126 relations: Abugida, Alveolar consonant, Amnat Charoen Province, Analytic language, Approximant consonant, Arabic numerals, Aspirated consonant, Attapeu Province, Austroasiatic languages, Austronesian languages, Back vowel, Bilabial consonant, Bolikhamsai Province, Brahmi script, Brahmic scripts, Buriram Province, Central vowel, Chaiyaphum Province, Champasak Province, China, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, De facto, Diphthong, French language, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Galangal, Glottal consonant, Glottal stop, Houaphanh Province, Isan, Isan language, Isan people, Kalasin Province, Khammouane Province, Khmer alphabet, Khmer Empire, Khon Kaen Province, Khorat Thai, Khun Borom, Kra–Dai languages, Labial consonant, Labialization, Labiodental consonant, Lao alphabet, Lao people, Lao Wiang, Laos, Lingua franca, ..., Literature of Laos, Loanword, Loei Province, Luang Prabang, Luang Prabang Province, Maha Sarakham Province, Malay Peninsula, Monophthong, Mukdahan Province, Mutual intelligibility, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Nasal consonant, Nong Bua Lamphu Province, Nong Khai Province, Northern Khmer dialect, Nyaw people, Obstruent, Old Mon script, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Orthography, Oudomxay Province, Paddy field, Palatal consonant, Pali, Phitsanulok Province, Phoneme, Phrae Province, Phu Thai language, Preah Vihear Province, Ratanakiri Province, Roi Et Province, Romanization of Lao, Roundedness, Saek language, Sainyabuli Province, Sakon Nakhon Province, Salavan Province, Sangha, Sanskrit, Savannakhet Province, Sekong Province, Sisaket Province, Sonorant, Southwestern Tai languages, Steung Treng Province, Stop consonant, Subject–verb–object, Sukhothai Province, Surin Province, Syllable, Tai Daeng language, Tai Dam language, Tai languages, Tai peoples, Tai Tham script, Thai alphabet, Thai and Lao Braille, Thai language, Thailand, Tone (linguistics), Tone letter, Ubon Ratchathani Province, Udon Thani Province, Unreleased stop, Uttaradit Province, Velar consonant, Vientiane, Vientiane Prefecture, Vientiane Province, Vietnam, Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Vowel length, Xiangkhouang Province, Yasothon Province. Expand index (76 more) » « Shrink index
An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Amnat Charoen (อำนาจเจริญ) is one of the northeastern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
Attapeu is a province of Laos, located in the south-east of the country.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
Bolikhamsai (also Borikhamxay, Lao ບໍລິຄໍາໄຊ) is a province of Laos, located in the middle of the country.
Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
Buriram (บุรีรัมย์,,; Northern Khmer: มืฺงแปะ) is one of the northeastern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Chaiyaphum (ชัยภูมิ) is one of the northeastern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
Champasak (or Champassak, Champasack – Lao: ຈຳປາສັກ) is a province in southwestern Laos, near the borders with Thailand and Cambodia.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Galangal (pronunciation /ˈɡal(ə)ŋɡal/, U.S. /) is a common name for several tropical rhizomatous spices.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
Houaphanh province (Laotian: ແຂວງ ຫົວພັນ) is a province of eastern Laos.
Isan (Isan/อีสาน,; also written as Isaan, Isarn, Issarn, Issan, Esan, or Esarn; from Pali ऐशान aiśāna or Sanskrit ऐशान aiśāna "northeast") consists of 20 provinces in the northeastern region of Thailand.
Isan or Northeastern Thai (ภาษาอีสาน, ภาษาไทยถิ่นตะวันออกเฉียงเหนือ, ภาษาไทยถิ่นอีสาน, ภาษาไทยอีสาน, ภาษาลาวอีสาน) is a group of Lao varieties spoken in the northern two-thirds of Isan in northeastern Thailand, as well as in adjacent portions of northern and eastern Thailand.
The Isan people (คนอีสาน,,; ຄົນອີສານ, or "Northeastern Thai") are an ethno-regional group native to Northeastern Thailand ("Isan") with an estimated population of about 22 million.
Kalasin (กาฬสินธุ์) is one of the northeast (Isan) provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
Khammouane or Khammouan (Lao: ຄໍາມ່ວນ) is a province of Laos, located in the center of the country.
The Khmer alphabet or Khmer script (អក្សរខ្មែរ) Huffman, Franklin.
The Khmer Empire (Khmer: ចក្រភពខ្មែរ: Chakrphup Khmer or អាណាចក្រខ្មែរ: Anachak Khmer), officially the Angkor Empire (Khmer: អាណាចក្រអង្គរ: Anachak Angkor), the predecessor state to modern Cambodia ("Kampuchea" or "Srok Khmer" to the Khmer people), was a powerful Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia.
Khon Kaen (ขอนแก่น) is the fifth-largest of the northeastern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
Khorat Thai or Korat Thai (Thai: ไทยโคราช) people refers to an ethnic group named for their main settlement area in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, unofficially called "Korat".
Khun Borom (ขุนบรม) or Khoun Bourôm (ຂຸນບູຣົມ) is a legendary progenitor of the Tai-speaking peoples, considered by the Lao to be the father of their race.
The Kra–Dai languages (also known as Tai–Kadai, Daic and Kadai) are a language family of tonal languages found in southern China, Northeast India and Southeast Asia.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
Lao script or Akson Lao (Lao: ອັກສອນລາວ) is the primary script used to write the Lao language and other minority languages in Laos.
The Lao are a Tai ethnic group native to Southeast Asia, who speak the eponymous language of the Tai–Kadai group.
The Lao Wiang (ลาวเวียง), sometimes also referred to as Lao Wieng, are a Tai sub-ethnic group of the Isan region.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
The people of Laos have a rich literary tradition dating back at least six hundred years, with the oral and storytelling traditions of its peoples dating back much earlier.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Loei (Thai: เลย), in Isan, is one of the most sparsely populated provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
Louangphabang, (Lao: ຫລວງພະບາງ) or Luang Phabang (pronounced), commonly transliterated into Western languages from the pre-1975 Lao spelling ຫຼວງພຣະບາງ (ຣ.
Luang Prabang (also Louangphabang, Lao ຫລວງພະບາງ) is a province of Laos, located in the north of the country.
Maha Sarakham (มหาสารคาม,; also spelled Mahasarakham) is one of the 76 provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
Mukdahan (มุกดาหาร) is one of the northeastern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Nakhon Ratchasima (นครราชสีมา), often called Khorat (โคราช)) is one of the Isan provinces (changwat) of Thailand's northeast corner. It is the country's largest province by area, with a population of about 2.7 million who produce about 250 billion baht in GDP, the highest in Isan. Neighbouring provinces are (clockwise, from north) Chaiyaphum, Khon Kaen, Buriram, Sa Kaeo, Prachinburi, Nakhon Nayok, Saraburi, and Lopburi. The capital of the province is the city of Nakhon Ratchasima in Mueang Nakhon Ratchasima District, also called Khorat.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Nong Bua Lamphu (หนองบัวลำภู) is one of the northeastern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
Nong Khai (หนองคาย) is the northernmost of the northeastern (Isan) provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
Northern Khmer, also called Khmer Surin (ខ្មែរសុរិន្ទ - Khmer Soren), is the dialect of the Khmer language spoken by approximately 1.4 million Khmer native to the Thai provinces of Surin, Sisaket, Buriram and Roi Et as well as those that have migrated from this region into Cambodia.
The Lao Nyaw, Thai Nyaw or Tai Yo (Thai/Isan: ไทญ้อ,, Isan pronunciation) are an ethnic group of Thailand, Cambodia and Laos, scattered throughout the provinces of Isan such as Nong Khai, Sakon Nakhon, Nakhon Phanom, and parts of Bolikhamxai and Khammouan provinces of Laos.
An obstruent is a speech sound such as,, or that is formed by obstructing airflow.
The Old Mon script was a script used to write Mon, and may also be the source script of the Burmese alphabet.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Oudomxay (alternates: Oudômxai or Moung Xai; ອຸດົມໄຊ) is a province of Laos, located in the northwest of the country.
A paddy field is a flooded parcel of arable land used for growing semiaquatic rice.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.
Phitsanulok (พิษณุโลก), one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces, lies in upper central Thailand, borders Sukhothai and Uttaradit on the north, Loei and Phetchabun in the east, and Phichit and Kamphaeng Phet to the south.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phrae (แพร่) is one of the northern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
Phu Thai (Phuu Thai; Thai, Phu Thai: Phasa Phuthai, ภาษาผู้ไท or ภูไท) is a Southwestern Tai spoken in Laos and Thailand.
Preah Vihear (ព្រះវិហារ,; "Sacred Sanctuary") is a province (khaet) of Cambodia.
Ratanakiri, officially Ratanak Kiri (រតនគិរីAlternative spellings include រតនៈគិរី, រតនគីរី, and រតនៈគីរី.), is a province of northeast Cambodia.
Roi Et (ร้อยเอ็ด) is one of the provinces (changwat) of Thailand, in the northeast of Thailand.
Lao romanization systems are transcriptions of the Lao alphabet into the Latin alphabet.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
Saek (Sek; Thai: ภาษาแสก) is a Tai language spoken in at least ten villages in Khammouane Province, Laos, and at least four villages in Nakhon Phanom Province in northeastern Thailand, just across the Mekong River.
Xayabuli (Lao ໄຊຍະບູລີ; Xaignabouli; alternate spellings: Xaignabouri, Xayaboury, Sayabouli, Sayabouri) is a province of Laos, located in the northwest of the country.
Sakon Nakhon (สกลนคร) is one of the northeastern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
Salavan (also Saravane, Lao: ສາລະວັນ) is a province of Laos, located in the south of the country.
Sangha (saṅgha; saṃgha; සංඝයා; พระสงฆ์; Tamil: சங்கம்) is a word in Pali and Sanskrit meaning "association", "assembly", "company" or "community" and most commonly refers in Buddhism to the monastic community of bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns).
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Savannakhét (Lao:ສະຫວັນນະເຂດ) is a province of Laos.
Sekong (also sometimes Xekong, Lao ເຊກອງ) is a province of Laos, located in the south-east of the country.
Sisaket (ศรีสะเกษ), is one of the northeastern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.
The Southwestern Tai, Southwestern Thai or Thais languages are an established branch of the Tai languages of Southeast Asia.
Steung Treng, officially Stung Treng (ស្ទឹងត្រែង, "River of Reeds"; ຊຽງແຕງ Xiang Taeng; เชียงแตง Chiang Taeng "City of Melons"), is a province (khaet) of Cambodia located in the northeast.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
Sukhothai (สุโขทัย, Soo-Ker Ty) is one of the upper central or lower northern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
Surin (สุรินทร์,; Northern Khmer: สะเร็น,; Kuy: เหมองสุลิน) is one of the northeastern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Tai Daeng, Táy-Môc-Châu or Red Tai is the language of the Tai Daeng people of northwestern Vietnam and across the border into northeastern Laos.
Tai Dam, also known as Black Tai (Thai: ภาษาไทดำ;; "Black Tai language") is a Tai language spoken by the Tai Dam in Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and China (mostly in Jinping Miao, Yao, and Dai Autonomous County).
The Tai or Zhuang–Tai languages (ภาษาไท or ภาษาไต, transliteration: or) are a branch of the Kra–Dai language family.
Tai peoples refers to the population of descendants of speakers of a common Tai language, including sub-populations that no longer speak a Tai language.
The Tai Tham script, Lanna script (อักษรธรรมล้านนา) or Tua Mueang (ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩥᩬᨦ,, ᨲᩫ᩠ᩅᨵᨾ᩠ᨾ᩼, Tham, "scripture"), is used for three living languages: Northern Thai (that is, Kham Mueang), Tai Lü and Khün.
Thai alphabet (อักษรไทย) is used to write the Thai, Southern Thai and other languages in Thailand.
Thai Braille (อักษรเบรลล์) and Lao Braille (ອັກສອນເບຣລລ໌) are the braille alphabets of the Thai language and Lao language.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Tone letters are letters that represent the tones of a language, most commonly in languages with contour tones.
Ubon Ratchathani (อุบลราชธานี), often shortened to Ubon (อุบลฯ), is one of the northeastern provinces (changwat) of Thailand, and the country's easternmost.
Udon Thani (อุดรธานี) is a province (changwat) in northeast Thailand.
A stop with no audible release, also known as an unreleased stop or an applosive, is a stop consonant with no release burst: no audible indication of the end of its occlusion (hold).
Uttaradit (อุตรดิตถ์) is one of the northern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Vientiane (ວຽງຈັນ/ວຽງຈັນທນ໌/ວຽງຈັນທະບູຣີ ສຼີສັຕນາຄຄນາຫຸຕ ວິສຸທທິຣັຕນຣາຊທານີ ບໍຣີຣົມຍ໌, Viang chan) is the capital and largest city of Laos, on the banks of the Mekong River near the border with Thailand.
Vientiane or Viengchan (also known as Urban Vientiane, Vieng Chan or Viang Chan) (Lao: ນະຄອນຫຼວງວຽງຈັນ, Nakhônlouang ViangChan) is a prefecture of Laos, located in the north-west of the country.
Vientiane Province (also known as rural Vientiane) (Lao ແຂວງວຽງຈັນ) is a province of Laos, located in the northwest of the country.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Xiangkhouang (Lao: ຊຽງຂວາງ, meaning "Horizontal City") is a province of Laos, located in the Xiangkhouang Plateau, north-east of the country.
Yasothon (ยโสธร) is a province (changwat) of Thailand, in the northeast on the Chi River.