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# Laplace transform

In mathematics, the Laplace transform is an integral transform named after its discoverer Pierre-Simon Laplace. 

## Abuse of notation

In mathematics, abuse of notation occurs when an author uses a mathematical notation in a way that is not formally correct but that seems likely to simplify the exposition or suggest the correct intuition (while being unlikely to introduce errors or cause confusion).

## Algebraic equation

In mathematics, an algebraic equation or polynomial equation is an equation of the form where P and Q are polynomials with coefficients in some field, often the field of the rational numbers.

## American Mathematical Monthly

The American Mathematical Monthly is a mathematical journal founded by Benjamin Finkel in 1894.

## Ampere

The ampere (symbol: A), often shortened to "amp",SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of abbreviations for units.

## Analog signal processing

Analog signal processing is a type of signal processing conducted on continuous analog signals by some analog means (as opposed to the discrete Digital Signal Processing where the signal processing is carried out by a digital process).

## Analytic function

In mathematics, an analytic function is a function that is locally given by a convergent power series.

## Angular resolution

Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.

## Anticausal system

An anticausal system is a hypothetical system with outputs and internal states that depend solely on future input values.

## Antiderivative

In calculus, an antiderivative, primitive function, primitive integral or indefinite integral of a function is a differentiable function whose derivative is equal to the original function.

## Applied probability

Applied probability is the application of probability theory to statistical problems and other scientific and engineering domains.

## Astronomy

Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

## Bernstein's theorem on monotone functions

In real analysis, a branch of mathematics, Bernstein's theorem states that every real-valued function on the half-line.

## Bessel function

Bessel functions, first defined by the mathematician Daniel Bernoulli and then generalized by Friedrich Bessel, are the canonical solutions of Bessel's differential equation for an arbitrary complex number, the order of the Bessel function.

## Borel measure

In mathematics, specifically in measure theory, a Borel measure on a topological space is a measure that is defined on all open sets (and thus on all Borel sets).

## Borel summation

In mathematics, Borel summation is a summation method for divergent series, introduced by.

## Bounded variation

In mathematical analysis, a function of bounded variation, also known as function, is a real-valued function whose total variation is bounded (finite): the graph of a function having this property is well behaved in a precise sense.

## Capacitor

A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.

## Causal system

In control theory, a causal system (also known as a physical or nonanticipative system) is a system where the output depends on past and current inputs but not future inputs—i.e., the output y(t_) depends on only the input x(t) for values of t \le t_.

## Complex analysis

Complex analysis, traditionally known as the theory of functions of a complex variable, is the branch of mathematical analysis that investigates functions of complex numbers.

## Complex conjugate

In mathematics, the complex conjugate of a complex number is the number with an equal real part and an imaginary part equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.

## Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.

## Complex-valued function

In mathematics, a complex-valued function (not to be confused with complex variable function) is a function whose values are complex numbers.

## Conditional convergence

In mathematics, a series or integral is said to be conditionally convergent if it converges, but it does not converge absolutely.

## Continuous function

In mathematics, a continuous function is a function for which sufficiently small changes in the input result in arbitrarily small changes in the output.

## Control theory

Control theory in control systems engineering deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines.

## Convolution

In mathematics (and, in particular, functional analysis) convolution is a mathematical operation on two functions (f and g) to produce a third function, that is typically viewed as a modified version of one of the original functions, giving the integral of the pointwise multiplication of the two functions as a function of the amount that one of the original functions is translated.

## Convolution theorem

In mathematics, the convolution theorem states that under suitable conditions the Fourier transform of a convolution is the pointwise product of Fourier transforms.

## Cross-correlation

In signal processing, cross-correlation is a measure of similarity of two series as a function of the displacement of one relative to the other.

## Cumulative distribution function

In probability theory and statistics, the cumulative distribution function (CDF, also cumulative density function) of a real-valued random variable X, or just distribution function of X, evaluated at x, is the probability that X will take a value less than or equal to x. In the case of a continuous distribution, it gives the area under the probability density function from minus infinity to x. Cumulative distribution functions are also used to specify the distribution of multivariate random variables.

## Derivative

The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).

## Differentiable function

In calculus (a branch of mathematics), a differentiable function of one real variable is a function whose derivative exists at each point in its domain.

## Differential equation

A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.

## Diffusion equation

The diffusion equation is a partial differential equation.

## Dirac comb

In mathematics, a Dirac comb (also known as an impulse train and sampling function in electrical engineering) is a periodic tempered distribution constructed from Dirac delta functions for some given period T. The symbol \operatorname(t), where the period is omitted, represents a Dirac comb of unit period.

## Dirac delta function

In mathematics, the Dirac delta function (function) is a generalized function or distribution introduced by the physicist Paul Dirac.

## Dirichlet integral

In mathematics, there are several integrals known as the Dirichlet integral, after the German mathematician Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet.

## Distribution (mathematics)

Distributions (or generalized functions) are objects that generalize the classical notion of functions in mathematical analysis.

## Dominated convergence theorem

In measure theory, Lebesgue's dominated convergence theorem provides sufficient conditions under which almost everywhere convergence of a sequence of functions implies convergence in the L1 norm.

## Dynamical system

In mathematics, a dynamical system is a system in which a function describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space.

## Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

## Electric potential

An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.

## Electrical engineering

Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.

## Electrical impedance

Electrical impedance is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.

## Electrical network

An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).

## Engineering

Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

## Entire function

In complex analysis, an entire function, also called an integral function, is a complex-valued function that is holomorphic at all finite points over the whole complex plane.

## Error function

In mathematics, the error function (also called the Gauss error function) is a special function (non-elementary) of sigmoid shape that occurs in probability, statistics, and partial differential equations describing diffusion.

## Expected value

In probability theory, the expected value of a random variable, intuitively, is the long-run average value of repetitions of the experiment it represents.

## Exponential decay

A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.

## Exponential type

In complex analysis, a branch of mathematics, a holomorphic function is said to be of exponential type C if its growth is bounded by the exponential function eC|z| for some real-valued constant C as |z| → ∞.

## Extended real number line

In mathematics, the affinely extended real number system is obtained from the real number system by adding two elements: and (read as positive infinity and negative infinity respectively).

The farad (symbol: F) is the SI derived unit of electrical capacitance, the ability of a body to store an electrical charge.

## Final value theorem

In mathematical analysis, the final value theorem (FVT) is one of several similar theorems used to relate frequency domain expressions to the time domain behavior as time approaches infinity.

## First-hitting-time model

Events are often triggered when a stochastic or random process first encounters a threshold.

## Flux

Flux describes the quantity which passes through a surface or substance.

## Fourier series

In mathematics, a Fourier series is a way to represent a function as the sum of simple sine waves.

## Fourier transform

The Fourier transform (FT) decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes.

## Frequency

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

## Frequency domain

In electronics, control systems engineering, and statistics, the frequency domain refers to the analysis of mathematical functions or signals with respect to frequency, rather than time.

## Frullani integral

Frullani integrals are definite integrals of the form The following formula for their general solution holds under certain conditions: This can be proved using the method of differentiation under the integral sign when the integral exists and f'(x) is continuous.

## Fubini's theorem

In mathematical analysis Fubini's theorem, introduced by, is a result that gives conditions under which it is possible to compute a double integral using iterated integrals.

## Function (mathematics)

In mathematics, a function was originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity.

## Gamma function

In mathematics, the gamma function (represented by, the capital Greek alphabet letter gamma) is an extension of the factorial function, with its argument shifted down by 1, to real and complex numbers.

## Geometric series

In mathematics, a geometric series is a series with a constant ratio between successive terms.

## Hamburger moment problem

In mathematics, the Hamburger moment problem, named after Hans Ludwig Hamburger, is formulated as follows: given a sequence, does there exist a positive Borel measure μ (for instance, the cumulative distribution function of a random variable) on the real line such that In other words, an affirmative answer to the problem means that is the sequence of moments of some positive Borel measure μ.

## Hardy–Littlewood tauberian theorem

In mathematical analysis, the Hardy–Littlewood tauberian theorem is a tauberian theorem relating the asymptotics of the partial sums of a series with the asymptotics of its Abel summation.

## Heaviside step function

The Heaviside step function, or the unit step function, usually denoted by or (but sometimes, or), is a discontinuous function named after Oliver Heaviside (1850–1925), whose value is zero for negative argument and one for positive argument.

## Hertz

The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

## Holomorphic function

In mathematics, a holomorphic function is a complex-valued function of one or more complex variables that is complex differentiable in a neighborhood of every point in its domain.

## Hyperbolic function

In mathematics, hyperbolic functions are analogs of the ordinary trigonometric, or circular, functions.

## Improper integral

In mathematical analysis, an improper integral is the limit of a definite integral as an endpoint of the interval(s) of integration approaches either a specified real number, \infty, -\infty, or in some instances as both endpoints approach limits.

## Impulse response

In signal processing, the impulse response, or impulse response function (IRF), of a dynamic system is its output when presented with a brief input signal, called an impulse.

## Initial value theorem

In mathematical analysis, the initial value theorem is a theorem used to relate frequency domain expressions to the time domain behavior as time approaches zero.

## Injective function

In mathematics, an injective function or injection or one-to-one function is a function that preserves distinctness: it never maps distinct elements of its domain to the same element of its codomain.

## Integer

An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer&#x2009;'s first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").

## Integral

In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.

## Integral equation

In mathematics, an integral equation is an equation in which an unknown function appears under an integral sign.

## Integral transform

In mathematics, an integral transform maps an equation from its original domain into another domain where it might be manipulated and solved much more easily than in the original domain.

## Integration by parts

In calculus, and more generally in mathematical analysis, integration by parts or partial integration is a process that finds the integral of a product of functions in terms of the integral of their derivative and antiderivative.

## International System of Units

The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

## Inverse Laplace transform

In mathematics, the inverse Laplace transform of a function F(s) is the piecewise-continuous and exponentially-restricted real function f(t) which has the property: where \mathcal denotes the Laplace transform.

## Isotope

Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.

## John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

## Joseph Fourier

Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (21 March 1768 – 16 May 1830) was a French mathematician and physicist born in Auxerre and best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations.

## Joseph-Louis Lagrange

Joseph-Louis Lagrange (or;; born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia, Encyclopædia Britannica or Giuseppe Ludovico De la Grange Tournier, Turin, 25 January 1736 – Paris, 10 April 1813; also reported as Giuseppe Luigi Lagrange or Lagrangia) was an Italian Enlightenment Era mathematician and astronomer.

## Laplace transform

In mathematics, the Laplace transform is an integral transform named after its discoverer Pierre-Simon Laplace.

## Laplace transform applied to differential equations

The Laplace transform is a powerful integral transform used to switch a function from the time domain to the s-domain.

## Laplace–Carson transform

In mathematics, the Laplace–Carson transform, named after Pierre Simon Laplace and John Renshaw Carson, is an integral transform with significant applications in the field of physics and engineering, particularly in the field of railway engineering.

## Laplace–Stieltjes transform

The Laplace–Stieltjes transform, named for Pierre-Simon Laplace and Thomas Joannes Stieltjes, is an integral transform similar to the Laplace transform.

## Lebesgue integration

In mathematics, the integral of a non-negative function of a single variable can be regarded, in the simplest case, as the area between the graph of that function and the -axis.

## Lebesgue measure

In measure theory, the Lebesgue measure, named after French mathematician Henri Lebesgue, is the standard way of assigning a measure to subsets of n-dimensional Euclidean space.

## Lebesgue–Stieltjes integration

In measure-theoretic analysis and related branches of mathematics, Lebesgue–Stieltjes integration generalizes Riemann–Stieltjes and Lebesgue integration, preserving the many advantages of the former in a more general measure-theoretic framework.

## Leibniz integral rule

In calculus, Leibniz's rule for differentiation under the integral sign, named after Gottfried Leibniz, states that for an integral of the form where -\infty, the derivative of this integral is expressible as where the partial derivative indicates that inside the integral, only the variation of f(x, t) with x is considered in taking the derivative.

## Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.

## Linear time-invariant theory

Linear time-invariant theory, commonly known as LTI system theory, comes from applied mathematics and has direct applications in NMR spectroscopy, seismology, circuits, signal processing, control theory, and other technical areas.

## Linearity

Linearity is the property of a mathematical relationship or function which means that it can be graphically represented as a straight line.

## List of trigonometric identities

In mathematics, trigonometric identities are equalities that involve trigonometric functions and are true for every value of the occurring variables where both sides of the equality are defined.

## Locally integrable function

In mathematics, a locally integrable function (sometimes also called locally summable function) is a function which is integrable (so its integral is finite) on every compact subset of its domain of definition.

## Logarithm

In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.

## Lp space

In mathematics, the Lp spaces are function spaces defined using a natural generalization of the ''p''-norm for finite-dimensional vector spaces.

## Markov chain

A Markov chain is "a stochastic model describing a sequence of possible events in which the probability of each event depends only on the state attained in the previous event".

## Mathematical Association of America

The Mathematical Association of America (MAA) is a professional society that focuses on mathematics accessible at the undergraduate level.

## Mathematical induction

Mathematical induction is a mathematical proof technique.

## Mathematical model

A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.

## Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

## Mathias Lerch

Mathias Lerch (Matyáš Lerch) (20 February 1860, Milínov – 3 August 1922, Sušice) was a Czech mathematician who published about 250 papers, largely on mathematical analysis and number theory.

## Mechanical engineering

Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, physics, engineering mathematics, and materials science principles to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems.

## Mellin transform

In mathematics, the Mellin transform is an integral transform that may be regarded as the multiplicative version of the two-sided Laplace transform.

## Moment (mathematics)

In mathematics, a moment is a specific quantitative measure, used in both mechanics and statistics, of the shape of a set of points.

## Moment-generating function

In probability theory and statistics, the moment-generating function of a real-valued random variable is an alternative specification of its probability distribution.

## Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.

## Morera's theorem

In complex analysis, a branch of mathematics, Morera's theorem, named after Giacinto Morera, gives an important criterion for proving that a function is holomorphic.

## Multiplication

Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "⋅", by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division.

## Nachbin's theorem

In mathematics, in the area of complex analysis, Nachbin's theorem (named after Leopoldo Nachbin) is commonly used to establish a bound on the growth rates for an analytic function.

## Natural logarithm

The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base of the mathematical constant ''e'', where e is an irrational and transcendental number approximately equal to.

## Niels Henrik Abel

Niels Henrik Abel (5 August 1802 – 6 April 1829) was a Norwegian mathematician who made pioneering contributions in a variety of fields.

## Nuclear physics

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.

## Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem

In the field of digital signal processing, the sampling theorem is a fundamental bridge between continuous-time signals (often called "analog signals") and discrete-time signals (often called "digital signals").

## Ohm

The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm.

## Oliver Heaviside

Oliver Heaviside FRS (18 May 1850 – 3 February 1925) was an English self-taught electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques for the solution of differential equations (equivalent to Laplace transforms), reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, and independently co-formulated vector analysis.

## Operational calculus

Operational calculus, also known as operational analysis, is a technique by which problems in analysis, in particular differential equations, are transformed into algebraic problems, usually the problem of solving a polynomial equation.

## Paley–Wiener theorem

In mathematics, a Paley–Wiener theorem is any theorem that relates decay properties of a function or distribution at infinity with analyticity of its Fourier transform.

## Partial fraction decomposition

In algebra, the partial fraction decomposition or partial fraction expansion of a rational function (that is, a fraction such that the numerator and the denominator are both polynomials) is the operation that consists in expressing the fraction as a sum of a polynomial (possibly zero) and one or several fractions with a simpler denominator.

## Partition function (statistical mechanics)

In physics, a partition function describes the statistical properties of a system in thermodynamic equilibrium.

## Pathological (mathematics)

In mathematics, a pathological phenomenon is one whose properties are considered atypically bad or counterintuitive; the opposite is well-behaved.

## Periodic function

In mathematics, a periodic function is a function that repeats its values in regular intervals or periods.

## Phasor

In physics and engineering, a phasor (a portmanteau of phase vector), is a complex number representing a sinusoidal function whose amplitude (A), angular frequency (ω), and initial phase (θ) are time-invariant.

## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

## Pierre-Simon Laplace

Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics and astronomy.

## Post's inversion formula

Post's inversion formula for Laplace transforms, named after Emil Post, is a simple-looking but usually impractical formula for evaluating an inverse Laplace transform.

## Power series

In mathematics, a power series (in one variable) is an infinite series of the form where an represents the coefficient of the nth term and c is a constant.

## Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

## Probability density function

In probability theory, a probability density function (PDF), or density of a continuous random variable, is a function, whose value at any given sample (or point) in the sample space (the set of possible values taken by the random variable) can be interpreted as providing a relative likelihood that the value of the random variable would equal that sample.

## Probability measure

In mathematics, a probability measure is a real-valued function defined on a set of events in a probability space that satisfies measure properties such as countable additivity.

## Probability theory

Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability.

Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

In mathematics, the radius of convergence of a power series is the radius of the largest disk in which the series converges.

## Ramp function

The ramp function is a unary real function, whose graph is shaped like a ramp.

## Random variable

In probability and statistics, a random variable, random quantity, aleatory variable, or stochastic variable is a variable whose possible values are outcomes of a random phenomenon.

## Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.

## Recurrence relation

In mathematics, a recurrence relation is an equation that recursively defines a sequence or multidimensional array of values, once one or more initial terms are given: each further term of the sequence or array is defined as a function of the preceding terms.

## Renewal theory

Renewal theory is the branch of probability theory that generalizes Poisson processes for arbitrary holding times.

## Residue (complex analysis)

In mathematics, more specifically complex analysis, the residue is a complex number proportional to the contour integral of a meromorphic function along a path enclosing one of its singularities.

## Residue theorem

In complex analysis, a discipline within mathematics, the residue theorem, sometimes called Cauchy's residue theorem, is a powerful tool to evaluate line integrals of analytic functions over closed curves; it can often be used to compute real integrals as well.

## S-plane

In mathematics and engineering, the s-plane is the complex plane on which Laplace transforms are graphed.

## Sampling (signal processing)

In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal.

## Sign (mathematics)

In mathematics, the concept of sign originates from the property of every non-zero real number of being positive or negative.

## Signal

A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".

## Signal-flow graph

A signal-flow graph or signal-flowgraph (SFG), invented by Claude Shannon, but often called a Mason graph after Samuel Jefferson Mason who coined the term, is a specialized flow graph, a directed graph in which nodes represent system variables, and branches (edges, arcs, or arrows) represent functional connections between pairs of nodes.

## Sine

In mathematics, the sine is a trigonometric function of an angle.

## Singularity (mathematics)

In mathematics, a singularity is in general a point at which a given mathematical object is not defined, or a point of an exceptional set where it fails to be well-behaved in some particular way, such as differentiability.

## Spectral density

The power spectrum S_(f) of a time series x(t) describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal.

## Spectrum

A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.

## Statistical mechanics

Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.

## Stochastic process

--> In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a collection of random variables.

## Symbolic integration

In calculus, symbolic integration is the problem of finding a formula for the antiderivative, or indefinite integral, of a given function f(x), i.e. to find a differentiable function F(x) such that This is also denoted.

## System

A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.

Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.

## Thomas John I'Anson Bromwich

Thomas John I'Anson Bromwich (1875–1929) was an English mathematician, and a Fellow of the Royal Society.

## Time domain

Time domain is the analysis of mathematical functions, physical signals or time series of economic or environmental data, with respect to time.

## Time-scale calculus

In mathematics, time-scale calculus is a unification of the theory of difference equations with that of differential equations, unifying integral and differential calculus with the calculus of finite differences, offering a formalism for studying hybrid discrete–continuous dynamical systems.

## Transfer function

In engineering, a transfer function (also known as system function or network function) of an electronic or control system component is a mathematical function giving the corresponding output value for each possible value of the input to the device.

## Trigonometric functions

In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are functions of an angle.

## Two-sided Laplace transform

In mathematics, the two-sided Laplace transform or bilateral Laplace transform is an integral transform equivalent to probability's moment generating function.

## Vague topology

In mathematics, particularly in the area of functional analysis and topological vector spaces, the vague topology is an example of the weak-* topology which arises in the study of measures on locally compact Hausdorff spaces.

## Volt

The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.

## Weak topology

In mathematics, weak topology is an alternative term for certain initial topologies, often on topological vector spaces or spaces of linear operators, for instance on a Hilbert space.

## Z-transform

In mathematics and signal processing, the Z-transform converts a discrete-time signal, which is a sequence of real or complex numbers, into a complex frequency domain representation.

## Zeros and poles

In mathematics, a zero of a function is a value such that.

## References

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