113 relations: Abaza language, Adyghe language, Ainu language, Akkala Sami language, Aleut language, Alphabet, Altai language, Altai Republic, Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, Armenian language, Azerbaijani language, Bashkir language, Buryat language, Chechen language, Chukchi language, Chulym language, Chuvash language, Constitution of Russia, Creole language, Crimean Tatar language, Dagestan, Demographics of Russia, Derbentsky District, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Edinburgh University Press, Endangered language, Enets language, English language, Erzya language, Ethnologue, Finnish language, French language, French Revolution, Georgian language, German language, Grammar, Hill Mari language, Indo-European languages, Ingrian language, Ingush language, JSTOR, Judeo-Tat, Kabardian language, Kalmyk Oirat, Karachay-Balkar language, Karelian language, Kazakh language, Kerek language, Ket language, Keyboard layout, ..., Khakas language, Komi language, Kyrgyz language, Languages of the Caucasus, Law on the languages of the peoples of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Levada Center, Lezgian language, List of endangered languages in Russia, List of language regulators, List of languages of Russia, Ludic language, Meadow Mari language, Medny Aleut language, Michael E. Krauss, Migrant worker, Moksha language, Moldovan language, Mongolic languages, Myasnikovsky District, Napoleonic Wars, Nivkh language, Nogai language, Northeast Caucasian languages, Northwest Caucasian languages, Official language, Orok language, Ossetian language, Peter the Great, Republic of Karelia, Republics of Russia, Russia, Russia Beyond, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Empire, Russian language, Russian Sign Language, Russians, Rutul language, Serbian language, Seto dialect, Southern Yukaghir language, Soviet Union, Tajik language, Tat language (Caucasus), Tatar language, Ter Sami language, Tofa language, Tsakhur language, Tundra Yukaghir language, Turkic languages, Turkish language, Tuvan language, Udege language, Udmurt language, Ukraine, Ukrainian language, University of Bristol, Uralic languages, Uzbek language, Veps language, Votic language, Yakut language, Yugh language. Expand index (63 more) » « Shrink index
The Abaza language (абаза бызшва, abaza byzšwa; абазэбзэ) is a Northwest Caucasian language in Russia and many of the exiled communities in Turkey.
Adyghe (or; Adyghe: Адыгабзэ, Adygabzæ), also known as West Circassian (КӀахыбзэ, K’axybzæ), is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian. It is spoken by various tribes of the Adyghe people: Abzekh, Adamey, Bzhedug, Hatuqwai, Temirgoy, Mamkhegh, Natekuay, Shapsug, Zhaney and Yegerikuay, each with its own dialect. The language is referred to by its speakers as Adygebze or Adəgăbză, and alternatively transliterated in English as Adygean, Adygeyan or Adygei. The literary language is based on the Temirgoy dialect. There are apparently around 128,000 speakers of Adyghe in Russia, almost all of them native speakers. In total, some 300,000 speak it worldwide. The largest Adyghe-speaking community is in Turkey, spoken by the post Russian–Circassian War (circa 1763–1864) diaspora; in addition to that, the Adyghe language is spoken by the Cherkesogai in Krasnodar Krai. Adyghe belongs to the family of Northwest Caucasian languages. Kabardian (also known as East Circassian) is a very close relative, treated by some as a dialect of Adyghe or of an overarching Circassian language. Ubykh, Abkhaz and Abaza are somewhat more distantly related to Adyghe. The language was standardised after the October Revolution in 1917. Since 1936, the Cyrillic script has been used to write Adyghe. Before that, an Arabic-based alphabet was used together with the Latin.
Ainu (Ainu: アイヌ・イタㇰ Aynu.
Akkala Sami is a Sami language that was spoken in the Sami villages of A´kkel (Russian Бабинский, Finnish Akkala), Ču´kksuâl (Russian Экостровский) and Sââ´rvesjäu´rr (Russian Гирвасозеро, Finnish Hirvasjärvi), in the inland parts of the Kola Peninsula in Russia.
Aleut (Unangam Tunuu) is the language spoken by the Aleut people (Unangax̂) living in the Aleutian Islands, Pribilof Islands, Commander Islands, and the Alaskan Peninsula (in Aleut Alaxsxa, the origin of the state name Alaska).
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Gorno-Altai (also Gorno-Altay) is a Turkic language, spoken officially in the Altai Republic, Russia.
The Altai Republic (Респу́блика Алта́й, Respublika Altay,; Altai: Алтай Республика, Altay Respublika) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
The Bashkir language (Башҡорт теле) is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak branch.
Buryat or Buriat (Buryat Cyrillic: буряад хэлэн, buryaad xelen) is a variety of Mongolic spoken by the Buryats that is classified either as a language or as a major dialect group of Mongolian.
Chechen (нохчийн мотт / noxçiyn mott / نَاخچیین موٓتت / ნახჩიე მუოთთ, Nokhchiin mott) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by more than 1.4 million people, mostly in the Chechen Republic and by members of the Chechen diaspora throughout Russia, Jordan, Central Asia (mainly Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan), and Georgia.
Chukchi is a Chukotko–Kamchatkan language spoken by the Chukchi people in the easternmost extremity of Siberia, mainly in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug.
Chulym (in Chulym: Ҡазар тили, Qazar tili), also known as Chulim, Chulym-Turkic, Küerik, Chulym Tatar or Melets Tatar (not to be confused with the closely related Siberian Tatar language) is the language of the Chulyms.
Chuvash (Чӑвашла, Čăvašla) is a Turkic language spoken in European Russia, primarily in the Chuvash Republic and adjacent areas.
The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Конституция Российской Федерации, Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii) was adopted by national referendum on.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
Crimean Tatar (Къырымтатарджа, Qırımtatarca; Къырымтатар тили, Qırımtatar tili), also called Crimean Turkish or simply Crimean, is a Kipchak Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada.
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
The demographics of Russia is about the demographic features of the population of the Russian Federation including population growth, population density, ethnic composition, education level, health, economic status and other aspects.
Derbentsky District (Дербе́нтский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #16 and municipalLaw #6 district (raion), one of the forty-one in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Edinburgh University Press is a scholarly publisher of academic books and journals, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.
An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language.
Enets is a moribund Samoyedic language of Northern Siberia spoken on the Lower Yenisei within the boundaries of the Taimyr Municipality District, a subdivision of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia Federation.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Erzya language (erzänj kelj) is spoken by about 37,000 people in the northern, eastern and north-western parts of the Republic of Mordovia and adjacent regions of Nizhny Novgorod, Chuvashia, Penza, Samara, Saratov, Orenburg, Ulyanovsk, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan in Russia.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Hill Mari or Western Mari (Мары йӹлмӹ) is a Uralic language closely related to Meadow Mari.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Ingrian (also called Izhorian) is a nearly extinct Finnic language spoken by the (mainly Orthodox) Izhorians of Ingria.
Ingush (ГӀалгӀай,, pronounced) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by about 500,000 people, known as the Ingush, across a region covering the Russian republics of Ingushetia and Chechnya.
JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.
Judeo-Tat or Juhuri (çuhuri / жугьури / ז'אוּהאוּראִ) is the traditional language of the Mountain Jews of the eastern Caucasus Mountains, especially Azerbaijan and Dagestan, now mainly spoken in Israel.
Kabardian (адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдей адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдейбзэ; Adyghe: адыгэбзэ, къэбэртай адыгабзэ, къэбэртайбзэ), also known as Kabardino-Cherkess (къэбэрдей-черкесыбзэ) or, is a Northwest Caucasian language closely related to the Adyghe language.
Kalmyk Oirat (Хальмг Өөрдин келн, Xaľmg Öördin keln), commonly known as the Kalmyk language (Хальмг келн, Xaľmg keln), is a register of the Oirat language, natively spoken by the Kalmyk people of Kalmykia, a federal subject of Russia.
The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар тил, Qaraçay-Malqar til or Таулу тил, Tawlu til) is a Turkic language spoken by the Karachays and Balkars in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay–Cherkessia, European Russia, as well as by an immigrant population in Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey.
Karelian (karjala, karjal or kariela) is a Finnic language spoken mainly in the Russian Republic of Karelia.
Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.
Kerek (Керекский язык) is an extinct language of Russia of the northern branch of the Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages.
The Ket language, or more specifically Imbak and formerly known as Yenisei Ostyak,Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh is a Siberian language long thought to be an isolate, the sole surviving language of a Yeniseian language family.
A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer, typewriter, or other typographic keyboard.
Khakas (endonym: Хакас тілі, Xakas tili) is a Turkic language spoken by the Khakas people, who mainly live in the southwestern Siberian Khakas Republic, or Khakassia, in Russia.
The Komi language (endonym: Коми кыв, tr. Komi kyv) is a Uralic macrolanguage spoken by the Komi peoples in the northeastern European part of Russia.
Kyrgyz (natively кыргызча, قىرعىزچه, kyrgyzcha or кыргыз тили, قىرعىز تيلى, kyrgyz tili) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia.
The Caucasian languages are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus Mountains, which lie between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
The Law on the languages of the peoples of the Republic of Bashkortostan is a law aimed at protecting and preserving the languages of the peoples of Bashkortostan.
Levada-Center is a Russian independent, non-governmental polling and sociological research organization.
Lezgian, also called Lezgi or Lezgin, (Azerbaijani: Ləzgi dili), is a language that belongs to the Lezgic languages.
An endangered language is a language that is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers.
This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies.
This is a list of languages used in Russia.
Ludic, or Ludian, or Ludic Karelian (Luudi, Lyydi or lüüdi), is a Finnic language in the Uralic language family.
Meadow Mari or Eastern Mari is a standardized dialect of the Mari language used by about half a million people mostly in the European part of the Russian Federation.
Mednyj Aleut (also called Copper Island Creole or Copper Island Aleut) is a nearly extinct mixed language spoken on Bering Island.
Michael E. Krauss (born August 15, 1934) is an American linguist, professor emeritus, founder and long-time head of the Alaska Native Language Center.
A "migrant worker" is a person who either migrates within their home country or outside it to pursue work such as seasonal work.
The Moksha language (mokšenj kälj) is a member of the Mordvinic branch of the Uralic languages, with around 2,000 native speakers (2010 Russian census).
Moldovan (also Moldavian; limba moldovenească, or лимба молдовеняскэ in Moldovan Cyrillic) is one of the two names of the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova, prescribed by the Article 13 of the current constitution; the other name, recognized by the Declaration of Independence of Moldova and the Constitutional Court, is "Romanian".
The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in East-Central Asia, mostly in Mongolia and surrounding areas plus in Kalmykia.
Myasnikovsky District (Мяснико́вский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #340-ZS and municipalLaw #182-ZS district (raion), one of the forty-three in Rostov Oblast, Russia.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Nivkh or Gilyak (self-designation: Нивхгу диф Nivkhgu dif) is a language spoken in Outer Manchuria, in the basin of the Amgun (a tributary of the Amur), along the lower reaches of the Amur itself, and on the northern half of Sakhalin.
Nogai (also Nogay or Nogai Tatar) is a Turkic language spoken in southwestern European Russia.
The Northeast Caucasian languages, or Nakh-Daghestanian languages, are a language family spoken in the Russian republics of Dagestan, Chechnya and Ingushetia and in northern Azerbaijan as well as in diaspora populations in Western Europe, Turkey and the Middle East.
The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called West Caucasian, Abkhazo-Adyghean, Circassic, or sometimes Pontic (as opposed to Caspian for the Northeast Caucasian languages), are a group of languages spoken in the northwestern Caucasus region,Hoiberg, Dale H. (2010) chiefly in three Russian republics (Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia), the disputed territory of Abkhazia (whose sovereignty is claimed by Georgia), and Turkey, with smaller communities scattered throughout the Middle East.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Orok is the Russian name for the language known by its speakers as Uilta, Ulta, or Ujlta.
Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic, is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
The Republic of Karelia (rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə kɐˈrʲelʲɪ(j)ə; Karjalan tazavalda; Karjalan tasavalta; Karjalan Tazovaldkund) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), located in the northwest of Russia.
According to the Constitution, the Russian Federation is divided into 85 federal subjects (constituent units), 22 of which are "republics".
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russia Beyond, previously branded as Russia Beyond the Headlines or the RBTH, is a project/brand started by the TV-Novosti company owned by the Rossiya Segodnya which is a state news agency wholly owned and operated by the Russian government, created by an Executive Order of the President of Russia on December 9, 2013.
The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Russian Sign Language is the sign language of the Deaf community in Russia.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Rutul is a language spoken by the Rutuls, an ethnic group living in Dagestan (Russia) and some parts of Azerbaijan.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Seto (seto kiil´; setu keel) is a dialect of South Estonian spoken by 12,549 people.
The Southern, Kolyma or Forest Yukaghir language is one of only two Yukaghir languages.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
The Tat language or Tat/Tati PersianGernot Windfuhr, "Persian Grammar: history and state of its study", Walter de Gruyter, 1979.
The Tatar language (татар теле, tatar tele; татарча, tatarça) is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan (European Russia), as well as Siberia.
Ter Sami is the easternmost of the Sami languages.
Tofa, also known as Tofalar or Karagas, is a moribund Turkic language spoken in Russia's Irkutsk Oblast by the Tofalars.
Tsakhur (also spelled Tsaxur or Caxur; Saxur dili; Цахурский, Tsakhurskiy) is a language spoken by the Tsakhurs in northern Azerbaijan and southwestern Dagestan (Russia).
The Tundra Yukaghir language (also known as Northern Yukaghir; self-designation: wadul) is one of only two extant Yukaghir languages.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Tuvan (Tuvan: Тыва дыл, Tıwa dıl; tʰɯˈʋa tɯl), also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan or Tuvin, is a Turkic language spoken in the Republic of Tuva in south-central Siberia in Russia.
The Udege language (also Udihe language, Udekhe language, Udeghe language) is the language of the Udege people.
Udmurt (удмурт кыл, udmurt kyl) is a Uralic language, part of the Permic subgroup, spoken by the Udmurt natives of the Russian constituent republic of Udmurtia, where it is co-official with Russian.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The University of Bristol (simply referred to as Bristol University and abbreviated as Bris. in post-nominal letters, or UoB) is a red brick research university located in Bristol, United Kingdom.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
The Veps language (also known as Vepsian, natively as vepsän kel’, vepsän keli, or vepsä), spoken by the Vepsians (also known as Veps), belongs to the Finnic group of the Uralic languages.
Votic, or Votian (vađđa ceeli or maaceeli; also written vaďďa tšeeli, maatšeeli in old orthography), is the language spoken by the Votes of Ingria, belonging to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages.
Yakut, also known as Sakha, is a Turkic language with around 450,000 native speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation by the Yakuts.
Yugh (Yug) is a Yeniseian language, closely related to Ket, formerly spoken by the Yugh people, one of the southern groups along the Yenisei River in central Siberia.