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Abahattha (Prakrit: abasatta, অবহট্ঠ ôbôhôtthô, ultimately from Sanskrit apaśabda; "meaningless sound") is a stage in the evolution of the Eastern group of Indo-Aryan languages.
The Ahom kingdom (1228–1826, also called Kingdom of Assam) was a kingdom in the Brahmaputra Valley in Assam, India.
The Ahom language is a nearly extinct Tai language spoken by the Ahom people who ruled the Brahmaputra river valley in the present day Indian state of Assam between the 13th and the 18th centuries.
Alipur Sign Language is an endangered village sign language of India.
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, one of the seven union territories of India, are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea.
Andaman Creole Hindi is a trade language of the Andaman Islands, spoken as a native language especially in Port Blair and villages to the south.
The Andaman Islands form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India, to the west, and Myanmar, to the north and east.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
Naga Hills Sign Language was a village sign language of India.
The Angami–Pochuri languages are a small family of Sino-Tibetan languages spoken in southern Nagaland and Northern Manipur of northeast India.
Angika (अंगिका) or Chhika-Chhiki is a language spoken primarily in the Bihar and Jharkhand states of India and the Terai region of Nepal.
Anthropological Survey of India (AnSI) is the apex Indian government organisation involved in anthropological studies and field data research for human and cultural aspects, working primarily in the fields of physical anthropology and cultural anthropology.
The Anti-Hindi imposition agitations of Tamil Nadu were a series of agitations that happened in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu (formerly Madras State and part of Madras Presidency) during both pre- and post-Independence periods.
Apabhranśa (अपभ्रंश,, Prakrit) is a term used by vyākaraṇin (grammarians) since Patañjali to refer to the dialects prevalent in the Ganges (east and west) before the rise of the modern languages.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Ardhamagadhi Prakrit was a Middle Indo-Aryan language and a Dramatic Prakrit thought to have been spoken in modern-day Uttar Pradesh and used in some early Buddhism and Jainism.
Arunachal Pradesh ("the land of dawn-lit mountains") is one of the 29 states of India and is the northeastern-most state of the country.
Assam is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.
The Assamese script is a writing system of the Assamese language.
Assamese or Asamiya অসমীয়া is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Assam, where it is an official language.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
Awadhi (Devanagari: अवधी) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken primarily in the Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh and Terai belt of Nepal.
The Öñge language (also spelled Ongee, Eng, or Ung) is one of two known Ongan languages within the Andaman family.
Bagheli (Devanagari: बघेली or बाघेली), or Baghelkhandi, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Baghelkhand region of central India.
The Bagri language (बागड़ी) forms something of a dialect bridge between Rajasthani, Punjabi and Haryanvi Hindi and takes its name from the Bagar tract region of Northwestern India.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
The Barak Valley is a valley located in the southern region of the Indian state of Assam.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Bengali (বাংলা Bangla) is one of the Magadhan languages, evolved from Magadhi Prakrit and Pali languages.
Bhojpuri is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Northern-Eastern part of India and the Terai region of Nepal.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
The following boards of education have been recognized by the Indian Government: -----Recognized School Education Boards in India------.
Boro (बर'), or Mech, is the Sino-Tibetan language spoken primarily by the Boro people of North East India, Nepal and Bengal.
The Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC) is a territorial council in Assam state of India which have jurisdictions in the Bodoland Territorial Area Districts.
Bombay Hindi, also known as Bambaiya Hindi, Mumbaiyya, or Bombay Hindi-Urdu, is the variety of Hindi-Urdu (Hindustani) spoken in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), India.
The Brahmaputra Valley (North Bengal of Assam) is a region situated between hill ranges of the eastern and northeastern Himalayan range.
Brahui (براهوئی) is a Dravidian language spoken primarily by the Brahui people in the central part of Baluchistan province in Pakistan, and in scattered parts of Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkmenistan, and by expatriate Brahui communities in Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Iraq.
Braj Bhāshā is a Western Hindi language.
Bundeli (Devanagari: बुन्देली or बुंदेली; or Bundelkhandi, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Bundelkhand region of central India. It belongs to the Western Hindi subgroup.
Burushaski (بروشسکی) is a language isolate spoken by Burusho people who reside almost entirely in northern Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, with a few hundred speakers in northern Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The decennial Census of India has been conducted 15 times,.
Central India is a loosely defined region of India consisting of the states of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh.
The Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL) is an Indian research and teaching institute based in Mysore, part of the Language Bureau of the Ministry of Human Resource Development.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Central Zone or Madhya languages are the central varieties of the Hindi Belt, spoken across northern India, of the Indo-Aryan languages.
Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Haryana and Punjab.
Chhattisgarh (translation: Thirty-Six Forts) is one of the 29 states of India, located in the centre-east of the country.
Chhattisgarhi is a language spoken in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh, by 24 million people.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A classical language is a language with a literature that is classical.
Coimbatore District is a district in the Kongu Nadu region of the state of Tamil Nadu.
An idea for a Constituent Assembly of India was proposed in 1934 by M. N. Roy, a pioneer of the Communist movement in India and an advocate of radical democracy.
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.
Dadra and Nagar Haveli (DNH in initials) is a union territory in Western India.
Dakshina Kannada is a district in the state of Karnataka in India.
Daman and Diu is a union territory in Western India.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
Dhundhari is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Dhundhar region of northeastern Rajasthan state, India.
In linguistics, diglossia is a situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a single language community.
Dogri (डोगरी or), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, but also in northern Punjab, other parts of Jammu and Kashmir, and elsewhere.
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK), (Dravidian Progress Federation) is a state political party in the states of Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh in India.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
East India is a region of India consisting of the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha and also the union territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
East Punjab (known simply as Punjab from 1950) was a province and later a state of India from 1947 until 1966, consisting of the parts of the Punjab Province of British India that went to India following the partition of the province between India and Pakistan by the Radcliffe Commission in 1947.
Eastern Nagari script, Assamese script, Bengali script, Assamese-Bengali script or Purbi script is the basis of the Assamese alphabet and the Bengali alphabet.
The Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India lists the official languages of the Republic of India.
Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
The Constitution of India gives a federal structure to the Republic of India, declaring it to be a "Union of the States".
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Garhwali language (गढ़वळि भाख/भासा) is a Central Pahari language belonging to the Northern Zone of Indo-Aryan languages.
Sir George Abraham Grierson (7 January 1851 – 9 March 1941) was an Irish administrator and linguist in British India.
The Ghaznavid dynasty (غزنویان ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.
Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is the northernmost administrative territory in Pakistan.
Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India.
The Gondi (Gōndi) or Gond people are Adivasi who speak Dravidian language, spread over the states of Madhya Pradesh, eastern Maharashtra (Vidarbha), Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and Western Odisha.
Gopala Chandra Praharaj (9 September 1874 – 16 May 1945) was a writer and linguist in the Odia language, well known as the compiler of the Purnachandra Odia Bhashakosha.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Grantha script (Kiranta eḻuttu; ഗ്രന്ഥലിപി; grantha lipi) is an Indian script that was widely used between the sixth century and the 20th centuries by Tamil and Malayalam speakers in South India, particularly in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, to write Sanskrit and the classical language Manipravalam, and is still in restricted use in traditional Vedic schools (Sanskrit veda pāṭhaśālā).
The Great Andamanese languages are an near-extinct language family once spoken by the Great Andamanese peoples of the Andaman Islands (India), in the Indian Ocean.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.
The Gujarati script (ગુજરાતી લિપિ Gujǎrātī Lipi) is an abugida, like all Nagari writing systems, and is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
Gurmukhi (Gurmukhi (the literal meaning being "from the Guru's mouth"): ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) is a Sikh script modified, standardized and used by the second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad (1563–1606).
The Halmidi inscription is the oldest known Kannada language inscription in the Kannada script.
Harauti (Hadoti) is a Rajasthani language, spoken by approximately four million people in the Hadoti region of southwestern Rajasthan and neighbouring areas in Madhya Pradesh.
Haryana, carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India.
Haryanvi (हरियाणवी or हरयाणवी) is a language of the Western Hindi group.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
The Hindi Belt or Hindi Desh, sometimes referred to as the Hindi-Urdu Region, is a linguistic region in north-central India where Hindi (including its dialects) and Urdu are widely spoken.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indian numerals are the symbols representing numbers in India.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
An indigenous language or autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people, often reduced to the status of a minority language.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.
Indo-Pakistani Sign Language (IPSL) is the predominant sign language in South Asia, used by at least several hundred thousand deaf signers (2003).
International Mother Language Day (IMLD) is a worldwide annual observance held on 21 February to promote awareness of linguistic and cultural diversity and promote multilingualism.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
The Jangil (also Rutland Jarawa) were one of the Andamanese indigenous peoples of the Andaman Islands, located in the Bay of Bengal.
Järawa or Jarwa is one of the Ongan languages.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland" or The land of forest) is a state in eastern India, carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000.
Bilaspur State or Kahlur was a princely state in the Punjab Province during the era of British India, ruled by a Hindu Rajput dynasty.
Kaithi, also called "Kayathi" or "Kayasthi", is a historical script used widely in parts of North India, primarily in the former Awadh and Bihar.
Kangri (Devanagari: कांगड़ी) is an Indo-Aryan dialect spoken in northern India, predominantly in the Kangra, Hamirpur, Bilaspur, Una districts and in major parts of Mandi, Chamba and Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh and in the Pathankot, Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur districts in the Punjab state.
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.
The Kannada Script (IAST: Kannaḍa lipi) is an abugida of the Brahmic family, used primarily to write the Kannada language, one of the Dravidian languages of South India especially in the state of Karnataka, Kannada script is widely used for writing Sanskrit texts in Karnataka.
The Kannauji language is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in parts of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Kanyakumari district is the southernmost district in Tamil Nadu state and mainland India.
The Karbi language, also known as Mikir or Arleng, is spoken by the Karbi, Mikir, or Arleng people of north-eastern India and north-eastern Bangladesh.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
Kashmiri (کأشُر), or Koshur (pronounced kọ̄šur or kạ̄šur) is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir.
Kavirajamarga (ಕವಿರಾಜಮಾರ್ಗ) (850 C.E.) is the earliest available work on rhetoric, poetics and grammar in the Kannada language.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
Khamti language (Khamti: လိꩱ့်တဲးၵမ်းတီႈ (Khamti written), Khamti: ၵၢမ်းတဲးၵံးတီႈ (Khamti spoken) Shan ၶၢမ်းတႆးၶမ်းတီႈ,, or Shan: ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆးၶမ်းတီႈ,; Burmese: ခန္တီးရှမ်းဘာသာ,; Thai: ภาษาไทคำตี่) is a Southwestern Tai language spoken in Burma and India by the Khamti people.
Khasi (Khasi: Ka Ktien Khasi) is an Austroasiatic language spoken primarily in Meghalaya state in India by the Khasi people.
Khortha (Khotta) is spoken in the Indian state of Jharkhand, mainly in 16 districts of two divisions: North Chotanagpur and Santhal Pargana.
Kodagu is an administrative district in Karnataka, India.
The Kodava or Coorg language is an endangered Dravidian language and the original language of the Kodagu district in southern Karnataka, India.
Konkani is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages and is spoken along the South western coast of India.
The Kra–Dai languages (also known as Tai–Kadai, Daic and Kadai) are a language family of tonal languages found in southern China, Northeast India and Southeast Asia.
Krishna district is an administrative district in the Coastal Andhra region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
The Kuki-Chin languages are a branch of 50 or so Sino-Tibetan languages spoken in northeastern India, western Burma and eastern Bangladesh.
The Kumaoni language is a Central Pahari language.
Kurukh (also Kurux and Oraon or Uranw; Devanagari: कुड़ुख़) is a Dravidian language spoken by nearly two million Oraon and Kisan tribal peoples of Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and West Bengal, as well as by 65,000 in northern Bangladesh, 28,600 a dialect called Dhangar in Nepal, and about 5,000 in Bhutan.
The Oraon or Kurukh tribe (Kurukh: Oṛāōn and Kuṛuḵẖ), also spelled Uraon, Oran, or Oram, are an Adivasi group inhabiting various states across central and eastern India, Rakhine State in Myanmar, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Bhutan.
Kusunda (Kusanda) is a language isolate spoken by a handful of people in western and central Nepal.
Ladakh ("land of high passes") is a region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir that currently extends from the Kunlun mountain range to the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.
Lakshadweep (Lakshadīb), formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Aminidivi Islands, is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea, off the southwestern coast of India.
Lal Bahadur Shastri (2 October 1904 – 11 January 1966) was the 2nd Prime Minister of India and a senior leader of the Indian National Congress political party.
Lambani or Goar-boali, also called Banjari, is a language spoken by the once nomadic Banjara people across India and it belongs to Indo-Aryan group of languages.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
The Language Movement (ভাষা আন্দোলন Bhasha Andolôn) was a political movement in former East Bengal (currently Bangladesh) advocating the recognition of the Bengali language as an official language of the then-Dominion of Pakistan in order to allow its use in government affairs, the continuation of its use as a medium of education, its use in media, currency and stamps, and to maintain its writing in the Bengali script.
Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 76.5% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 20.5% of Indians.
Pakistan is home to many dozens of languages spoken as first languages.
The Constitution of India designates the official language of the Government of India as Hindi written in the Devanagari script, as well as English.
Lao, sometimes referred to as Laotian (ລາວ 'Lao' or ພາສາລາວ 'Lao language') is a tonal language of the Kra–Dai language family.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Lepcha language, or Róng language (Lepcha: ᰛᰩᰵ་ᰛᰵᰧᰶ; Róng ríng), is a Himalayish language spoken by the Lepcha people in Sikkim and parts of West Bengal, Nepal and Bhutan.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Linguistic rights are the human and civil rights concerning the individual and collective right to choose the language or languages for communication in a private or public atmosphere.
The Linguistic Survey of India, often referred to as the LSI, is a comprehensive survey of the languages of British India, describing 364 languages and dialects.
An endangered language is a language that is at a risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers.
India is home to several hundred languages.
This is a list of Scheduled Tribes in India.
Muthuvel Karunanidhi (born as Daksinamoorthy on 3 June 1924) is an Indian politician and the 3rd Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu.
Madhya Pradesh (MP;; meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.
Magadhi Prakrit (Māgadhī) was a vernacular Middle Indo-Aryan language, replacing earlier Vedic Sanskrit in parts of the Indian subcontinents.
The Magahi language, also known as Magadhi, is a language spoken in Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal states of eastern India.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
Maharashtri or Maharashtri Prakrit, is a language of ancient and medieval India which is the ancestor of Marathi and Konkani, It is one of the many languages (often called dialects) of a complex called Prakrit, and the chief Dramatic Prakrit.
Maithili (Maithilī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Bihar and Jharkhand states of India and is one of the 22 recognised Indian languages.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Malayalam script (/ Malayalam: മലയാളലിപി) is a Brahmic script used commonly to write the Malayalam language, which is the principal language of Kerala, India, spoken by 35 million people in the world.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Malvani is a dialect of Konkani with significant Marathi influences and loanwords.
Malvi, or Malwi, is a language spoken in the Malwa region of India, with ten million speakers.
Manipur is a state in Northeast India, with the city of Imphal as its capital.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
Marwari (Mārwāṛī; also rendered Marwadi, Marvadi) is a Rajasthani language spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
Meghalaya is a state in Northeast India.
Meitei (also Manipuri, Census of India, 2001, Meithei, Meetei, Meeʁteilon) is the predominant language and lingua franca in the southeastern Himalayan state of Manipur, in northeastern India.
UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme is an international initiative launched to safeguard the documentary heritage of humanity against collective amnesia, neglect, the ravages of time and climatic conditions, and willful and deliberate destruction.
Mewari is one of the major dialects of Rajasthani language of Indo-Aryan languages family.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits, which are a stage of Middle Indic) are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family.
The evolution of Old Tamil into Middle Tamil, which is generally taken to have been completed by the 8th century, was characterised by a number of phonological and grammatical changes.
The Ministry of Human Resource Development, formerly Ministry of Education (until 25 September 1985), is responsible for the development of human resources in India.
Mizoram is a state in Northeast India, with Aizawl as its capital city.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
The Munda languages are a language family spoken by about nine million people in central and eastern India and Bangladesh.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Mysore, officially Mysuru, is the third most populous city in the state of Karnataka, India.
Nagaland is a state in Northeast India.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
The National Mission for Manuscripts (NAMAMI) is an autonomous organisation under Ministry of Culture, Government of India, established to survey, locate and conserve Indian manuscripts, with an aim to create national resource base for manuscripts, for enhancing their access, awareness and use for educational purposes.
National Translation Mission (NTM) is a Government of India initiative to make knowledge texts accessible, in all Indian languages listed in the VIII schedule of the Constitution, through translation.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.
The Nicobarese languages, or Nicobaric languages, form an isolated group of about half a dozen closely related Austroasiatic languages, spoken by the majority of the inhabitants of the Nicobar Islands of India.
Nihali, also known as Nahali or erroneously as Kalto, is a moribund language isolate that is spoken in west-central India (in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra), with approximately 2,000 people in 1991 out of an ethnic population of 5,000.
Nimadi is a Western Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Nimar region of west-central India within the state of Madhya Pradesh.
North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.
The Odia script (ଓଡ଼ିଆ ଲେଖନୀ ଶୈଳୀ), also known as the Odia script, is a Brahmic script used to write the Odia language.
Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ) (formerly romanized as Oriya) is a language spoken by 4.2% of India's population.
Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old Gujarātī (જૂની ગુજરાતી; also called ગુજરાતી ભાખા Gujarātī bhākhā or ગુર્જર અપભ્રંશ Gurjar apabhraṃśa, 1000 CE–1500 CE), the ancestor of modern Gujarati and Rajasthani, was spoken by the Gurjars, who were residing and ruling in Gujarat, Punjab, Rajputana and central India.
Ongan, also called South Andamanese or Jarawa–Onge, is a phylum of two Andamanese languages, Önge and Jarawa, spoken in the southern Andaman Islands.
Pahari, or Pahadi (पहाड़ी pahāṛī 'of the hills/mountains') is an ambiguous term that has been used for a variety of languages, dialects and language groups, most of which are found in the lower Himalayas.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
The Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU) was a state of India uniting eight princely states between 1948 and 1956.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persian language in South Asia, before the British colonized the subcontinent, was the region's lingua franca and a widely used official language.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
Proto-Dravidian is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Dravidian languages.
Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
Puducherry (literally New Town in Tamil), formerly known as Pondicherry, is a union territory of India.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Punjab is a state in northern India.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
Rajasthani (Devanagari: राजस्थानी) refers to a group of Indo-Aryan languages spoken primarily in the state of Rajasthan and adjacent areas of Haryana, Punjab, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh in India.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
In law, resolution is a written motion adopted by a deliberative body.
Sadri, also known as Nagpuri, is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, northern West Bengal, Assam and in Bangladesh.
The Sahitya Akademi, India's National Academy of Letters, is an organisation dedicated to the promotion of literature in the languages of India.
The Sal languages are a branch of Sino-Tibetan languages spoken in eastern India, parts of Bangladesh, and Burma.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Santali (Ol Chiki:; Eastern Nagari: সাঁওতালি) is a language in the Munda subfamily of Austroasiatic languages, related to Ho and Mundari, spoken mainly in the Indian states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.
Saraiki (سرائیکی, also spelt Siraiki, or less often Seraiki) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Lahnda (Western Punjabi) group, spoken in the south-western half of the province of Punjab in Pakistan.
The Second ministry of Manmohan Singh came into existence after the general election in 2009.
Sentinelese is the presumed language of the Sentinelese of North Sentinel Island in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.
Shahmukhi (Gurmukhi: ਸ਼ਾਹਮੁਖੀ, meaning literally "from the King's mouth") is a Perso-Arabic alphabet used by Muslims in Punjab to write the Punjabi language.
The Shan language (Shan written: လိၵ်ႈတႆး), Shan spoken: ၵႂၢမ်းတႆး), or ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆး,; ရှမ်းဘာသာ,; ภาษาไทใหญ่) is the native language of the Shan people and is mostly spoken in Shan State, Burma. It is also spoken in pockets of Kachin State in Burma, in northern Thailand, and decreasingly in Assam. Shan is a member of the Tai–Kadai language family, and is related to Thai. It has five tones, which do not correspond exactly to Thai tones, plus a "sixth tone" used for emphasis. It is called Tai Yai, or Tai Long in the Tai languages. The number of Shan speakers is not known in part because the Shan population is unknown. Estimates of Shan people range from four million to 30 million, though the true number is somewhere around six million, with about half speaking the Shan language. In 2001 Patrick Johnstone and Jason Mandryk estimated 3.2 million Shan speakers in Myanmar; the Mahidol University Institute for Language and Culture gave the number of Shan speakers in Thailand as 95,000 in 2006.http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code.
Shan State (Burmese: ရှမ်းပြည်နယ်,; Shan: မိူင်းတႆး) is a state of Myanmar.
Sheldon I. Pollock is a scholar of Sanskrit, the intellectual and literary history of India, and comparative intellectual history.
Sidi, also known as Habsi (Abyssinian), is an extinct Bantu language of India, descended from Swahili.
Sikkim is a state in Northeast India.
SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी,, ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
The Southwestern Tai, Southwestern Thai or Thais languages are an established branch of the Tai languages of Southeast Asia.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Sri Lankan Tamils (also) or Ceylon Tamils, also known as Eelam Tamils in Tamil, are members of the Tamil ethnic group native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.
The following is a list of Indian states and union territories with a significant proportion of the population in these states speaking Bengali (only those states and union territories considered where more than 0.01% of the total population speak Bengali).
Surjapuri, a language possessing similarities with Bengali and Maithili, is mainly spoken in the parts of Seemanchal subregion (Kishanganj, Katihar, Purnia, Araria districts) of Mithila region of Bihar.
Sylheti (ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ Silôṭi) is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language, primarily spoken in the Sylhet Division of Bangladesh and in the Barak Valley of the Indian state of Assam.
The Tai Aiton language is spoken in Assam, India (in the Dhonsiri Valley and the south bank of the Brahmaputra).
Tai Lue (Tai Lü:, kam tai lue) or Tai Lɯ, Tai Lü, Thai Lue, Tai Le, Xishuangbanna Dai (ภาษาไทลื้อ, phasa thai lue,; Lự or Lữ) is a Tai language of the Lu people, spoken by about 700,000 people in Southeast Asia.
The Tai Phake language is spoken in the Buri Dihing Valley of Assam, India.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
The Tamil script (தமிழ் அரிச்சுவடி) is an abugida script that is used by Tamils and Tamil speakers in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore and elsewhere to write the Tamil language, as well as to write the liturgical language Sanskrit, using consonants and diacritics not represented in the Tamil alphabet.
Tamil-Brahmi, or Tamili, is a variant of the Brahmi script used to write the Tamil language.
Tamil–Kannada is an inner branch (Zvelebil 1990:56) of the Southern Dravidian I (SDr I) subfamily of the Dravidian languages that include Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam.
The Tangkhulic and Tangkhul languages are a group of Sino-Tibetan languages spoken mostly in northeastern Manipur, India.
Tani (alternatively Miric, Adi–Galo–Mishing–Nishi (Bradley 1997), or Abor–Miri–Dafla (Matisoff 2003)), is a branch of Sino-Tibetan languages spoken mostly in Arunachal Pradesh, India and neighboring regions.
Tatsama (Sanskrit;, lit. 'same as that') are Sanskrit loanwords in modern Indo-Aryan languages like Bengali, Marathi, Oriya, Hindi, Gujarati, and Sinhala and in Dravidian languages like Malayalam, Kannada, Telugu, and Tamil.
Telangana is a state in the south of India.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
Telugu script (Telugu lipi), an abugida from the Brahmic family of scripts, is used to write the Telugu language, a Dravidian language spoken in the South Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana as well as several other neighbouring states.
The Terai (तराई तराइ) is a lowland region in southern Nepal and northern India that lies south of the outer foothills of the Himalayas, the Siwalik Hills, and north of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Nilgiris District is in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
The Tibetic languages are a cluster of Sino-Tibetan languages descended from Old Tibetan, spoken across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering the Indian subcontinent, including the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas in Baltistan, Ladakh, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan.
Tirhuta or Mithilakshar is the script used for the Maithili language originating in the Mithila region of Bihar, India and the eastern Terai region of Nepal.
Tripura 'ত্রিপুরা (Bengali)' is a state in Northeast India.
Tulu (Tulu: ತುಳು ಭಾಷೆ Tulu bāse) is a Dravidian language spoken by around 2.5 million native speakers mainly in the south west part of the Indian state of Karnataka and in the Kasaragod district of Kerala which is collectively known as Tulu Nadu.
Turco-Mongol or the Turko-Mongol tradition was a cultural or ethnocultural synthesis that arose during the early 14th century, among the ruling elites of Mongol Empire successor states such as the Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde.
The Twenty-first Amendment of the Constitution of India, officially known as The Constitution (Twenty-first Amendment) Act, 1967, amended the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution so as to include Sindhi as one of the languages, thereby raising the total number of languages listed in the schedule to fifteen.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India.
The University Grants Commission of India (UGC India) is a statutory body set up by the Indian Union government in accordance to the UGC Act 1956 under Ministry of Human Resource Development, and is charged with coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of higher education.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
The Urdu alphabet is the right-to-left alphabet used for the Urdu language.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
Uttarakhand, officially the State of Uttarakhand (Uttarākhaṇḍ Rājya), formerly known as Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India.
Varhadi is a dialect of Marathi spoken in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra and by Marathi people of adjoining parts of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh in India.
Vedda is an endangered language which is used by the indigenous Vedda people of Sri Lanka.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
The West Himalayish languages, also known as Almora and Kanauric, are a family of Sino-Tibetan languages centered in Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and across the border into Nepal.
Western India is a loosely defined region of India consisting of its western part.
Western Uttar Pradesh, is a region in India that comprises the western districts of Uttar Pradesh state, including the areas of Rohilkhand and Braj.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
The Zeme or ZeliangrongMortensen, David R. (2003).
The Zhuang languages (autonym:, pre-1982:, Sawndip: 話僮, from vah 'language' and Cuengh 'Zhuang') are any of more than a dozen Tai languages spoken by the Zhuang people of southern China in the province of Guangxi and adjacent parts of Yunnan and Guangdong.
The 1951 Census of India was the 9th in a series of censuses held in India every decade since 1871.
The 1961 Census of India was the 10th in a series of censuses held in India every decade since 1871.
The 1991 Census of India was the 13th in a series of censuses held in India every decade since 1871.
The 2001 Census of India was the 14th in a series of censuses held in India every decade since 1871.
The 15th Indian Census was conducted in two phases, house listing and population enumeration.
Ancient Indian language, Classical Language in India, Classical Language of India, Classical Languages of India, Classical language in India, Classical language of India, Classical languages of India, Importance of regional languages in India, Indian Language, Indian Languages, Indian Local Dialects, Indian language, Indian languages and resources, Indian national language controversy, Language in India, Language of India, Language politics of India, Languages in India, Languages of Republic of India, Languages of india, Languages of the India, List of national languages of India, National languages of India, Regional languages in India.