171 relations: Abdomen, Abdominal cavity, Acetate, Acid, Amniote, Amylose, Anal canal, Angiodysplasia, Antibiotic, Anus, Appendicitis, Appendix (anatomy), Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Archaea, Artery, Ascending colon, B vitamins, Bacteria, Bacteroides, Basal lamina, Bifidobacterium, Biopsy, Biotin, Butyrate, Capillary, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Carnivora, CEACAM7, Cecum, Cell nucleus, Charge-coupled device, Chloride, Chronic functional abdominal pain, Chyme, Cisterna chyli, Cloaca, Coagulation, Colic flexures, Colitis, Colonoscopy, Colorectal cancer, Colorectal polyp, Commensalism, Constipation, Crohn's disease, CT scan, Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, Defecation, Descending colon, ..., Diarrhea, Dietary fiber, Digestion, Diverticulitis, Diverticulosis, Electrolyte, Endocrine system, Endoscopy, Enzyme, Epiploic appendix, Feces, Fermentation, Fiber, Firmicutes, Fungus, Gastrointestinal tract, Greater omentum, Groin, Gut flora, Gut-associated lymphoid tissue, Haematoxylin, Haustrum (anatomy), Hindgut, Hirschsprung's disease, Homeostasis, Homology (biology), Human digestive system, Hydrogen, Hydrogen sulfide, Ileo-anal pouch, Ileocecal valve, Ileum, Ileus, Ilium (bone), Immunohistochemistry, Indole, Inferior mesenteric artery, Inferior mesenteric lymph nodes, Inferior mesenteric vein, Internal iliac artery, Intestinal epithelium, Intestinal gland, Intussusception (medical disorder), Invagination, Irritable bowel syndrome, Ischemia, Joseph von Gerlach, Laparotomy, Large intestine (Chinese medicine), Left colic artery, Liver, Lumen (anatomy), Lymphatic system, Lymphatic vessel, Magnesium, Mammal, Mesentery, Methane, Middle colic artery, Midgut, Mitochondrial DNA, Mitochondrion, Monotreme, Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, Mucus, Nitrogen, Non-invasive procedure, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nutrient, Optical fiber, Osmosis, Osmotic pressure, Passive transport, Pectinate line, Pelvis, Peptic ulcer disease, Peristalsis, Peritoneum, PH, Polysaccharide, Portal vein, Pouchoscopy, Primate, Propionate, Protozoa, Rectum, Retroperitoneal space, Riboflavin, Ruminant, Salt, Shark, Sigmoid arteries, Sigmoid colon, Sigmoid sinus, Sigmoidoscopy, Small intestine, Sodium, Spleen, Splenic vein, Stomach, Superior mesenteric artery, Superior mesenteric lymph nodes, Superior mesenteric vein, Superior rectal artery, Taenia coli, Tetrapod, Thiamine, Tight junction, Tonicity, Toxic megacolon, Transverse colon, Ulcerative colitis, Vein, Vertebrate, Virtual colonoscopy, Vitamin, Vitamin K, Volvulus, Waist, Water, Wiley-Blackwell. Expand index (121 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
The abdominal cavity is a large body cavity in humans and many other animals that contains many organs.
An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Amylose is a polysaccharide made of α-D-glucose units, bonded to each other through α(1→4) glycosidic bonds.
The anal canal is the terminal part of the large intestine.
In medicine (gastroenterology), angiodysplasia is a small vascular malformation of the gut.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.
Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix.
The appendix (or vermiform appendix; also cecal appendix; vermix; or vermiform process) is a blind-ended tube connected to the cecum, from which it develops in the embryo.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Society for Microbiology.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
The ascending colon is the part of the colon located between the cecum and the transverse colon.
B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacteroides is a genus of Gram-negative, obligate anaerobic bacteria.
The basal lamina is a layer of extracellular matrix secreted by the epithelial cells, on which the epithelium sits.
Bifidobacterium is a genus of gram-positive, nonmotile, often branched anaerobic bacteria.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin, also called vitamin B7 and formerly known as vitamin H or coenzyme R. Biotin is composed of a ureido ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring.
Butyrate (also known as butanoate) is the traditional name for the conjugate base of butyric acid (also known as butanoic acid).
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carnivora (from Latin carō (stem carn-) "flesh" and vorāre "to devour") is a diverse scrotiferan order that includes over 280 species of placental mammals.
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CEACAM7 gene.
The cecum or caecum (plural ceca; from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is an intraperitoneal pouch that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chronic functional abdominal pain (CFAP) or functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is the ongoing presence of abdominal pain for which there is no known medical explanation.
Chyme or chymus (from Greek χυμός khymos, "juice") is the semi-fluid mass of partly digested food that is expelled by the stomach, through the pyloric valve, into the duodenum (the beginning of the small intestine).
The cisterna chyli (or cysterna chyli, and etymologically more correct, receptaculum chyli) is a dilated sac at the lower end of the thoracic duct in most mammals into which lymph from the intestinal trunk and two lumbar lymphatic trunks flow.
In animal anatomy, a cloaca (plural cloacae or) is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts (if present) of many vertebrate animals, opening at the vent.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
There are two colic flexures, or curvatures in the transverse colon.
Colitis is an inflammation of the colon.
Colonoscopy or coloscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
A colorectal polyp is a polyp (fleshy growth) occurring on the lining of the colon or rectum.
Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Cytochrome c oxidase I (COX1) also known as mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase I (MT-CO1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MT-CO1 gene.
Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.
The descending colon is the part of the large intestine from the splenic flexure to the beginning of the sigmoid colon.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Diverticulitis, specifically colonic diverticulitis, is a gastrointestinal disease characterized by inflammation of abnormal pouches - diverticuli - which can develop in the wall of the large intestine.
Diverticulosis is the condition of having multiple pouches (diverticula) in the colon that are not inflamed.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
An endoscopy (looking inside) is used in medicine to look inside the body.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
The epiploic appendices (or appendices epiploicae, or epiploic appendages, or appendix epiploica, or omental appendices) are small pouches of the peritoneum filled with fat and situated along the colon, but are absent in the rectum.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.
The Firmicutes (Latin: firmus, strong, and cutis, skin, referring to the cell wall) are a phylum of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
The greater omentum (also the great omentum, omentum majus, gastrocolic omentum, epiploon, or, especially in animals, caul) is a large apron-like fold of visceral peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach.
In human anatomy, the groin (the adjective is inguinal, as in inguinal canal) is the junctional area (also known as the inguinal region) between the abdomen and the thigh on either side of the pubic bone.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is a component of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) which works in the immune system to protect the body from invasion in the gut.
Haematoxylin or hematoxylin, also called natural black 1 or C.I. 75290, is a compound extracted from the heartwood of the logwood tree (Haematoxylum campechianum).
The haustra (singular haustrum) of the colon are the small pouches caused by sacculation (sac formation), which give the colon its segmented appearance.
The hindgut (or epigaster) is the posterior (caudal) part of the alimentary canal.
Hirschsprung's disease (HD or HSCR) is a birth defect in which nerves are missing from parts of the intestine.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
In medicine, the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), also known as an ileo-anal pouch, restorative proctocolectomy, ileal-anal pullthrough, or sometimes referred to as a j-pouch, s-pouch, w-pouch or an internal pouch (or Kock pouch), is a surgically constructed internal reservoir; usually situated near where the rectum would normally be.
The ileocecal valve (ileal papilla, ileocaecal valve, Tulp's valve, Tulpius valve, Bauhin's valve, ileocecal eminence, valve of Varolius or colic valve) is a sphincter muscle valve that separates the small intestine and the large intestine.
The ileum is the final section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Ileus is a disruption of the normal propulsive ability of the gastrointestinal tract.
The ilium (plural ilia) is the uppermost and largest part of the hip bone, and appears in most vertebrates including mammals and birds, but not bony fish.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) involves the process of selectively imaging antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.
Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound with formula C8H7N.
In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric artery, often abbreviated as IMA, is the third main branch of the abdominal aorta and arises at the level of L3, supplying the large intestine from the left colic (or splenic) flexure to the upper part of the rectum, which includes the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and part of the rectum.
The inferior mesenteric lymph nodes consist of.
In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the large intestine.
The internal iliac artery (formerly known as the hypogastric artery) is the main artery of the pelvis.
The intestinal epithelium is the layer of cells that forms the luminal surface or lining of both the small and large intestine (colon) of the gastrointestinal tract.
In histology, an intestinal gland (also crypt of Lieberkühn and intestinal crypt) is a gland found in the intestinal epithelium lining of the small intestine and large intestine (colon).
Intussusception is a medical condition in which a part of the intestine folds into the section next to it.
In developmental biology, invagination is a mechanism that takes place during gastrulation.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.
Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
Joseph von Gerlach (April 3, 1820 – December 17, 1896) was a German professor of anatomy at the University of Erlangen.
A laparotomy is a surgical procedure involving a large incision through the abdominal wall to gain access into the abdominal cavity.
The large intestine (Chinese: 大肠/大腸: pinyin: dà cháng) is one of the fu organs stipulated by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).
The left colic artery is a branch of the inferior mesenteric artery that runs to the left behind the peritoneum and in front of the psoas major muscle, and after a short, but variable, course divides into an ascending and a descending branch; the stem of the artery or its branches cross the left ureter and left internal spermatic vessels.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
The lymphatic vessels (or lymph vessels or lymphatics) are thin-walled vessels structured like blood vessels, that carry lymph.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
The mesentery is a continuous set of tissues that attaches the intestines to the abdominal wall in humans and is formed by the double fold of peritoneum.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
The middle colic artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery that mostly supplies the transverse colon.
The midgut is the portion of the embryo from which most of the intestines develop.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Monotremes are one of the three main groups of living mammals, along with placentals (Eutheria) and marsupials (Metatheria).
The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), also called mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue, is a diffuse system of small concentrations of lymphoid tissue found in various submucosal membrane sites of the body, such as the gastrointestinal tract, oral passage, nasopharyngeal tract, thyroid, breast, lung, salivary glands, eye, and skin.
Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
A medical procedure is defined as non-invasive when no break in the skin is created and there is no contact with the mucosa, or skin break, or internal body cavity beyond a natural or artificial body orifice.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane.
Passive transport is a movement of ions and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input.
The pectinate line (dentate line) is a line which divides the upper two thirds and lower third of the anal canal.
The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.
The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
The portal vein or hepatic portal vein is a blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen to the liver.
Pouchoscopy is a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure to examine an ileo-anal pouch, a replacement for the colon / rectum which is surgically created from the small intestine (ileum) as Treatment for ulcerative colitis and as a treatment for other inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease, a preventative measure in certain genetic illnesses such as FAP or HNPCC or as a procedure in the treatment of colon cancer.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
The propionate, or propanoate ion, is C2H5COO− (the conjugate base of propionic acid).
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
The retroperitoneal space (retroperitoneum) is the anatomical space (sometimes a potential space) in the abdominal cavity behind (retro) the peritoneum.
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
The sigmoid arteries, two or three in number, run obliquely downward and to the left behind the peritoneum and in front of the psoas major, ureter, and internal spermatic vessels.
The sigmoid colon (pelvic colon) is the part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus.
The sigmoid sinuses (sigma- or s-shaped hollow curve), also known as the pars sigmoid, are venous sinuses within the skull that receive blood from posterior dural venous sinus veins.
Sigmoidoscopy (from the Greek term for letter "s/ς" + "eidos" + "scopy": namely, to look inside an "s"/"ς"-like object) is the minimally invasive medical examination of the large intestine from the rectum through the nearest part of the colon, the sigmoid colon.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
The splenic vein (formerly the lienal vein) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the spleen, the stomach fundus and part of the pancreas.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) arises from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the lower part of the duodenum through two-thirds of the transverse colon, as well as the pancreas.
The superior mesenteric lymph nodes may be divided into three principal groups.
The superior mesenteric vein (SMV) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the small intestine (jejunum and ileum).
The superior rectal artery (superior hemorrhoidal artery) is an artery that descends into the pelvis to supply blood to the rectum.
The taeniae coli (also teniae coli) are three separate longitudinal ribbons of smooth muscle on the outside of the ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colons.
The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.
Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.
Tight junctions, also known as occluding junctions or zonulae occludentes (singular, zonula occludens) are multiprotein junctional complex whose general function is to prevent leakage of transported solutes and water and seals the paracellular pathway.
Tonicity is a measure of the effective osmotic pressure gradient, as defined by the water potential of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane.
Toxic megacolon (megacolon toxicum) is an acute form of colonic distension.
The transverse colon is the longest and most movable part of the colon.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Virtual colonoscopy (VC, also called CT Colonography or CT Pneumocolon) is a medical imaging procedure which uses x-rays and computers to produce two- and three-dimensional images of the colon (large intestine) from the lowest part, the rectum, all the way to the lower end of the small intestine and display them on a screen.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.
A volvulus is when a loop of intestine twists around itself and the mesentery that supports it, resulting in a bowel obstruction.
The waist is the part of the abdomen between the rib cage and hips.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
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