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Index Lanthanum

Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57. [1]

162 relations: Actinium, Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Allosteric regulation, Aluminium, Ammonium chloride, Ammonium oxalate, Ancient Greek, Arc lamp, Atomic number, Atomic radius, Atzgersdorf, Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, Barium, Bastnäs, Bastnäsite, Binary phase, Calcium, Calcium fluoride, Calcium oxide, Camera, Carbon dioxide, Carbonate, Carl Gustaf Mosander, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Catalysis, Ceres (dwarf planet), Cerite, Cerium, Cerium nitrate, Chelation, Chemical element, Congener (chemistry), Coordination complex, Cracking (chemistry), Cubic crystal system, Cyclopentadienyl complex, Didymium, Ductility, Dwarf planet, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electride, Electron, Electron configuration, Electron microscope, Europium, Even and odd atomic nuclei, Film, Fluoride selective electrode, Fractional crystallization (chemistry), ..., GABA receptor, Gadolinium, Gamma ray, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gas mantle, Gas tungsten arc welding, Glass, Group 3 element, Hall-effect thruster, Halogen, Hardness, Hexagonal crystal family, Holmium, Horseradish peroxidase, Hot cathode, HSAB theory, Hydrogen fluoride, Hygroscopy, Hyperglycemia, Hyperphosphatemia, Intermetallic, Ion exchange, Ionic radius, Isotopes of radium, Isotopes of tantalum, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Kidney failure, Lanthanide, Lanthanide contraction, Lanthanum carbonate, Lanthanum hexaboride, Lanthanum hydroxide, Lanthanum oxide, Lanthanum trifluoride, Lanthanum(III) bromide, Lead, Lens (optics), Lighter, Liver, Lutetium, Magnesium oxide, Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Metal, Methanotroph, Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum, Mischmetal, Molecular biology, Molybdenum, Monazite, Morphine, Neodymium, Neutrino, Neutron, Nickel–metal hydride battery, Nitric acid, Nuclear fission product, Oxalate, Oxidation state, P-nuclei, Paramagnetism, Periodic table, Periodic trends, Phoslock, Phosphate, Phosphate binder, Pneumoconiosis, Primordial nuclide, Promethium, Pyrophoricity, Qualitative inorganic analysis, R-process, Radioactive decay, Radiometric dating, Rare-earth element, Refractive index, Rhenium, Rust, Rutgers University, S-process, Samarium, Scandium, Scandium oxide, Scintillator, Shielding effect, Shire (pharmaceutical company), Silicate, Silicon nitride, Silicon tetrafluoride, Sintering, Snub disphenoid, Sodium hydroxide, Spallation, Spleen, Square antiprism, Steel, Sulfuric acid, Supernova, Synthetic radioisotope, Telescope, Tetrahydrofuran, Thorium, Toyota Prius, Transition metal, Vacuum tube, White gas, Xenon, Ytterbium, Yttrium, Yttrium(III) oxide, ZBLAN, Zinc, Zirconium diboride. Expand index (112 more) »


Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89.

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Alkali metal

The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.

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Alkaline earth metal

The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.

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Allosteric regulation

In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.

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Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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Ammonium chloride

Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water.

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Ammonium oxalate

Ammonium oxalate, C2H8N2O4 – more commonly written as (NH4)2C2O4 – is an oxalate salt with ammonium (sometimes as a monohydrate).

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Arc lamp

An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc).

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Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

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Atomic radius

The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.

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Atzgersdorf is a former municipality in Lower Austria that is now a part of the 23rd Viennese district Liesing.

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Axel Fredrik Cronstedt

Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (/kroonstet/ 23 December 1722 – 19 August 1765) was a Swedish mineralogist and chemist who discovered nickel in 1751 as a mining expert with the Bureau of Mines.

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Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.

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Bastnäs (Bastnäs or Bastnäsfältet) is an ore field near Riddarhyttan, Västmanland, Sweden.

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The mineral bastnäsite (or bastnaesite) is one of a family of three carbonate-fluoride minerals, which includes bastnäsite-(Ce) with a formula of (Ce, La)CO3F, bastnäsite-(La) with a formula of (La, Ce)CO3F, and bastnäsite-(Y) with a formula of (Y, Ce)CO3F.

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Binary phase

In materials chemistry, a binary phase is chemical compound containing two different elements.

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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Calcium fluoride

Calcium fluoride is the inorganic compound of the elements calcium and fluorine with the formula CaF2.

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Calcium oxide

Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.

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A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.

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Carl Gustaf Mosander

Carl Gustaf Mosander (10 September 1797 – 15 October 1858) was a Swedish chemist.

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Carl Wilhelm Scheele

Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian and German pharmaceutical chemist.

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Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Ceres (dwarf planet)

Ceres (minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, slightly closer to Mars' orbit.

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Cerite is a complex silicate mineral group containing cerium, formula (Ce,La,Ca)9(Mg,Fe+3)(SiO4)6(SiO3OH)(OH)3.

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Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.

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Cerium nitrate

Cerium nitrate refers to a family of nitrates of cerium in the three or four oxidation state.

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Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Congener (chemistry)

In chemistry, congeners are related chemical substances "related to each other by origin, structure, or function".

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Coordination complex

In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.

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Cracking (chemistry)

In petrochemistry, petroleum geology and organic chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long-chain hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors.

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Cubic crystal system

In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.

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Cyclopentadienyl complex

A cyclopentadienyl complex is a metal complex with one or more cyclopentadienyl groups (abbreviated as Cp−).

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Didymium (twin element) is a mixture of the elements praseodymium and neodymium.

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Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.

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Dwarf planet

A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.

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Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

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An electride is a ionic compound in which an electron is the anion.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron configuration

In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.

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Electron microscope

An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

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Europium is a chemical element with symbol Eu and atomic number 63.

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Even and odd atomic nuclei

In nuclear physics, properties of a nucleus depend on evenness or oddness of its atomic number Z, neutron number N and, consequently, of their sum, the mass number A. Most notably, oddness of both Z and N tends to lower the nuclear binding energy, making odd nuclei, generally, less stable.

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A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.

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Fluoride selective electrode

A fluoride selective electrode is a type of ion selective electrode sensitive to the concentration of the fluoride ion.

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Fractional crystallization (chemistry)

In chemistry, fractional crystallization is a method of refining substances based on differences in solubility.

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GABA receptor

The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory compound in the mature vertebrate central nervous system.

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Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64.

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Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.

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Gas mantle

An incandescent gas mantle, gas mantle or Welsbach mantle is a device for generating bright white light when heated by a flame.

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Gas tungsten arc welding

Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, is an arc welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld.

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Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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Group 3 element

Group 3 is a group of elements in the periodic table.

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Hall-effect thruster

In spacecraft propulsion, a Hall-effect thruster (HET) is a type of ion thruster in which the propellant is accelerated by an electric field.

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The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

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Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.

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Hexagonal crystal family

In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families, which includes 2 crystal systems (hexagonal and trigonal) and 2 lattice systems (hexagonal and rhombohedral).

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Holmium is a chemical element with symbol Ho and atomic number 67.

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Horseradish peroxidase

The enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP), found in the roots of horseradish, is used extensively in biochemistry applications.

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Hot cathode

In vacuum tubes and gas-filled tubes, a hot cathode or thermionic cathode is a cathode electrode which is heated to make it emit electrons due to thermionic emission.

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HSAB theory

HSAB concept is an initialism for "hard and soft (Lewis) acids and bases".

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Hydrogen fluoride

Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.

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Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.

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Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.

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Hyperphosphatemia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally elevated level of phosphate in the blood.

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An intermetallic (also called an intermetallic compound, intermetallic alloy, ordered intermetallic alloy, and a long-range-ordered alloy) is a solid-state compound exhibiting metallic bonding, defined stoichiometry and ordered crystal structure.

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Ion exchange

Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex.

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Ionic radius

Ionic radius, rion, is the radius of an atom's ion in ionic crystals structure.

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Isotopes of radium

Radium (88Ra) has no stable or nearly stable isotopes, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.

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Isotopes of tantalum

Natural tantalum (73Ta) consists of two stable isotopes: 181Ta (99.988%) and (0.012%).

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Jöns Jacob Berzelius

Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.

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Kidney failure

Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.

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The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.

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Lanthanide contraction

The lanthanide contraction is the greater-than-expected decrease in ionic radii of the elements in the lanthanide series from atomic number 57, lanthanum, to 71, lutetium, which results in smaller than otherwise expected ionic radii for the subsequent elements starting with 72, hafnium.

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Lanthanum carbonate

Lanthanum carbonate, La2(CO3)3, is the salt formed by lanthanum(III) cations and carbonate anions.

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Lanthanum hexaboride

Lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6, also called lanthanum boride and LaB) is an inorganic chemical, a boride of lanthanum.

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Lanthanum hydroxide

Lanthanum hydroxide is, a hydroxide of the rare-earth element lanthanum.

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Lanthanum oxide

Lanthanum oxide is La2O3, an inorganic compound containing the rare earth element lanthanum and oxygen.

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Lanthanum trifluoride

Lanthanum trifluoride is a refractory ionic compound of lanthanum and fluorine.

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Lanthanum(III) bromide

Lanthanum(III) bromide (LaBr3) is an inorganic halide salt of lanthanum.

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Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Lens (optics)

A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.

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A lighter is a portable device used to create a flame, and to ignite a variety of combustible materials, such as cigars, gas stoves, fireworks, candles or cigarettes.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Lutetium is a chemical element with symbol Lu and atomic number 71.

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Magnesium oxide

Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide).

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Martin Heinrich Klaproth

Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist who discovered uranium (1789), zirconium (1789), and cerium (1803), and named titanium (1795) and tellurium (1798).

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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Methanotrophs (sometimes called methanophiles) are prokaryotes that metabolize methane as their only source of carbon and energy.

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Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum

Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum is an autotrophic bacteria first described in 2007 growing on volcanic pools near Naples, Italy.

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Mischmetal (from Mischmetall – "mixed metal") is an alloy of rare-earth elements.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.

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Monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate mineral containing rare-earth metals.

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Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.

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Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60.

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A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.

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| magnetic_moment.

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Nickel–metal hydride battery

A nickel metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH or Ni–MH, is a type of rechargeable battery.

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Nitric acid

Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.

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Nuclear fission product

Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.

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Oxalate (IUPAC: ethanedioate) is the dianion with the formula, also written.

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Oxidation state

The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.

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p-nuclei (p stands for proton-rich) are certain proton-rich, naturally occurring isotopes of some elements between selenium and mercury inclusive which cannot be produced in either the s- or the r-process.

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Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.

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Periodic table

The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.

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Periodic trends

Periodic trends are specific patterns that are present in the periodic table that illustrate different aspects of a certain element, including its radius and its electronic properties.

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Phoslock is the commercial name for a bentonite clay in which the sodium and/or calcium ions are exchanged for lanthanum.

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A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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Phosphate binder

Phosphate binders are medications used to reduce the absorption of phosphate and taken with meals and snacks.

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Pneumoconiosis is an occupational lung disease and a restrictive lung disease caused by the inhalation of dust, often in mines and from agriculture.

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Primordial nuclide

In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.

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Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61.

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A pyrophoric substance (from Greek πυροφόρος, pyrophoros, "fire-bearing") ignites spontaneously in air at or below 55 °C (130 °F).

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Qualitative inorganic analysis

Classical qualitative inorganic analysis is a method of analytical chemistry which seeks to find the elemental composition of inorganic compounds.

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The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Radiometric dating

Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed.

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Rare-earth element

A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.

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Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

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Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75.

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Rust is an iron oxide, a usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture.

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Rutgers University

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, commonly referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is an American public research university and is the largest institution of higher education in New Jersey.

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The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.

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Samarium is a chemical element with symbol Sm and atomic number 62.

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Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.

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Scandium oxide

Scandium(III) oxide, Sc2O3, or scandia, is a high melting rare earth oxide.

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A scintillator is a material that exhibits scintillation—the property of luminescence, when excited by ionizing radiation.

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Shielding effect

The shielding effect describes the attraction between an electron and the nucleus in any atom with more than one electron.

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Shire (pharmaceutical company)

Shire Plc is a Jersey-registered, Irish-headquartered global specialty biopharmaceutical company.

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In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.

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Silicon nitride

Silicon nitride is a chemical compound of the elements silicon and nitrogen.

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Silicon tetrafluoride

Silicon tetrafluoride or tetrafluorosilane is the chemical compound with the formula SiF4.

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Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.

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Snub disphenoid

In geometry, the snub disphenoid, Siamese dodecahedron, triangular dodecahedron or dodecadeltahedron is a three-dimensional convex polyhedron with twelve equilateral triangles as its faces.

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Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.

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Spallation is a process in which fragments of material (spall) are ejected from a body due to impact or stress.

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The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.

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Square antiprism

In geometry, the square antiprism is the second in an infinite set of antiprisms formed by an even-numbered sequence of triangle sides closed by two polygon caps.

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Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.

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A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.

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Synthetic radioisotope

A synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time.

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A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).

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Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)4O.

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Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.

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Toyota Prius

The Toyota Prius (Japanese:トヨタプリウス)() is a full hybrid electric automobile developed by Toyota and manufactured by the company since 1997.

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Transition metal

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.

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Vacuum tube

In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.

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White gas

White gas is a common name for a number of flammable substances.

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Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.

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Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70.

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Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.

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Yttrium(III) oxide

Yttrium oxide, also known as yttria, is Y2O3.

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Heavy metal fluoride glasses were accidentally discovered in 1975 by Poulain and Lucas at the University of Rennes in France, including a family of glasses ZBLAN with a composition ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF.

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Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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Zirconium diboride

Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) is a highly covalent refractory ceramic material with a hexagonal crystal structure.

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Element 57, La (element), Lanthanium.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lanthanum

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