214 relations: Absolute zero, ALICE experiment, Alternatives to the Standard Higgs Model, American Physical Society, Ampere, Angels & Demons, Angels & Demons (film), Antimatter, Antimatter weapon, ATLAS experiment, Atom, Atomic nucleus, B meson, Baryon, BBC, Beam dump, Beamline, Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing, Big Bang, Black hole, Boson, Bound state, Brady Haran, Celsius, Center-of-momentum frame, CERN, CERN Hadron LINACs, Charged particle beam, Chronology of the universe, CLs method (particle physics), Collider, Compact Linear Collider, Compact Muon Solenoid, Compact star, Computer network, Contemporary Physics, Cosmic ray, CP violation, Cryogenics, Dan Brown, Dark matter, Data, Decay (2012 film), Diminishing returns, Dipole magnet, Distributed computing, Electric arc, Electric field, Electrical grid, Electromagnetic induction, ..., Electromagnetism, Electronvolt, Electroweak interaction, Elementary particle, Energy, Exotic matter, Fail-safe, Fault (power engineering), Fermilab, FlashForward, Flashforward (novel), Flavour (particle physics), France–Switzerland border, Fundamental interaction, Future Circular Collider, General relativity, Geneva, Grand Unified Theory, Gravity, Grid computing, Hadron, Helium, Higgs boson, Higgs mechanism, High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, International Journal of Modern Physics, International Linear Collider, Internet, Invariant mass, Jet quenching, Joule, Journal of High Energy Physics, Journal of Instrumentation, Journal of Physics G, Kaon, Katherine McAlpine, KEK, Kelvin, Kinetic energy, Lambda baryon, Large Electron–Positron Collider, Large extra dimension, Lead, Lecture Notes in Physics, Les Horribles Cernettes, LHC@home, LHCb experiment, LHCf experiment, Linear particle accelerator, Linux, Liquid helium, List of accelerators in particle physics, List of particles, List of unsolved problems in physics, Lorentz factor, Low Energy Ion Ring, Lucio Rossi, Luminosity (scattering theory), MacOS, Magnet, Mass, Meson, Micro black hole, Microsecond, Microsoft Windows, Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, MoEDAL experiment, Molecule, MSNBC, Multipole expansion, Muon, Nanosecond, National Geographic, National Geographic (U.S. TV channel), Nature (journal), Neutron, New Scientist, Niobium–titanium, Noise (electronics), Nuclear force, Nucleon, Open Science Grid Consortium, Operating temperature, Oxford University Press, Particle, Particle accelerator, Particle detector, Particle Fever, Particle physics, Pentaquark, Petabyte, Physical Review Letters, Physicist, Physics beyond the Standard Model, Physics Letters, Physics Today, Pion, Popular Mechanics, Pramana (journal), Proton, Proton Synchrotron, Proton Synchrotron Booster, Quadrupole magnet, Quantum mechanics, Quark, Quark–gluon plasma, Quarkonium, Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, Robert J. Sawyer, Roger Highfield, Ron Howard, Science (journal), Scientific American, Search for the Higgs boson, Sheffield Doc/Fest, Speed of light, Spontaneous symmetry breaking, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Standard deviation, Standard Model, Steins;Gate, Strange B meson, Strange matter, Strangelet, String theory, Strong interaction, Subatomic particle, Super Proton Synchrotron, Super-Poincaré algebra, Superconducting magnet, Superconducting magnetic energy storage, Superconductor Science and Technology, Superfluid helium-4, Superpartner, Superstring theory, Supersymmetry, Swiss franc, Switchgear, Symmetry (physics), Tera-, Tesla (unit), Tetraquark, Tevatron, The Daily Telegraph, The New York Times, The Times, Tonne, TOTEM experiment, Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray, Universe, University of Nottingham, Very Large Hadron Collider, Watt, W′ and Z′ bosons, Weak interaction, Wired (magazine), World's Toughest Fixes, Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, Xenon, Xi baryon, Y(4140), YouTube, Z(4430), 750 GeV diphoton excess. Expand index (164 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.
ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of seven detector experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.
The Alternative models to the Standard Higgs Model are models which are considered by many particle physicists to solve some of Higgs boson's existing problems.
The American Physical Society (APS) is the world's second largest organization of physicists.
The ampere (symbol: A), often shortened to "amp",SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of abbreviations for units.
Angels & Demons is a 2000 bestselling mystery-thriller novel written by American author Dan Brown and published by Pocket Books and then by Corgi Books.
Angels & Demons is a 2009 American mystery thriller film directed by Ron Howard and written by Akiva Goldsman and David Koepp, based on Dan Brown's novel of the same title.
In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.
An antimatter weapon is a possible device according to theories using antimatter as a power source, a propellant, or an explosive for a weapon.
ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is one of the seven particle detector experiments constructed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a particle accelerator at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) in Switzerland.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
In particle physics, B mesons are mesons composed of a bottom antiquark and either an up, down, strange or charm quark.
A baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks (a triquark, as distinct from mesons, which are composed of one quark and one antiquark).
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
A beam dump is a device designed to absorb the energy of photons or other particles within an energetic beam.
In accelerator physics, a beamline refers to the trajectory of the beam of accelerated particles, including the overall construction of the path segment (vacuum tube, magnets, diagnostic devices) along a specific path of an accelerator facility.
The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC, pronounced – rhymes with "oink"), an open-source middleware system, supports volunteer and grid computing.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.
In quantum physics, a bound state is a special quantum state of a particle subject to a potential such that the particle has a tendency to remain localised in one or more regions of space.
Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian-born British independent filmmaker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and his YouTube channels, the most notable being Periodic Videos and Numberphile.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
In physics, the center-of-momentum frame (also zero-momentum frame or COM frame) of a system is the unique (up to velocity but not origin) inertial frame in which the total momentum of the system vanishes.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
The CERN hadron LINACs are linear accelerators that accelerate beams of hadrons from a standstill to be used by the larger circular accelerators at the facility.
A charged particle beam is a spatially localized group of electrically charged particles that have approximately the same position, kinetic energy (resulting in the same velocity), and direction.
The chronology of the universe describes the history and future of the universe according to Big Bang cosmology.
In particle physics, CLs represent a statistical method for setting upper limits (also called exclusion limits) on model parameters, a particular form of interval estimation used for parameters that can take only non-negative values.
A collider is a type of particle accelerator involving directed beams of particles.
The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a concept for a future linear particle accelerator that aims to explore the next energy frontier.
The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is one of two large general-purpose particle physics detectors built on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Switzerland and France.
In astronomy, the term "compact star" (or "compact object") refers collectively to white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
Contemporary Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing introductory articles on important recent developments in physics.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
In particle physics, CP violation is a violation of CP-symmetry (or charge conjugation parity symmetry): the combination of C-symmetry (charge conjugation symmetry) and P-symmetry (parity symmetry).
In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.
Daniel Gerhard Brown (born June 22, 1964) is an American author of thriller novels, most notably the Robert Langdon stories: Angels & Demons (2000), The Da Vinci Code (2003), The Lost Symbol (2009), Inferno (2013) and ''Origin'' (2017).
Dark matter is a theorized form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 80% of the matter in the universe, and about a quarter of its total energy density.
Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.
Decay is a 2012 horror film by Luke Thompson (of the University of Manchester), set at the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland.
In economics, diminishing returns is the decrease in the marginal (incremental) output of a production process as the amount of a single factor of production is incrementally increased, while the amounts of all other factors of production stay constant.
A dipole magnet is a magnet in which opposite poles (i.e., North and South poles) are on opposite sides of the magnet.
Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.
An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from producers to consumers.
Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
In physics, exotic matter is matter that somehow deviates from normal matter and has "exotic" properties.
A fail-safe in engineering is a design feature or practice that in the event of a specific type of failure, inherently responds in a way that will cause no or minimal harm to other equipment, the environment or to people.
In an electric power system, a fault or fault current is any abnormal electric current.
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.
FlashForward is a U.S. television series, adapted for television by Brannon Braga and David S. Goyer, which aired for one season on ABC between September 24, 2009, and May 27, 2010.
Flashforward is a science fiction novel by Canadian author Robert J. Sawyer first published in 1999.
In particle physics, flavour or flavor refers to the species of an elementary particle.
The France–Switzerland border (Grenze zwischen Frankreich und der Schweiz, Frontière entre la France et la Suisse, Confine tra la Francia e la Svizzera) is 572 km long.
In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.
The Future Circular Collider (FCC) study aims at developing conceptual designs for a post-LHC particle accelerator research infrastructure in a global context, with an energy significantly above that of previous circular colliders (SPS, Tevatron, LHC).
General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
Grid computing is the collection of computer resources from multiple locations to reach a common goal.
In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics.
In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons.
The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC; formerly SLHC, Super Large Hadron Collider) is an upgrade to the Large Hadron Collider started in June 2018 that will boost the accelerator's potential for new discoveries in physics, starting in 2026.
The International Journal of Modern Physics is a series of Physics journals published by World Scientific.
The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed linear particle accelerator.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.
In high-energy physics, jet quenching is a phenomenon that can occur in the collision of ultra-high-energy particles.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
The Journal of High Energy Physics is a peer-reviewed, open access scientific journal covering the field of high energy physics.
The Journal of Instrumentation is an online peer-reviewed scientific journal.
Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes theoretical and experimental research into nuclear physics, particle physics and particle astrophysics, including all interface areas between these fields.
In particle physics, a kaon, also called a K meson and denoted,The positively charged kaon used to be called τ+ and θ+, as it was supposed to be two different particles until the 1960s.
Katherine "Kate" McAlpine (born 1985) is an American science journalist.
, known as KEK, is a Japanese organization whose purpose is to operate the largest particle physics laboratory in Japan, situated in Tsukuba, Ibaraki prefecture.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
The Lambda baryons are a family of subatomic hadron particles containing one up quark, one down quark, and a third quark from a higher flavour generation, in a combination where the wavefunction changes sign upon the flavour of any two quarks being swapped (thus differing from a Sigma baryon).
The Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP) was one of the largest particle accelerators ever constructed.
In particle physics, the ADD model, also known as the model with large extra dimensions (LED), is a model framework that attempts to solve the hierarchy problem by explaining the weakness of gravity relative to the other forces.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lecture Notes in Physics (LNP) is a book series published by Springer Science+Business Media in the field of physics, including article related to both research and teaching.
Les Horribles Cernettes ("The Horrible CERN Girls") was an all-female parody pop group, self-labelled "the one and only High Energy Rock Band", which was founded by employees of CERN and performed at CERN and other HEP-related events.
LHC@home is a distributed computing project for particle physics based on the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) platform.
The LHCb (standing for "Large Hadron Collider beauty") experiment is one of seven particle physics detector experiments collecting data at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.
The LHCf ("Large Hadron Collider forward") is a special-purpose Large Hadron Collider experiment for astroparticle (cosmic ray) physics, and one of seven detectors in the LHC accelerator at CERN.
A linear particle accelerator (often shortened to linac) is a type of particle accelerator that accelerates charged subatomic particles or ions to a high speed by subjecting them to a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
At standard pressure, the chemical element helium exists in a liquid form only at the extremely low temperature of −270 °C (about 4 K or −452.2 °F).
A list of particle accelerators used for particle physics experiments.
This article includes a list of the different types of atomic- and sub-atomic particles found or hypothesized to exist in the whole of the universe categorized by type.
Some of the major unsolved problems in physics are theoretical, meaning that existing theories seem incapable of explaining a certain observed phenomenon or experimental result.
The Lorentz factor or Lorentz term is the factor by which time, length, and relativistic mass change for an object while that object is moving.
The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) is a particle accelerator at CERN used to accelerate ions from the LINAC 3 to the Proton Synchrotron (PS) to provide ions for collisions within the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
Lucio Rossi (born 24 September 1955) is an Italian physicist who is working in the field of superconductivity.
In scattering theory and accelerator physics, luminosity (L) is the ratio of the number of events detected (N) in a certain time (t) to the interaction cross-section (&sigma): L.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
In particle physics, mesons are hadronic subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark, bound together by strong interactions.
Micro black holes, also called quantum mechanical black holes or mini black holes, are hypothetical tiny black holes, for which quantum mechanical effects play an important role.
A microsecond is an SI unit of time equal to one millionth (0.000001 or 10−6 or 1/1,000,000) of a second.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is an extension to the Standard Model that realizes supersymmetry.
MoEDAL (Monopole and Exotics Detector at the LHC) is a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
A multipole expansion is a mathematical series representing a function that depends on angles—usually the two angles on a sphere.
The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass.
A nanosecond (ns) is an SI unit of time equal to one thousand-millionth of a second (or one billionth of a second), that is, 1/1,000,000,000 of a second, or 10 seconds.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
National Geographic (formerly National Geographic Channel and also commercially abbreviated and trademarked as Nat Geo or Nat Geo TV) is an American digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by National Geographic Partners, majority-owned by 21st Century Fox with the remainder owned by the National Geographic Society.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
Niobium-titanium (NbTi) is an alloy of niobium and titanium, used industrially as a type II superconductor wire for superconducting magnets, normally as Nb-Ti fibres in an aluminium or copper matrix.
In electronics, noise is an unwanted disturbance in an electrical signal.
The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
The Open Science Grid Consortium is an organization that administers a worldwide grid of technological resources called the Open Science Grid, which facilitates distributed computing for scientific research.
An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In the physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
In experimental and applied particle physics, nuclear physics, and nuclear engineering, a particle detector, also known as a radiation detector, is a device used to detect, track, and/or identify ionizing particles, such as those produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation, or reactions in a particle accelerator.
Particle Fever is a 2013 American documentary film tracking the first round of experiments at the Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
A pentaquark is a subatomic particle consisting of four quarks and one antiquark bound together.
The petabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
Physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) refers to the theoretical developments needed to explain the deficiencies of the Standard Model, such as the origin of mass, the strong CP problem, neutrino oscillations, matter–antimatter asymmetry, and the nature of dark matter and dark energy.
Physics Letters was a scientific journal published from 1962 to 1966, when it split in two series now published by Elsevier.
Physics Today is the membership magazine of the American Institute of Physics that was established in 1948.
In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.
Popular Mechanics is a classic magazine of popular science and technology.
Pramana – Journal of Physics, is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all branches of physics published by Springer Science+Business Media on behalf of the Indian Academy of Sciences and in collaboration with the Indian National Science Academy and the Indian Physics Association.
The Proton Synchrotron (PS) is a particle accelerator at CERN.
The Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), a synchrotron, is the first and smallest circular proton accelerator in the accelerator chain at the CERN Large Hadron Collider injection complex.
Quadrupole magnets, abbreviated as Q-magnets, consist of groups of four magnets laid out so that in the planar multipole expansion of the field, the dipole terms cancel and where the lowest significant terms in the field equations are quadrupole.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
A quark–gluon plasma (QGP) or quark soup is a state of matter in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which exists at extremely high temperature and/or density.
In particle physics, quarkonium (from quark and -onium, pl. quarkonia) designates a flavorless meson whose constituents are a heavy quark and its own antiquark, making it a neutral particle.
The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the first and one of only two operating heavy-ion colliders, and the only spin-polarized proton collider ever built.
Robert James Sawyer (born April 29, 1960) is a Canadian science fiction writer.
Roger Ronald Highfield (born 1958 in Griffithstown, Wales) is an author, science journalist, broadcaster and director of external affairs at the Science Museum Group.
Ronald William Howard (born March 1, 1954) is an American actor and filmmaker.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
The search for the Higgs boson was a 40-year effort by physicists to prove the existence or non-existence of the Higgs boson, first theorised in the 1960s.
Sheffield Doc/Fest, short for Sheffield International Documentary Festival (SIDF), is an international documentary festival and Marketplace held annually in Sheffield.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a spontaneous process of symmetry breaking, by which a physical system in a symmetric state ends up in an asymmetric state.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma σ or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.
The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.
Steins;Gate is a visual novel video game developed by 5pb. and Nitroplus.
The meson is a meson composed of a bottom antiquark and a strange quark.
Strange matter is a particular form of quark matter, usually thought of as a "liquid" of up, down and strange quarks.
A strangelet is a hypothetical particle consisting of a bound state of roughly equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks.
In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.
In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.
In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.
The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a particle accelerator of the synchrotron type at CERN.
In theoretical physics, a super-Poincaré algebra is an extension of the Poincaré algebra to incorporate supersymmetry, a relation between bosons and fermions.
A superconducting magnet is an electromagnet made from coils of superconducting wire.
Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) systems store energy in the magnetic field created by the flow of direct current in a superconducting coil which has been cryogenically cooled to a temperature below its superconducting critical temperature.
Superconductor Science and Technology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on all aspects of superconductivity, including theories on superconductivity, the basic physics of superconductors, the relation of microstructure and growth to superconducting properties, the theory of novel devices, and the fabrication and properties of thin films and devices.
Superfluid helium-4 is the superfluid form of helium-4, an isotope of the element helium.
In particle physics, a superpartner (also sparticle) is a hypothetical elementary particle.
Superstring theory is an attempt to explain all of the particles and fundamental forces of nature in one theory by modeling them as vibrations of tiny supersymmetric strings.
In particle physics, supersymmetry (SUSY) is a theory that proposes a relationship between two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin.
The franc (sign: Fr. or SFr.; Franken, French and Romansh: franc, franco; code: CHF) is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d'Italia.
In an electric power system, switchgear is the combination of electrical disconnect switches, fuses or circuit breakers used to control, protect and isolate electrical equipment.
In physics, a symmetry of a physical system is a physical or mathematical feature of the system (observed or intrinsic) that is preserved or remains unchanged under some transformation.
Tera is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting multiplication by 1012 or (one trillion short scale; one billion long scale).
The tesla (symbol T) is a derived unit of magnetic flux density (informally, magnetic field strength) in the International System of Units.
A tetraquark, in particle physics, is an exotic meson composed of four valence quarks.
The Tevatron was a circular particle accelerator (now inactive, since 2011) in the United States, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (also known as Fermilab), east of Batavia, Illinois, and holds the title of the second highest energy particle collider in the world, after the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) near Geneva, Switzerland.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
The TOTEM experiment (TOTal Elastic and diffractive cross section Measurement) is one of the seven detector experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider.
In astroparticle physics, an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) is a cosmic ray particle with a kinetic energy greater than eV, far beyond both the rest mass and energies typical of other cosmic ray particles.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The University of Nottingham is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom.
The Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) is a hypothetical future hadron collider with performance significantly beyond the Large Hadron Collider.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
In particle physics, W′ and Z′ bosons (or W-prime and Z-prime bosons) refer to hypothetical gauge bosons that arise from extensions of the electroweak symmetry of the Standard Model.
In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
World's Toughest Fixes is an American reality series that premiered on the National Geographic Channel on September 28, 2008.
The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), formerly (until 2006) the LHC Computing Grid (LCG), is an international collaborative project that consists of a grid-based computer network infrastructure incorporating over 170 computing centers in 42 countries,.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
The Xi baryons or cascade particles are a family of subatomic hadron particles which have the symbol Ξ and may have an electric charge (Q) of +2 e, +1 e, 0, or −1 e, where e is the elementary charge.
The Y(4140) particle is an electrically neutral exotic hadron candidate that is about 4.4 times heavier than the proton.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
Z(4430) is a mesonic resonance discovered by the Belle experiment.
The 750 GeV diphoton excess in particle physics was an anomaly in data collected at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2015, which could have been an indication of a new particle or resonance.
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