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Index Lanthanide

The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium. [1]

219 relations: Actinide, Actinium, Aegis Combat System, Aeschynite-(Y), Aesthetics, Alkaline earth metal, Allophycocyanin, Aluminium chloride, AN/SPY-1, Arleigh Burke-class destroyer, Astatine, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, Barium, Bastnäsite, Biology, Block (periodic table), Bohr magneton, Boron carbide, Calcium carbide, Calcium fluoride, Carbanion, Cascade (chemical engineering), Catalysis, Cathode ray tube, Ceric ammonium nitrate, Cerite, Cerium, Cerium hexaboride, Cerium(III) bromide, Cerium(III) chloride, Cerium(IV) oxide, Charge-transfer complex, Chelation, Chemical element, Cluster chemistry, Cofactor (biochemistry), Coordination complex, Coordination geometry, Copenhagen, Countercurrent exchange, Covalent bond, Cryptand, Crystal field theory, Cubic centimetre, Cyclopentadienyl complex, Denticity, DOTA (chelator), Dysprosium, Effective nuclear charge, ..., Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electride, Electron configuration, Electron shell, Erbium, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Europium, Europium(III) chloride, Euxenite, Fajans' rules, Förster resonance energy transfer, Feldspar, Fergusonite, Ferromagnetism, Florencite-(Sm), Fluid catalytic cracking, Fluorescein, Fluorescence, Fluxional molecule, Fractional crystallization (chemistry), Francium, Gadolinite, Gadolinium, Gadolinium oxysulfide, Garnet, Gas tungsten arc welding, Gold, Group (periodic table), Group 3 element, Group 4 element, Group 5 element, Hafnium, Half-metal, HeLa, Heterogeneous catalysis, Holmium, Holmium(III) oxide, Homogeneous catalysis, HSAB theory, Hybrid vehicle, Infrared, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Iodine, Ion, Ion chromatography, Ionic bonding, Ionic radius, Kondo insulator, Lanthanide contraction, Lanthanide probes, Lanthanite, Lanthanum, Lanthanum hexaboride, Lanthanum oxide, Lanthanum(III) bromide, Lanthanum(III) chloride, Laporte rule, Laser, Lattice energy, Lawrencium, Lead(II) chloride, Ligand, Liquid–liquid extraction, Loparite-(Ce), Luche reduction, Lunar soil, Lutetium, Magnetic resonance imaging, Magnetic susceptibility, Magnetochemistry, Magnetoresistance, Metal, Methanol dehydrogenase, Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum, Microsecond, Millisecond, Mineral (nutrient), Mischmetal, Mole (unit), Molecular symmetry, Molybdenum disulfide, Monazite, Monochromator, MRI contrast agent, Native element minerals, Nd:YAG laser, Neodymium, Neodymium(III) chloride, Night vision device, Niobium, Non-stoichiometric compound, Nuclear space, Oddo–Harkins rule, Optoelectronics, Organometallic chemistry, Oxidation state, Oxide, Perchloric acid, Periodic table, Perovskite, Phycoerythrin, Picometre, Polycrase, Population inversion, Praseodymium, Praseodymium(III) chloride, Promethium, Promethium(III) chloride, Radium, Rangefinder, Rare-earth element, Rare-earth magnet, Redox, Rhodamine, Rutherfordium, Samarium, Samarium(II) iodide, Samarium(III) chloride, Samarium(III) fluoride, Samarskite-(Y), Scandinavia, Scandium, Scanning electron microscope, Scintillator, Sigma bond, Sodium hydroxide, Solubility, Spin–orbit interaction, Spintronics, Stability constants of complexes, Steric effects, Steven Chu, Stokes shift, Strontium bromide, Strontium iodide, Superconductivity, Synthetic element, Tantalum, Television, Terbium, Thorium, Thule, Thulium, Time-resolved spectroscopy, Titanium, Transition metal, Transmetalation, Tributyl phosphate, Trivial name, Tungsten, Ultraviolet, United States Department of Energy, Uranocene, Valence electron, Vanadium, Verrucomicrobia, Vibronic coupling, Victor Goldschmidt, Wavelength, Woodward–Hoffmann rules, Xenon, Xenotime, Ytterbium, Ytterby, Yttrium, Yttrium iron garnet, Yttrium(III) oxide, Yttrocerite, Zirconium. Expand index (169 more) »


The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.

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Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89.

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Aegis Combat System

The Aegis Combat System is an American integrated naval weapons system developed by the Missile and Surface Radar Division of RCA, and now produced by Lockheed Martin.

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Aeschynite-(Y) (or Aeschinite-(Y), Aeschynite-(Yt), Blomstrandine, Priorite) is a rare earth mineral of yttrium, calcium, iron, thorium, titanium, niobium, oxygen, and hydrogen with formula: (Y,Ca,Fe,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6.

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Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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Alkaline earth metal

The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.

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Allophycocyanin (from Greek: ἄλλος (allos) meaning "other", φύκος (phykos) meaning “alga”, and κυανός (kyanos) meaning "blue") is a protein from the light-harvesting phycobiliprotein family, along with phycocyanin, phycoerythrin and phycoerythrocyanin.

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Aluminium chloride

Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is the main compound of aluminium and chlorine.

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The AN/SPY-1 is a US naval 3D radar system manufactured by Lockheed Martin.

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Arleigh Burke-class destroyer

The Arleigh Burke class of guided missile destroyers (DDGs) is the United States Navy's first class of destroyer built around the Aegis Combat System and the SPY-1D multifunction passive electronically scanned array radar.

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Astatine is a radioactive chemical element with symbol At and atomic number 85.

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Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

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Atomic orbital

In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.

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Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.

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The mineral bastnäsite (or bastnaesite) is one of a family of three carbonate-fluoride minerals, which includes bastnäsite-(Ce) with a formula of (Ce, La)CO3F, bastnäsite-(La) with a formula of (La, Ce)CO3F, and bastnäsite-(Y) with a formula of (Y, Ce)CO3F.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Block (periodic table)

A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups.

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Bohr magneton

In atomic physics, the Bohr magneton (symbol μB) is a physical constant and the natural unit for expressing the magnetic moment of an electron caused by either its orbital or spin angular momentum.

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Boron carbide

Boron carbide (chemical formula approximately B4C) is an extremely hard boron–carbon ceramic, and covalent material used in tank armor, bulletproof vests, engine sabotage powders, as well as numerous industrial applications.

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Calcium carbide

Calcium carbide is a chemical compound with the chemical formula of CaC2.

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Calcium fluoride

Calcium fluoride is the inorganic compound of the elements calcium and fluorine with the formula CaF2.

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A carbanion is an anion in which carbon is threevalent (forms three bonds) and bears a formal negative charge in at least one significant mesomeric contributor (resonance form).

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Cascade (chemical engineering)

In chemical engineering, a cascade is a plant consisting of several similar stages with each processing the output from the previous stage.

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Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Cathode ray tube

The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.

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Ceric ammonium nitrate

Ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2Ce(NO3)6.

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Cerite is a complex silicate mineral group containing cerium, formula (Ce,La,Ca)9(Mg,Fe+3)(SiO4)6(SiO3OH)(OH)3.

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Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.

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Cerium hexaboride

Cerium hexaboride (CeB6, also called cerium boride, CeBix, CEBIX, and (incorrectly) CeB) is an inorganic chemical, a boride of cerium.

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Cerium(III) bromide

Cerium(III) bromide is an inorganic compound with the formula CeBr3.

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Cerium(III) chloride

Cerium(III) chloride (CeCl3), also known as cerous chloride or cerium trichloride, is a compound of cerium and chlorine.

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Cerium(IV) oxide

Cerium(IV) oxide, also known as ceric oxide, ceric dioxide, ceria, cerium oxide or cerium dioxide, is an oxide of the rare-earth metal cerium.

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Charge-transfer complex

A charge-transfer complex (CT complex) or electron-donor-acceptor complex is an association of two or more molecules, or of different parts of one large molecule, in which a fraction of electronic charge is transferred between the molecular entities.

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Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Cluster chemistry

In chemistry, a cluster is an ensemble of bound atoms or molecules that is intermediate in size between a molecule and a bulk solid.

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Cofactor (biochemistry)

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.

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Coordination complex

In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.

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Coordination geometry

The term coordination geometry is used in a number of related fields of chemistry and solid state chemistry/physics.

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Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.

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Countercurrent exchange

Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism occurring in nature and mimicked in industry and engineering, in which there is a crossover of some property, usually heat or some component, between two flowing bodies flowing in opposite directions to each other.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Cryptands are a family of synthetic bi- and polycyclic multidentate ligands for a variety of cations.

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Crystal field theory

Crystal Field Theory (CFT) is a model that describes the breaking of degeneracies of electron orbital states, usually d or f orbitals, due to a static electric field produced by a surrounding charge distribution (anion neighbors).

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Cubic centimetre

A cubic centimetre (or cubic centimeter in US English) (SI unit symbol: cm3; non-SI abbreviations: cc and ccm) is a commonly used unit of volume that extends the derived SI-unit cubic metre, and corresponds to the volume of a cube that measures 1 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm.

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Cyclopentadienyl complex

A cyclopentadienyl complex is a metal complex with one or more cyclopentadienyl groups (abbreviated as Cp−).

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Denticity refers to the number of donor groups in a single ligand that bind to a central atom in a coordination complex.

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DOTA (chelator)

DOTA (also known as tetraxetan) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2CH2NCH2CO2H)4.

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Dysprosium is a chemical element with symbol Dy and atomic number 66.

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Effective nuclear charge

The effective nuclear charge (often symbolized as Z_ or Z^\ast) is the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a polyelectronic atom.

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Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

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An electride is a ionic compound in which an electron is the anion.

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Electron configuration

In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.

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Electron shell

In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.

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Erbium is a chemical element with symbol Er and atomic number 68.

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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also known by several other names, is a chemical originating in multiseasonal plants with dormancy stages as a lipidopreservative which helps to develop the stem, currently used for both industrial and medical purposes.

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Europium is a chemical element with symbol Eu and atomic number 63.

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Europium(III) chloride

Europium(III) chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula EuCl3.

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Euxenite or euxenite-(Y) (a correct mineralogical name) is a brownish black mineral with a metallic luster.

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Fajans' rules

In inorganic chemistry, Fajans' rules, formulated by Kazimierz Fajans in 1923, are used to predict whether a chemical bond will be covalent or ionic, and depend on the charge on the cation and the relative sizes of the cation and anion.

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Förster resonance energy transfer

Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), resonance energy transfer (RET) or electronic energy transfer (EET) is a mechanism describing energy transfer between two light-sensitive molecules (chromophores).

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Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.

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Fergusonite is a mineral comprising a complex oxide of various rare-earth elements.

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Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.

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Florencite-(Sm) is a very rare mineral of the plumbogummite group (alunite supergroup) with simplified formula SmAl3(PO4)2(OH)6.

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Fluid catalytic cracking

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the most important conversion processes used in petroleum refineries.

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Fluorescein is a manufactured organic compound and dye.

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Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.

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Fluxional molecule

Fluxional molecules are molecules that undergo dynamics such that some or all of their atoms interchange between symmetry-equivalent positions.

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Fractional crystallization (chemistry)

In chemistry, fractional crystallization is a method of refining substances based on differences in solubility.

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Francium is a chemical element with symbol Fr and atomic number 87.

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Gadolinite, sometimes known as ytterbite, is a silicate mineral consisting principally of the silicates of cerium, lanthanum, neodymium, yttrium, beryllium, and iron with the formula (Ce,La,Nd,Y)2FeBe2Si2O10.

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Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64.

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Gadolinium oxysulfide

Gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S), also called gadolinium sulfoxylate, GOS or Gadox, is an inorganic compound, a mixed oxide-sulfide of gadolinium.

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Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives.

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Gas tungsten arc welding

Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, is an arc welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld.

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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Group (periodic table)

In chemistry, a group (also known as a family) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements.

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Group 3 element

Group 3 is a group of elements in the periodic table.

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Group 4 element

Group 4 is a group of elements in the periodic table.

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Group 5 element

Group 5 (by IUPAC style) is a group of elements in the periodic table.

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Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.

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A half-metal is any substance that acts as a conductor to electrons of one spin orientation, but as an insulator or semiconductor to those of the opposite orientation.

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HeLa (also Hela or hela) is a cell type in an immortal cell line used in scientific research.

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Heterogeneous catalysis

In chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis refers to the form of catalysis where the phase of the catalyst differs from that of the reactants.

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Holmium is a chemical element with symbol Ho and atomic number 67.

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Holmium(III) oxide

Holmium(III) oxide, or holmium oxide is a chemical compound of a rare-earth element holmium and oxygen with the formula Ho2O3.

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Homogeneous catalysis

In chemistry, homogeneous catalysis is catalysis in a solution by a soluble catalyst.

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HSAB theory

HSAB concept is an initialism for "hard and soft (Lewis) acids and bases".

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Hybrid vehicle

A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct types of power, such as internal combustion engine to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, e.g. in diesel-electric trains using diesel engines to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, and submarines that use diesels when surfaced and batteries when submerged.

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Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.

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Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ion chromatography

Ion chromatography (or ion-exchange chromatography) is a chromatography process that separates ions and polar molecules based on their affinity to the ion exchanger.

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Ionic bonding

Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.

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Ionic radius

Ionic radius, rion, is the radius of an atom's ion in ionic crystals structure.

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Kondo insulator

In solid-state physics, Kondo insulators (also referred as Kondo semiconductors and heavy fermion semiconductors) are understood as materials with strongly correlated electrons, that open up a narrow band gap (in the order of 10 meV) at low temperatures with the chemical potential lying in the gap, whereas in heavy fermions the chemical potential is located in the conduction band.

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Lanthanide contraction

The lanthanide contraction is the greater-than-expected decrease in ionic radii of the elements in the lanthanide series from atomic number 57, lanthanum, to 71, lutetium, which results in smaller than otherwise expected ionic radii for the subsequent elements starting with 72, hafnium.

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Lanthanide probes

Lanthanide probes are a non-invasive analytical tool commonly used for biological and chemical applications.

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Lanthanites are a group of isostructural rare earth element (REE) carbonate minerals.

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Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.

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Lanthanum hexaboride

Lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6, also called lanthanum boride and LaB) is an inorganic chemical, a boride of lanthanum.

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Lanthanum oxide

Lanthanum oxide is La2O3, an inorganic compound containing the rare earth element lanthanum and oxygen.

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Lanthanum(III) bromide

Lanthanum(III) bromide (LaBr3) is an inorganic halide salt of lanthanum.

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Lanthanum(III) chloride

Lanthanum chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula LaCl3.

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Laporte rule

The Laporte rule is a spectroscopic selection rule that only applies to centrosymmetric molecules (those with an inversion centre) and atoms.

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A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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Lattice energy

The lattice energy of a crystalline solid is often defined as the energy of formation of a crystal from infinitely-separated ions and as such is invariably negative.

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Lawrencium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Lr (formerly Lw) and atomic number 103.

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Lead(II) chloride

Lead(II) chloride (PbCl2) is an inorganic compound which is a white solid under ambient conditions.

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In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

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Liquid–liquid extraction

Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).

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Loparite-(Ce) is a granular, brittle oxide mineral of the perovskite class.

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Luche reduction

Luche reduction is the selective organic reduction of α,β-unsaturated ketones to allylic alcohols with sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and lanthanide chlorides, mainly cerium(III) chloride (CeCl3), in methanol or ethanol.

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Lunar soil

Lunar soil is the fine fraction of the regolith found on the surface of the Moon.

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Lutetium is a chemical element with symbol Lu and atomic number 71.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Magnetic susceptibility

In electromagnetism, the magnetic susceptibility (Latin: susceptibilis, "receptive"; denoted) is one measure of the magnetic properties of a material.

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Magnetochemistry is concerned with the magnetic properties of chemical compounds.

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Magnetoresistance is the tendency of a material (preferably ferromagnetic) to change the value of its electrical resistance in an externally-applied magnetic field.

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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Methanol dehydrogenase

In enzymology, a methanol dehydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyses the chemical reaction: How the electrons are captured and transported depends upon the kind of methanol dehydrogenase and there are two main types.

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Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum

Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum is an autotrophic bacteria first described in 2007 growing on volcanic pools near Naples, Italy.

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A microsecond is an SI unit of time equal to one millionth (0.000001 or 10−6 or 1/1,000,000) of a second.

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A millisecond (from milli- and second; symbol: ms) is a thousandth (0.001 or 10−3 or 1/1000) of a second.

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Mineral (nutrient)

In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.

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Mischmetal (from Mischmetall – "mixed metal") is an alloy of rare-earth elements.

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Mole (unit)

The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.

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Molecular symmetry

Molecular symmetry in chemistry describes the symmetry present in molecules and the classification of molecules according to their symmetry.

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Molybdenum disulfide

Molybdenum disulfide is an inorganic compound composed of molybdenum and sulfur.

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Monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate mineral containing rare-earth metals.

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A monochromator is an optical device that transmits a mechanically selectable narrow band of wavelengths of light or other radiation chosen from a wider range of wavelengths available at the input.

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MRI contrast agent

MRI contrast agents are contrast agents used to improve the visibility of internal body structures in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

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Native element minerals

Native element minerals are those elements that occur in nature in uncombined form with a distinct mineral structure.

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Nd:YAG laser

Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet; Nd:Y3Al5O12) is a crystal that is used as a lasing medium for solid-state lasers.

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Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60.

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Neodymium(III) chloride

Neodymium(III) chloride or neodymium trichloride is a chemical compound of neodymium and chlorine with the formula NdCl3.

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Night vision device

A night vision device (NVD), also known as night optical/observation device (NOD) and night vision goggles (NVG), is an optoelectronic device that allows images to be produced in levels of light approaching total darkness.

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Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.

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Non-stoichiometric compound

Non-stoichiometric compounds are chemical compounds, almost always solid inorganic compounds, having elemental composition whose proportions cannot be represented by integers; most often, in such materials, some small percentage of atoms are missing or too many atoms are packed into an otherwise perfect lattice work.

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Nuclear space

In mathematics, a nuclear space is a topological vector space with many of the good properties of finite-dimensional vector spaces.

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Oddo–Harkins rule

The Oddo–Harkins rule holds that an element with an even atomic number (such as carbon: element 6) is more abundant than both elements with the adjacently smaller and larger odd atomic numbers (such as boron: element 5 and nitrogen: element 7, respectively for the carbon).

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Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices and systems that source, detect and control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics.

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Organometallic chemistry

Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.

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Oxidation state

The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.

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An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.

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Perchloric acid

Perchloric acid is a mineral acid with the formula HClO4.

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Periodic table

The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.

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Perovskite (pronunciation) is a calcium titanium oxide mineral composed of calcium titanate (Ca Ti O3).

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Phycoerythrin (PE) is a red protein-pigment complex from the light-harvesting phycobiliprotein family, present in red algae and cryptophytes, accessory to the main chlorophyll pigments responsible for photosynthesis.

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The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.

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Polycrase or polycrase-(Y) is a black or brown metallic complex uranium yttrium oxide mineral with formula: (Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Ti,Nb,Ta)2O6.

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Population inversion

In science, specifically statistical mechanics, a population inversion occurs while a system (such as a group of atoms or molecules) exists in a state in which more members of the system are in higher, excited states than in lower, unexcited energy states.

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Praseodymium is a chemical element with symbol Pr and atomic number 59.

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Praseodymium(III) chloride

Praseodymium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula PrCl3.

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Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61.

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Promethium(III) chloride

Promethium(III) chloride is a chemical compound of promethium and chlorine with the formula PmCl3.

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Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.

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A rangefinder is a device that measures distance from the observer to a target, in a process called ranging.

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Rare-earth element

A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.

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Rare-earth magnet

Rare-earth magnets are strong permanent magnets made from alloys of rare-earth elements.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Rhodamine is a family of related chemical compounds, fluorone dyes.

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Rutherfordium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Rf and atomic number 104, named after physicist Ernest Rutherford.

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Samarium is a chemical element with symbol Sm and atomic number 62.

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Samarium(II) iodide

Samarium(II) iodide (SmI2, also known as "Kagan's reagent") is a green solid composed of samarium and iodine, with a melting point of 520 °C where the samarium atom has a coordination number of seven in a capped octahedral configuration.

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Samarium(III) chloride

Samarium(III) chloride, also known as samarium trichloride, is an inorganic compound of samarium and chloride.

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Samarium(III) fluoride

Samarium(III) fluoride (SmF3) is a slightly hygroscopic solid fluoride.

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Samarskite is a radioactive rare earth mineral series which includes samarskite-(Y) with formula: (YFe3+Fe2+U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8 and samarskite-(Yb) with formula (YbFe3+)2(Nb,Ta)2O8.

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Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.

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Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.

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Scanning electron microscope

A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons.

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A scintillator is a material that exhibits scintillation—the property of luminescence, when excited by ionizing radiation.

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Sigma bond

In chemistry, sigma bonds (σ bonds) are the strongest type of covalent chemical bond.

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Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.

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Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.

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Spin–orbit interaction

In quantum physics, the spin–orbit interaction (also called spin–orbit effect or spin–orbit coupling) is a relativistic interaction of a particle's spin with its motion inside a potential.

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Spintronics (a portmanteau meaning spin transport electronics), also known as spin electronics, is the study of the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment, in addition to its fundamental electronic charge, in solid-state devices.

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Stability constants of complexes

A stability constant (formation constant, binding constant) is an equilibrium constant for the formation of a complex in solution.

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Steric effects

Steric effects are nonbonding interactions that influence the shape (conformation) and reactivity of ions and molecules.

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Steven Chu

Steven Chu in atomic physics and laser spectroscopy, including the first observation of parity non-conservation in atoms, excitation and precision spectroscopy of positronium, and the optical confinement and cooling of atoms.

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Stokes shift

Stokes shift is the difference (in wavelength or frequency units) between positions of the band maxima of the absorption and emission spectra (fluorescence and Raman being two examples) of the same electronic transition.

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Strontium bromide

Strontium bromide is a chemical compound with a formula SrBr2.

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Strontium iodide

Strontium iodide (SrI2) is a salt of strontium and iodine.

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Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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Synthetic element

In chemistry, a synthetic element is a chemical element that does not occur naturally on Earth, and can only be created artificially.

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Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.

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Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.

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Terbium is a chemical element with symbol Tb and atomic number 65.

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Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.

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Thule (Θούλη, Thoúlē; Thule, Tile) was the place located furthest north, which was mentioned in ancient Greek and Roman literature and cartography.

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Thulium is a chemical element with symbol Tm and atomic number 69.

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Time-resolved spectroscopy

In physics and physical chemistry, time-resolved spectroscopy is the study of dynamic processes in materials or chemical compounds by means of spectroscopic techniques.

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Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.

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Transition metal

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.

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Transmetalation (alt. spelling: transmetallation) is a type of organometallic reaction that involves the transfer of ligands from one metal to another.

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Tributyl phosphate

Tributyl phosphate, known commonly as TBP, is an organophosphorus compound with the chemical formula (CH3CH2CH2CH2O)3PO.

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Trivial name

In chemistry, a trivial name is a nonsystematic name for a chemical substance.

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Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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United States Department of Energy

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.

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Uranocene, U(C8H8)2, is an organouranium compound composed of a uranium atom sandwiched between two cyclooctatetraenide rings.

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Valence electron

In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.

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Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.

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Verrucomicrobia is a phylum of bacteria.

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Vibronic coupling

Vibronic coupling (also called nonadiabatic coupling or derivative coupling) in a molecule involves the interaction between electronic and nuclear vibrational motion.

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Victor Goldschmidt

Victor Moritz Goldschmidt (Zürich, January 27, 1888 – March 20, 1947, Oslo) was a Norwegian mineralogist considered (together with Vladimir Vernadsky) to be the founder of modern geochemistry and crystal chemistry, developer of the Goldschmidt Classification of elements.

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In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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Woodward–Hoffmann rules

The Woodward–Hoffmann rules (or the pericyclic selection rules), devised by Robert Burns Woodward and Roald Hoffmann, are a set of rules used to rationalize or predict certain aspects of the stereochemical outcome and activation energy of pericyclic reactions, an important class of reactions in organic chemistry.

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Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.

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Xenotime is a rare-earth phosphate mineral, the major component of which is yttrium orthophosphate (YPO4).

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Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70.

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Ytterby is a village on the Swedish island of Resarö, in Vaxholm Municipality in the Stockholm archipelago.

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Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.

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Yttrium iron garnet

Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) is a kind of synthetic garnet, with chemical composition 32(Fe4)3, or Y3Fe5O12.

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Yttrium(III) oxide

Yttrium oxide, also known as yttria, is Y2O3.

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Yttrocerite is a variety of the mineral fluorite with a chemical formula CaF2+(Y,Ce)F3.

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Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lanthanide

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