing systems of Africa, Xhosa language, Yeni language, Yoruba language, Zaghawa language, Zande language, Zarma language, Zenaga language, Zigula language, Zimbabwe, Zulu language. 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Adamorobe Sign Language or Adasl is a village sign language used in Adamorobe, an Akan village in eastern Ghana.
In phonetics, advanced tongue root and retracted tongue root, abbreviated ATR or RTR, are contrasting states of the root of the tongue during the pronunciation of vowels in some languages, especially in Western and Eastern Africa but also in Kazakh and Mongolian.
African French (français africain) is the generic name of the varieties of a French language spoken by an estimated 120 million people in Africa spread across 24 francophone countries.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
The term Afroasiatic Urheimat refers to the hypothetical place where speakers of the proto-Afroasiatic language lived in a single linguistic community, or complex of communities, before this original language dispersed geographically and divided into separate distinct languages.
Agreement or concord (abbreviated) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.
Akan is a Central Tano language that is the principal native language of the Akan people of Ghana, spoken over much of the southern half of that country, by about 58% of the population, and among 30% of the population of Ivory Coast.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Algerian Sign Language (French: Langue des signes algérienne (LSA), Tamazight: Tamslayt Tadugamt n Lezzayer, Arabic: لغة الإشارة الجزائرية) is the sign language most commonly used in Algeria.
Alpha Oumar Konaré (born 2 February 1946) is a former President of Mali for two five-year terms (1992 to 2002), and was Chairperson of the African Union Commission from 2003 to 2008.
Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
Anuak or Anywa is a Nilotic language of the Nilo-Saharan language family.
The Arab sign-language family is a family of sign languages spread across the Arab Mideast.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Asa (Aasá) language, commonly rendered Aasax, was spoken by the Asa people of Tanzania.
The Atlas languages are a subgroup of the Northern Berber languages spoken in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
The two Autonomous Regions of Portugal (Regiões Autónomas de Portugal) are the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores) and Madeira (Região Autónoma da Madeira).
Banda is a family of Ubangian languages spoken by the Banda people of Central Africa.
Bangime (bàŋɡí–mɛ̀, or, in full, Bàŋgɛ́rí-mɛ̀) is a language isolate spoken by 1,500 ethnic Dogon in seven villages in southern Mali, who call themselves the bàŋɡá–ndɛ̀ ("hidden people").
The Bantu expansion is a major series of migrations of the original proto-Bantu language speaking group, who spread from an original nucleus around West Africa-Central Africa across much of sub-Sahara Africa.
The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
Bayot (Baiot, Baiote, Bayotte) is a language of southern Senegal, southwest of Ziguinchor in a group of villages near Nyassia, in northwestern Guinea-Bissau, along the Senegalese border, and in the Gambia.
Belgium controlled two colonies during its history: the Belgian Congo from 1885 to 1960 and Ruanda-Urundi from 1916 to 1962.
Benue–Congo (sometimes called East Benue–Congo) is a major subdivision of the Niger–Congo language family which covers most of Sub-Saharan Africa.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Berlin Conference of 1884–85, also known as the Congo Conference (Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.
The Bete language of Nigeria is a nearly extinct language spoken by a small minority of the 3,000 inhabitants of Bete Town, Takum, Taraba State; its speakers have mostly shifted to Jukun Takum.
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.
The Bung language is a nearly extinct, endangered language of Cameroon spoken by 3 people (in 1995) at the village of Boung on the Adamawa Plateau.
Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.
Camfranglais, Frananglais or Franglais (portmanteau of the French adjectives camerounais, français, and anglais) is a pidgin language of Cameroon, consisting of a macaronic mixture of Cameroonian French, Cameroonian English and Cameroonian Pidgin English, in addition to lexical contributions from various indigenous languages of Cameroon.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
Cape Verde or Cabo Verde (Cabo Verde), officially the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean.
Cape Verdean Creole (also known as Kabuverdianu) is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken on the islands of Cape Verde.
The Capsian culture was a Mesolithic culture centered in the Maghreb that lasted from about 10,000 to 6,000 BC.
Carl Friedrich Michael Meinhof (July 23, 1857 – February 11, 1944) was a German linguist and one of the first linguists to study African languages.
Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
The Chadic languages form a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Chairperson of the African Union Commission is the head of the African Union Commission.
Chewa, also known as Nyanja, is a language of the Bantu language family.
Click consonants, or clicks, are speech sounds that occur as consonants in many languages of Southern Africa and in three languages of East Africa.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Comorian (Shikomori or Shimasiwa, the "language of islands") is an official language in the Comoros (an independent country of islands in the Indian Ocean, off Mozambique and Madagascar) and widely spoken on the disputed territory of Mayotte, claimed by both France and Comoros.
The Comoros (جزر القمر), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, الاتحاد القمري), is a sovereign archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
A cross-border language or trans-border language is a language spoken by a population (ethnic group or nation) that lives in a geographical area in two or several internationally recognized countries that have common land or maritime borders.
The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Defaka is an endangered and divergent Nigerian language of uncertain classification.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
Dialect levelling or dialect leveling is a process of assimilation, mixture and merging of certain dialects, often by language standardization.
Diedrich Hermann Westermann (June 24, 1875–May 31, 1956) was a German missionary, Africanist, and linguist.
Dinka (natively Thuɔŋjäŋ, Thuɔŋ ee Jieng or simply Jieng) is a Nilotic dialect cluster spoken by the Dinka people, the major ethnic group of South Sudan.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Dogon languages are a small, close-knit language family spoken by the Dogon people of Mali, which is generally believed to belong to the larger Niger–Congo family.
Dompo is an endangered unclassified language of Ghana.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Jula (or Dyula, Dioula) is a Mande language spoken in Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast and Mali.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
A number of Ethiopian sign languages have been used in various Ethiopian schools for the deaf since 1971, and at the primary level since 1956.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
Ewe (Èʋe or Èʋegbe) is a Niger–Congo language spoken in southeastern Ghana by approximately 6–7 million people as either the first or second language.
The Fer language, also Dam Fer or Fertit, one of several languages called Kara ("Kara of Birao"), is a Central Sudanic language spoken by some five thousand people in the northern Central African Republic near the Sudanese and Chadian borders, in the region known as Dar Runga.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Françafrique is France's relationship with its former African colonies.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Sign Language (LSF) or Francosign family is a language family of sign languages which includes French Sign Language and American Sign Language.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Fula Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh, also known as Fulani or Fulah (Fula: Fulfulde, Pulaar, Pular; Peul), is a language spoken as a set of various dialects in a continuum that stretches across some 20 countries in West and Central Africa.
The Fur language (Fur: bèle fòòr or fòòraŋ bèle; Fûrâwî; sometimes called Konjara by linguists, after a former ruling clan) is a Nilo-Saharan language spoken by the Fur of Darfur in western Sudan.
The Gbaya languages, also known as Gbaya–Manza–Ngbaka, are a family of perhaps a dozen languages spoken mainly in the western Central African Republic and across the border in Cameroon, with one language (Ngbaka) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with a few small languages in the Republic of the Congo.
The German colonial empire (Deutsches Kolonialreich) constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of Imperial Germany.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
Gomba is an unclassified language of Ethiopia.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
The Great Lakes Bantu languages, also known as Lacustrine Bantu and Bantu zone J, are a group of Bantu languages of East Africa.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
Guinea-Bissau, officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (República da Guiné-Bissau), is a sovereign state in West Africa.
Guinea-Bissau Creole (native name kriol, kiriol, kriolu and Portuguis varying with dialects; crioulo da Guiné in Portuguese) is the lingua franca of Guinea Bissau.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
Gumuz (also spelled Gumaz) is a dialect cluster spoken along the border of Ethiopia and Sudan.
The Gur languages, also known as Central Gur, belong to the Niger–Congo languages.
Hadza is a language isolate spoken along the shores of Lake Eyasi in Tanzania by around 1,000 Hadza people, the last full-time hunter-gatherers in Africa.
Hassānīya (حسانية; also known as Hassaniyya, Klem El Bithan, Hasanya, Hassani, Hassaniya) is a variety of Maghrebi Arabic.
Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by some 27 million people, and as a second language by another 20 million.
Hollandic or Hollandish is, together with Brabantian, the most frequently used dialect of the Dutch language.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
Ibibio (proper) is the native language of the Ibibio people of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, belonging to the Ibibio-Efik dialect cluster of the Cross River languages.
Igbo (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh), is the principal native language of the Igbo people, an ethnic group of southeastern Nigeria.
Imeraguen (or Imraguen) is a spurious unclassified language spoken by the Imraguen people who inhabit coastal Mauritania.
Implosive consonants are a group of stop consonants (and possibly also some affricates) with a mixed glottalic ingressive and pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Jalaa (autonym: bàsàrə̀n dà jàlààbè̩), also known as Cèntûm, Centúúm or Cen Tuum, is an endangered language of northeastern Nigeria (Loojaa settlement in Balanga Local Government Area, Bauchi State), of uncertain origins.
Joseph Harold Greenberg (May 28, 1915 – May 7, 2001) was an American linguist, known mainly for his work concerning linguistic typology and the genetic classification of languages.
The Journal of West African Languages is a peer-reviewed academic journal dedicated to the study of West African languages.
Juba Arabic is a lingua franca spoken mainly in Equatoria Province in South Sudan, and derives its name from the town of Juba, South Sudan.
Kabyle, or Kabylian (native name: Taqbaylit), is a Berber language spoken by the Kabyle people in the north and northeast of Algeria.
The Kadu languages, also known as Kadugli–Krongo or Tumtum, are a small language family of the Kordofanian geographic grouping, once included in Niger–Congo but since Thilo Schadeberg (1981) widely seen as Nilo-Saharan.
The Kalahari Desert is a large semi-arid sandy savanna in Southern Africa extending for, covering much of Botswana, parts of Namibia and regions of South Africa.
Kanuri is a dialect continuum spoken by some four million people, as of 1987, in Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon, as well as small minorities in southern Libya and by a diaspora in Sudan.
Karl or Carl Richard Lepsius (23 December 1810– 10 July 1884) was a pioneering Prussian Egyptologist and linguist and pioneer of modern archaeology.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
The Khoe languages are the largest of the non-Bantu language families indigenous to southern Africa.
Khoisan, or according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography Khoesān (pronounced), is an artificial catch-all name for the so-called "non-Bantu" indigenous peoples of Southern Africa, combining the Khoekhoen (formerly "Khoikhoi") and the Sān or Sākhoen (also, in Afrikaans: Boesmans, or in English: Bushmen, after Dutch Boschjesmens; and Saake in the Nǁng language).
The Khoisan languages (also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg.
Kikuyu or Gikuyu (Gĩkũyũ) is a language of the Bantu family spoken primarily by the Kikuyu people (Agĩkũyũ) of Kenya.
Kinyarwanda; known as Igifumbira in Uganda) is an official language of Rwanda and a dialect of the Rwanda-Rundi language spoken by 12 million people in Rwanda, Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo and adjacent parts of southern Uganda. (The Kirundi dialect is the official language of neighbouring Burundi.) Kinyarwanda is one of the four official languages of Rwanda (along with English, French and Kiswahili) and is spoken by almost all of the native population. That contrasts with most modern African states, whose borders were drawn by colonial powers and do not correspond to ethnic boundaries or precolonial kingdoms.
Kirundi, also known as Rundi, is a Bantu language spoken by 9 million people in Burundi and adjacent parts of Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as in Uganda.
The Kitara language, commonly known as Runyakitara, is an artificial standard language based on four closely related languages of western Uganda.
In linguistics, a koiné language, koiné dialect, or simply koiné (Ancient Greek κοινή, "common ") is a standard language or dialect that has arisen as a result of contact between two or more mutually intelligible varieties (dialects) of the same language.
The Koman languages are a small close-knit family of languages located along the Sudan–Ethiopia border with about 50,000 speakers.
Kongo or Kikongo is one of the Bantu languages spoken by the Kongo and Ndundu peoples living in the tropical forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo and Angola.
The Kordofanian languages are a geographic grouping of five language groups spoken in the Nuba Mountains of the Kurdufan, Sudan: Talodi–Heiban languages, Lafofa languages, Rashad languages, Katla languages and Kadu languages.
Sierra Leonean Creole or Krio is an English-based creole language that is lingua franca and de facto national language spoken throughout the West African nation of Sierra Leone.
The Kujargé language is spoken in seven villages in Chad near Jebel Mirra and in Sudan in villages scattered along the lower Wadi Salih and Wadi Azum.
The Kunama language has been included in the proposed Nilo-Saharan language family, though it is distantly related to the other languages, if at all.
The Kwa languages, often specified as New Kwa, are a proposed but as-yet-undemonstrated family of languages spoken in the south-eastern part of Ivory Coast, across southern Ghana, and in central Togo.
Kwadi was a "click language" and is an exinct language of uncertain classification once spoken in the southwest corner of Angola.
The Kx'a languages, also called Ju–ǂHoan, are a family established in 2010 linking the ǂ’Amkoe (ǂHoan) language with the ǃKung (Juu) dialect cluster, a relationship that had been suspected for a decade.
Laal is an endangered language isolate spoken by 749 people in three villages in the Moyen-Chari prefecture of Chad on opposite banks of the Chari River, called Gori (lá), Damtar (ɓual), and Mailao.
Labial–velar consonants are doubly articulated at the velum and the lips, such as.
In phonetics, the labiodental flap is a speech sound found primarily in languages of Central Africa, such as Kera and Mangbetu.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 76.5% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 20.5% of Indians.
The languages of the African Union are languages used by citizens within the member states of the African Union (AU).
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lesotho officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country in southern Africa.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Lingala (Ngala) is a Bantu language spoken throughout the northwestern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and a large part of the Republic of the Congo, as well as to some degree in Angola and the Central African Republic.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
The following is a list of territories where English is an official language, that is, a language used in citizen interactions with government officials.
As of 2015, there are 29 independent nations where French is an official language.
Luba-Kasai, also known as Western Luba, Bena-Lulua, Ciluba/Tshiluba, Luba-Lulua or Luva, is a Bantu language (Zone L) of Central Africa and an official language of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, alongside Lingala, Swahili, and Kikongo.
The Lufu language is a Yukubenic language of Nigeria is a language still spoken mostly by older adults among the Lufu people of the Takum Local Government Authority, Taraba State; its speakers have mostly shifted to Jukun.
Luganda, or Ganda (Oluganda), is one of the major languages in Uganda and is spoken by more than five million Baganda and other people principally in central Uganda, including the capital Kampala of Uganda.
The Luo dialect, Dholuo (pronounced) or Nilotic Kavirondo (pejorative colonial term), is the eponymous dialect of the Luo group of Nilotic languages, spoken by about 6 million Luo people of Kenya and Tanzania, who occupy parts of the eastern shore of Lake Victoria and areas to the south.
The Luo language is an unclassified language spoken in a section of the Atta region of Cameroon.
The dozen Luo, Lwo or Lwoian languages are spoken by the Luo peoples in an area ranging from southern Sudan to southern Kenya, with Dholuo extending into northern Tanzania and Alur into the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Maasai (Masai) or Maa (autonym: ɔl Maa) is an Eastern Nilotic language spoken in Southern Kenya and Northern Tanzania by the Maasai people, numbering about 800,000.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Makhuwa (Emakhuwa; also spelt Makua and Macua) is the primary Bantu language of northern Mozambique.
Malagasy is an Austronesian language and the national language of Madagascar.
Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
The Mande languages are spoken in several countries in Africa by the Mandé people and include Maninka, Mandinka, Soninke, Bambara, Dioula, Bozo, Mende, Susu, and Vai.
The Manding languages (sometimes spelt Manden) are mutually intelligible dialects or languages in West Africa of the Mande family.
Masalit (autonym Masala/Masara) is a Maban language spoken by the Masalit people in western Darfur, Sudan.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
Mauritian Creole or Morisien (Mauritian Creole: kreol morisien, pronunciation: /kʁeol moʁisjɛ̃, -iʃɛ̃/) is a French-based creole language spoken in Mauritius.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
Mawa is an extinct and unattested language of Nigeria.
Mbre, also spelled Bre, Bεrε, Pre, is an endangered language spoken not far from the city of Bouaké, Ivory Coast.
Melilla (مليلية, Maliliyyah; ⵎⵔⵉⵜⵙ, Mřič) is a Spanish autonomous city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco, with an area of.
Meroitic also called Kushite after the apparent attested endoethnonym transcribed in Egyptian as k3š ← "Meroitic",. The commonly used scholarly name "Meroitic" derives from the royal city of Meroë of the Kingdom of Kush.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
The Mossi language (known in the language as Mooré; also Mòoré, Mõõré, Moré, Moshi, Moore, More) is a Gur language of the Oti–Volta branch and one of two official regional languages of Burkina Faso, closely related to the Frafra language spoken just across the border in the northern half of Ghana and less-closely to Dagbani and Mampruli further south.
Mpra, or Mpre, is an extinct language spoken in the village of Butei in central Ghana, located between the towns of Techiman and Tamale near the confluence of the Black and White Voltas.
N'Ko is both a script devised by Solomana Kante in 1949, as a writing system for the Manding languages of West Africa, and the name of the literary language written in that script.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
The Nandi languages, or Kalenjin proper, are a dialect cluster of the Kalenjin branch of the Nilotic language family.
The Nara (Nera) or Barea (Barya) language is a Nilo-Saharan language spoken chiefly in western Eritrea.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
Nationalencyklopedin, abbreviated NE, is a comprehensive contemporary Swedish-language encyclopedia, initiated by a favourable loan from the Government of Sweden of 17 million Swedish kronor in 1980, which was repaid by December 1990.
The Niger River is the principal river of West Africa, extending about.
The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
The Nilo-Saharan languages are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile meet.
The Nilotic languages are a group of Eastern Sudanic languages spoken across a wide area between South Sudan and Tanzania by the Nilotic peoples, who traditionally practice cattle-herding.
Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan phylum.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Northern Ndebele, also called Sindebele, Zimbabwean Ndebele or North Ndebele, and formerly known as Matabele, is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, spoken by the Northern Ndebele people, or Matabele, of Zimbabwe.
Northern Sotho (Sesotho sa Leboa), also (incorrectly) known by the name of its standardised dialect version Sepedi (or Pedi) is a Bantu language spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages.
Nostratic is a macrofamily, or hypothetical large-scale language family, which includes many of the indigenous language families of Eurasia, although its exact composition and structure vary among proponents.
In linguistics, a noun class is a particular category of nouns.
Nuba is a collective term used for the various indigenous peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains of South Kordofan state in Sudan.
The Nubi language (also called Ki-Nubi) is a Sudanese Arabic-based creole language spoken in Uganda around Bombo, and in Kenya around Kibera, by the descendants of Emin Pasha's Sudanese soldiers who were settled there by the British colonial administration.
The Nubian languages (لغات نوبية) are a group of related languages spoken by the Nubians of Nubia, a region along the Nile in southern Egypt and northern Sudan.
The Nuer language (Thok Naath) is a Nilo-Saharan language of the Western Nilotic group.
Oblo is a poorly attested, unclassified, and possibly extinct language of northern Cameroon.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).
Ongota (also known as Birale, Birayle) is a moribund language of southwest Ethiopia.
Oromo (pron. or) is an Afroasiatic language spoken in the Horn of Africa.
Oropom (Oworopom, Oyoropom, Oropoi) is an African language, possibly spurious and, if real, almost certainly extinct.
The Paget Gorman Sign System, also known as Paget Gorman Signed Speech (PGSS) or Paget Gorman Systematic Sign Language is a manually coded form of the English language, designed to be used with children with speech or communication difficulties.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Polyglotta Africana is an 1854 study by the German missionary Sigismund Wilhelm Koelle, in which the author compares 156 African languages (or about 120 according to today's classification; several varieties considered distinct by Koelle were later shown to belong to the same language).
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Portuguese is spoken in a number of African countries and is the official language in six African states: Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe and Equatorial Guinea.
The Portuguese-speaking African countries (also referred to as Lusophone Africa) consist of six African countries in which the Portuguese language is an official language: Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe and, since 2011, Equatorial Guinea.
Prenasalized consonants are phonetic sequences of a nasal and an obstruent (or occasionally a non-nasal sonorant such as) that behave phonologically like single consonants.
The Rer Bare (or Rerebere, Adona) are a tribe in Ethiopia's eastern Ogaden region on the Shabele River, near Somalia, who currently speak Somali.
Rimba (Irimba) is the speech variety of the Babongo-Rimba pygmies of Gabon.
Robert Needham Cust (24 February 1821 – 27 October 1909) was a British administrator and judge in colonial India apart from being an Anglican evangelist and linguist.
Roger Marsh Blench (born 1953) is a British linguist, ethnomusicologist and development anthropologist.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
The Saharan languages are a small family of languages spoken across parts of the eastern Sahara, extending from northwestern Darfur to southern Libya, north and central Chad, eastern Niger and northeastern Nigeria.
The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.
Sandawe is a "click language" spoken by about 60,000 Sandawe people in the Dodoma region of Tanzania.
Sango (also spelled Sangho) is a creole language in the Central African Republic and the primary language spoken in the country.
The Sara languages comprise over a dozen Bongo–Bagirmi languages spoken mainly in Chad; a few are also spoken in the north of the Central African Republic.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
The Senegambian or Northern (West) Atlantic languages are a branch of Niger–Congo languages centered on Senegal (and Senegambia), with most languages spoken there and in neighboring southern Mauritania, Guinea-Bissau, and Guinea.
Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago and sovereign state in the Indian Ocean.
Seychellois Creole, also known as kreol or seselwa, is the French-based creole language of the Seychelles.
Shabo (or preferably Chabu; also called Mikeyir) is an endangered language and likely language isolate spoken by about 400 former hunter-gatherers in southwestern Ethiopia, in the westernmost part of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region.
Sheng is a Swahili and English-based cant, perhaps a mixed language or creole, originating among the urban underclass of Nairobi, Kenya, and influenced by many of the languages spoken there.
Shilluk (natively Dhøg Cøllø or d̪ɔ́cɔ̀llɔ̀) is a Luo language spoken by the Shilluk people of South Sudan and Sudan.
Shona (chiShona) is the most widely spoken Bantu language as a first language and is native to the Shona people of Zimbabwe.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
The Songhay or Songhai languages are a group of closely related languages/dialects centred on the middle stretches of the Niger River in the West African countries of Mali, Niger, Benin, Burkina Faso and Nigeria.
The Soninke language (Soninke: Sooninkanxanne) is a Mande language spoken by the Soninke people of Africa.
Sotho (Sesotho; also known as Southern Sotho, or Southern Sesotho, Historically also Suto, or Suthu, Souto, Sisutho, Sutu, or Sesutu, according to the pronunciation of the name.) is a Southern Bantu language of the Sotho-Tswana (S.30) group, spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages, and in Lesotho, where it is the national language.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The South Cushitic or Rift languages of Tanzania belong to the Afro-Asiatic family.
South Holland (Zuid-Holland) is a province of the Netherlands with a population of just over 3.6 million as of 2015 and a population density of about, making it the country's most populous province and one of the world's most densely populated areas.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
Southeast Africa or Southeastern Africa is an African region that is intermediate between East Africa and Southern Africa.
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.
Southern Ndebele, also known as Transvaal Ndebele, isiNdebele, Ndebele or South Ndebele, is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, spoken by the Ndebele people of South Africa.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sudan and South Sudan have multiple regional sign languages, which are not mutually intelligible.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
The Swazi or Swati language (Swazi: siSwati) is a Bantu language of the Nguni group spoken in Swaziland and South Africa by the Swazi people.
Swaziland, officially the Kingdom of Eswatini since April 2018 (Swazi: Umbuso weSwatini), is a landlocked sovereign state in Southern Africa.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Seven or so Tanzanian sign languages were developed independently among deaf students in separate Tanzanian schools for the Deaf starting in 1963, though use of several is forbidden by their schools.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Languages of Africa is a 1963 book of essays by Joseph Greenberg, in which the author sets forth a genetic classification of African languages that, with some changes, continues to be the most commonly used one today.
Tigrinya (often written as Tigrigna) is an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
A tone contour, or contour tone, is a tone in a tonal language which shifts from one pitch to another over the course of the syllable or word.
Tone sandhi is a phonological change occurring in tonal languages, in which the tones assigned to individual words or morphemes change based on the pronunciation of adjacent words or morphemes.
Tsonga (Xitsonga) is a southern African Bantu language spoken by the Tsonga people.
Tuareg, also known as Tamasheq, Tamajaq or Tamahaq (Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵌⴰⵆ), is a language or family of very closely related Berber languages and dialects.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Tunisian Sign Language is the sign language used by deaf people in Tunisia.
The Tuu languages, or Taa–ǃKwi (Taa–ǃUi, ǃUi–Taa, Kwi) languages, are a language family consisting of two language clusters spoken in Botswana and South Africa.
The Ubangian languages form a fairly close-knit language family of some seventy languages centered on the Central African Republic.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
Umbundu, or South Mbundu (autonym úmbúndú), one of two Bantu languages of Angola called Mbundu (see Kimbundu), is the most widely spoken language of Angola.
An unclassified language is a language whose genetic affiliation has not been established, most often due to a lack of data.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
Vandalic was the Germanic language spoken by the Vandals during roughly the 3rd to 6th centuries.
There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.
Venda, also known as Tshivenḓa or Luvenḓa, is a Bantu language and an official language of South Africa.
The Volta–Niger family of languages, also known as West Benue–Congo or East Kwa, is one of the branches of the Niger–Congo language family, with perhaps 50 million speakers.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
West African Pidgin English is a West African creole (hybrid) language based on pidgin (simplified) English and local African languages.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Weyto is a speculative extinct language thought to have been spoken in the Lake Tana region of Ethiopia by the Weyto, a small group of hippopotamus hunters who now speak Amharic.
White Namibians are people of European birth or descent living in Namibia.
Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel Bleek (8 March 1827 – 17 August 1875) was a German linguist.
Wolof is a language of Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania, and the native language of the Wolof people.
The writing systems of Africa refer to the current and historical practice of writing systems on the African continent, both indigenous and those introduced.
Xhosa (Xhosa: isiXhosa) is a Nguni Bantu language with click consonants ("Xhosa" begins with a click) and one of the official languages of South Africa.
The Yeni language is an extinct language of Cameroon, formerly spoken around Djeni Mountain in the Nyalang area.
Yoruba (Yor. èdè Yorùbá) is a language spoken in West Africa.
Zaghawa is a Saharan language spoken by the Zaghawa people of east-central Chad (in the Sahel) and northwestern Sudan (Darfur).
Zande is the largest of the Zande languages.
Zarma (also spelled Djerma, Dyabarma, Dyarma, Dyerma, Adzerma, Zabarma, Zarbarma, Zarma, Zarmaci or Zerma) is one of the Songhay languages.
Zenaga (autonym) is a moribund Berber language spoken from the town of Mederdra in southwestern Mauritania to the Atlantic coast and in Senegal.
Zigula (Zigua, Chizigua) is a Bantu language of Tanzania and of Somalia, where it is known as Mushunguli (Mushungulu).
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.
African Language, African Languages, African language, African languages, African linguistics, Language of Africa, Language of africa, Languages in africa, Languages of africa, Linguistic demographics of Africa, List of African languages, List of african languages, List of languages by number of native speakers in Africa, Lists of languages by number of speakers in Africa, Unclassified languages of Africa.