139 relations: Angevin dialect, Anglo-Norman language, Anjou, Armorica, Arpitania, Artois, Auregnais, Île-de-France, Bailiwick, Bartsch's law, Belgian French, Belgium, Berrichon dialect, Bourbonnais dialects, Brazilian nationalism, Brazilian Portuguese, Breton language, British–Irish Council, Burgundian language (Oïl), Burgundians, Burgundy, Camino de Santiago, Camino de Santiago (route descriptions), Catalan language, Champenois language, Channel Islands, Cistercians, Cluniac Reforms, Conon de Béthune, Constitutional Council (France), Dante Alighieri, De vulgari eloquentia, Dialect continuum, England, English language, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, European Portuguese, Frainc-Comtou dialect, France, Francien language, Franco-Provençal language, Franks, French language, French language in Canada, French language in the United States, French literature, French Revolution, French-based creole languages, Galician-Portuguese lyric, Gallo language, ..., Gallo-Romance languages, George Métivier, Germanic peoples, Globalization, Guernésiais, Guernsey, History of French, Iberian Peninsula, Indigenous language, Italian language, Italic languages, Italy, Jèrriais, Jèrriais literature, Joret line, Kingdom of France, Koiné language, Languages of Belgium, Languages of France, Languages of Luxembourg, Latin, Latino-Faliscan languages, Law French, Limburgish, List of territorial entities where French is an official language, Literature, Lorrain language, Lusophobia, Maastrichtian dialect, Macanese Portuguese, Maine (province), Marches of Neustria, Marionette, Mayenne, Medieval Latin, Middle French, Mutual intelligibility, Neologism, Norman conquest of England, Norman language, Normandy, Normans, North America, Oaths of Strasbourg, Occitan language, Occitania, Old French, Old Norman, Opus Majus, Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts, Orleanais language, Paris, Petit Robert, Picard language, Picardy, Poitevin dialect, Poitou, Portuguese House of Burgundy, Portuguese language, Portuguese language in Africa, Postmodernity, Reconquista, Regional language, Renaissance, Roger Bacon, Romance languages, Romanian language, Saintonge, Saintongeais dialect, Sardinian language, Sarthe, Sercquiais, Spanish language, Standard language, Switzerland, Troubadour, Ulster Scots dialects, Upper Brittany, Upper class, Val d'Aran, Variety (linguistics), Vernacular literature, Vulgar Latin, Wace, Wallonia, Walloon language, Weaver Poets, Western Romance languages, World War I. Expand index (89 more) » « Shrink index
Angevin is the traditional langue d'oïl spoken in Anjou, a historic province in western France.
Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.
Anjou (Andegavia) is a historical province of France straddling the lower Loire River.
Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul between the Seine and the Loire that includes the Brittany Peninsula, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic Coast.
Arpitania (Arpitan and Italian: Arpitania, French: Arpitanie) is a term denoting ethnic or cultural unity of the Western Alps, speakers of Franco-Provençal (termed Arpitan).
Artois (adjective Artesian; Artesië) is a region of northern France.
Auregnais, Aoeur'gnaeux or Aurignais was the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Alderney (Aurigny, Auregnais: Aoeur'gny or Auregny).
Île-de-France ("Island of France"), also known as the région parisienne ("Parisian Region"), is one of the 18 regions of France and includes the city of Paris.
A bailiwick is usually the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff, and once also applied to territories in which a privately appointed bailiff exercised the sheriff's functions under a royal or imperial writ.
In historical linguistics, Bartsch's law or the Bartsch effect (loi de Bartsch or effet de Bartsch) is the name of a sound change that took place in the early history of the langues d'oïl, for example in the development of Old French.
Belgian French (français de Belgique) is the variety of French spoken mainly among the French Community of Belgium, alongside related Oïl languages of the region such as Walloon, Picard, Champenois and Lorrain (Gaumais).
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Berrichon is an Oïl language very closely related to French or a dialect of it traditionally spoken in the historical area of the French province of Berry.
The Bourbonnais dialects are spoken in the historic region of Bourbonnais (centre of France), i.e. in the whole Allier department and in the southeast of the Cher department (around Saint-Amand-Montrond. They are situated at the borderline between the Oïl language, Occitan language and Franco-Provençal language zones.
Brazilian nationalism refers to the nationalism of Brazilian people and Brazilian culture.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
The British–Irish Council (BIC) is an intergovernmental organisation that aims to improve collaboration between its members in a number of areas including transport, the environment, and energy.
The Burgundian language, also known by French names Bourguignon-morvandiau, Bourguignon, and Morvandiau, is an Oïl language spoken in Burgundy and particularly in the Morvan area of the region.
The Burgundians (Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; Burgundar; Burgendas; Βούργουνδοι) were a large East Germanic or Vandal tribe, or group of tribes, who lived in the area of modern Poland in the time of the Roman Empire.
Burgundy (Bourgogne) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.
The Camino de Santiago (Peregrinatio Compostellana, "Pilgrimage of Compostela"; O Camiño de Santiago), known in English as the Way of Saint James among other names, is a network of pilgrims' ways serving pilgrimage to the shrine of the apostle Saint James the Great in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia in northwestern Spain, where tradition has it that the remains of the saint are buried.
The Camino de Santiago (Also known as the Way of St. James) extends from different countries of Europe, and even North Africa, on its way to Santiago de Compostela and Finisterre.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Champenois (champaignat) is a Romance language of the langues d'oïl language family spoken by a minority of people in Champagne and Île-de-France provinces in France, as well as in a handful of towns in southern Belgium (chiefly the municipality of Vresse-sur-Semois).
The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.
The Cluniac Reforms (also called the Benedictine Reform) were a series of changes within medieval monasticism of the Western Church focused on restoring the traditional monastic life, encouraging art, and caring for the poor.
Conon de Béthune (before 1160 in the former region of Artois, today Pas-de-Calais - 17 December 1219, possibly at Adrianople) was a French crusader and "trouvère" poet who became a senior official and finally regent of the Latin Empire of Constantinople.
The Constitutional Council (Conseil constitutionnel) is the highest constitutional authority in France.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
De vulgari eloquentia (On Eloquence in the vernacular) is the title of a Latin essay by Dante Alighieri.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.
European Portuguese (português europeu), also known as Lusitanian Portuguese (português lusitano) and Portuguese of Portugal (português de Portugal) in Brazil, or even “Portuguese Portuguese” refers to the Portuguese language spoken in Portugal.
Franc-Comtois (Frainc-Comtou), or Jurassien, is an Oïl language spoken in the Franche-Comté region of France and in the Canton of Jura and Bernese Jura in Switzerland.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francien is a 19th-century term in linguistics that was applied to the French dialect that was spoken in the Île-de-France region (with Paris at its centre) before the establishment of the French language as a standard language.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
French is the mother tongue of about 7.2 million Canadians (20.6% of the Canadian population, second to English at 56%) according to Census Canada 2016.
The French language is spoken as a minority language in the United States.
French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak traditional languages of France other than French.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
A French creole, or French-based creole language, is a creole language (contact language with native speakers) for which French is the lexifier.
In the Middle Ages, the Galician-Portuguese lyric, also known as trovadorismo in Portugal and trobadorismo in Galicia, was a lyric poetic school or movement.
Gallo is a regional language of France.
The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages includes sensu stricto the French language, the Occitan language, and the Franco-Provençal language (Arpitan).
George Métivier (29 January 1790 – 23 March 1881) was a Guernsey poet dubbed the "Guernsey Burns", and sometimes considered the island's national poet.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Guernésiais, also known as Dgèrnésiais, Guernsey French, and Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of the Norman language spoken in Guernsey.
Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.
French is a Romance language (meaning that it is descended primarily from Vulgar Latin) that evolved out of the Gallo-Romance spoken in northern France.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
An indigenous language or autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people, often reduced to the status of a minority language.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, one of the Channel Islands off the coast of France.
Jèrriais literature is literature in Jèrriais, the Norman dialect of Jersey in the Channel Islands.
The Joret line (ligne Joret) is an isogloss used in the linguistics of the langues d'oïl.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
In linguistics, a koiné language, koiné dialect, or simply koiné (Ancient Greek κοινή, "common ") is a standard language or dialect that has arisen as a result of contact between two or more mutually intelligible varieties (dialects) of the same language.
The Kingdom of Belgium has three official languages: Dutch, French, and German.
Of the languages of France, the national language, French, is the only official language according to the second article of the French Constitution, and its standardized variant is by far the most widely spoken.
The linguistic situation in Luxembourg is characterised by the practice and the recognition of three official languages: French, German, and the national language Luxembourgish, established in law in 1984.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latino-Faliscan or Latino-Venetic languages are a group of languages originating from Italy belonging to the Italic languages, a group of the Indo-European languages.
Law French is an archaic language originally based on Old Norman and Anglo-Norman, but increasingly influenced by Parisian French and, later, English.
LimburgishLimburgish is pronounced, whereas Limburgan, Limburgian and Limburgic are, and.
As of 2015, there are 29 independent nations where French is an official language.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Lorrain is a dialect (often referred to as patois) spoken by a minority of people in Lorraine in France, small parts of Alsace and in Gaume in Belgium.
Anti-Portuguese sentiment (or Lusophobia) is a hostility toward Portugal, the Portuguese people or the Portuguese language and culture.
Maastrichtian (Mestreechs) or Maastrichtian Limburgish (Mestreechs-Limburgs) is the dialect and variant of Limburgish spoken in the Dutch city of Maastricht alongside the Dutch language (with which it is not mutually intelligible).
Macanese Portuguese (português macaense) is a Portuguese dialect spoken in Macau, where Portuguese is co-official with Cantonese.
Maine is one of the traditional provinces of France (not to be confused with La Maine, the river).
The Marches of Neustria were two marches created in 861 by the Carolingian king of West Francia Charles the Bald that were ruled by officials appointed by the crown, known as wardens, prefects or margraves (or "marquis" in French).
A marionette is a puppet controlled from above using wires or strings depending on regional variations.
Mayenne is a department in northwest France named after the Mayenne River.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
Middle French (le moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the early 17th centuries.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The Oaths of Strasbourg (Sacramenta Argentariae; Les Serments de Strasbourg; Die Straßburger Eide) were mutual pledges of allegiance between Louis the German (†876), ruler of East Francia, and his half-brother Charles the Bald (†877), ruler of West Francia made on 12 February 842.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
Occitania (Occitània,,,, or) is the historical region and a nation, in southern Europe where Occitan was historically the main language spoken, and where it is sometimes still used, for the most part as a second language.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Old Norman, also called Old Northern French or Old Norman French, was one of many langues d'oïl (Old French) dialects.
The Opus Majus (Latin for "Greater Work") is the most important work of Roger Bacon.
The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts (Ordonnance de Villers-Cotterêts) is an extensive piece of reform legislation signed into law by Francis I of France on August 10, 1539 in the city of Villers-Cotterêts and the oldest French legislation still used partly by French courts.
The Orléanais language is a langue d'oïl which was part of a dialect group called Francien.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Le Petit Robert is a popular single-volume French dictionary first published by Paul Robert in 1967, an abridgement of his eight-volume Dictionnaire alphabétique et analogique de la langue française.
Picard is a langues d'oïl dialect spoken in the northernmost part of France and southern Belgium.
Picardy (Picardie) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.
Poitevin (Poetevin) is a language spoken in Poitou, France.
Poitou, in Poitevin: Poetou, was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers.
The Portuguese House of Burgundy or the Afonsine Dynasty is a cadet branch of the House of Burgundy, descended from Henry, Count of Portugal.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Portuguese is spoken in a number of African countries and is the official language in six African states: Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe and Equatorial Guinea.
Postmodernity (post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is the economic or cultural state or condition of society which is said to exist after modernity.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Roger Bacon (Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Rogerus), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Saintonge, historically spelled Xaintonge and Xainctonge, is a former province of France located on the west central Atlantic coast.
Saintongeais (saintonjhais) is a dialect of Poitevin spoken halfway down the western coast of France in the former provinces of Saintonge, Aunis and Angoumois, all of which have been incorporated into the current departments of Charente and Charente-Maritime as well as in parts of their neighbouring departments of Gironde and a town in Dordogne.
Sardinian or Sard (sardu, limba sarda or língua sarda) is the primary indigenous Romance language spoken on most of the island of Sardinia (Italy).
Sarthe is a French department situated in the Grand-Ouest of the country.
Sercquiais also known as Sarkese or Sark-French (Lé Sèrtchais) is the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Sark (Bailiwick of Guernsey).
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
A troubadour (trobador, archaically: -->) was a composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350).
Ulster Scots or Ulster-Scots (Ulstèr-Scotch), also known as Ullans, is the Scots language as spoken in parts of Ulster in Ireland.
Upper Brittany (Haute-Bretagne; Breizh-Uhel; Gallo: Haùtt-Bertaèyn) is the eastern part of Brittany France, which is predominantly of a Romance culture and is associated with the Gallo language.
The upper class in modern societies is the social class composed of people who hold the highest social status, and usuall are also the wealthiest members of society, and also wield the greatest political power.
Aran (previously officially called Val d'Aran) is an administrative entity in Catalonia, Spain, consisting of the Aran Valley, in area, in the Pyrenees mountains, in the northwestern part of the province of Lleida.
In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
Vernacular literature is literature written in the vernacular—the speech of the "common people".
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
Wace (1110 – after 1174), sometimes referred to as Robert Wace, was a Norman poet, who was born in Jersey and brought up in mainland Normandy (he tells us in the Roman de Rou that he was taken as a child to Caen), ending his career as Canon of Bayeux.
Wallonia (Wallonie, Wallonie(n), Wallonië, Walonreye, Wallounien) is a region of Belgium.
Walloon (Walon in Walloon) is a Romance language that is spoken in much of Wallonia in Belgium, in some villages of Northern France (near Givet) and in the northeast part of WisconsinUniversité du Wisconsin: collection de documents sur l'immigration wallonne au Wisconsin, enregistrements de témoignages oraux en anglais et wallon, 1976 until the mid 20th century and in some parts of Canada.
Weaver Poets, Rhyming Weaver Poets and Ulster Weaver Poets were a collective group of poets belonging to an artistic movement who were both influenced by and contemporaries of Robert Burns and the Romantic movement.
Western Romance languages are one of the two subdivisions of a proposed subdivision of the Romance languages based on the La Spezia–Rimini line.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Bourbonnais-Berrichon dialect, Frankish Oil languages, Languages d'oil, Languages of Oil, Languages of Oïl, Languages of oil, Langue d'Oil, Langue d'Oïl, Langue d'oil, Langue d'oil family, Langue d'oïl, Langue d'oïl family, Langues d'Oil, Langues d'Oïl, Langues d'oil, Langues d'oui, Langues d'œil, Langues d’oïl, List of French languages, List of Oil languages, List of Oïl languages, Oil language, Oil language family, Oil languages, Oïl, Oïl language, Oïl language family, Oïl languages.