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Index Laser

A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. [1]

356 relations: Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Acne, Acronym, Active laser medium, Airborne Laser, Albert Einstein, Albert Einstein Award, Alexander Prokhorov, Alfred Kastler, Ali Javan, American Broadcasting Company, Ammunition, Annealing (metallurgy), Annihilation, Applied Physics B, Arthur Leonard Schawlow, Astrophysical maser, Atom, Atom laser, Atomic nucleus, Atomic orbital, Back-formation, Barcode reader, BBC News, Beam divergence, Bell Labs, Bessel beam, Bleeding, Blu-ray, Boeing YAL-1, Bubblegram, Cambridge University Press, Cancer, Capacitor, Carbon dioxide laser, CD-ROM, CD-RW, Cellulite, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Cervical cancer, Charles H. Townes, Chemical laser, Chemistry, Chemotherapy, Chromium, Classical electromagnetism, Coherence (physics), Coherence length, Coherent perfect absorber, Collimated light, ..., Colour centre, Columbia University, Consumer electronics, Continuous wave, Cornea, Corneal reflex, Corundum, Crystal, Curved mirror, Dazzler (weapon), Delft University of Technology, Density of states, Diffraction, Diffraction-limited system, Diode, Diode-pumped solid-state laser, Dipole, Directional Infrared Counter Measures, Disk laser, DNA sequencer, Donald R. Herriott, Double-clad fiber, DVD, DVD player, DVD recordable, DVD recorder, Dye laser, Einstein coefficients, Electric discharge in gases, Electromagnetic field, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Electronic oscillator, Emission spectrum, Energy, Erbium, Ethylene, Excimer, Excimer laser, Excited state, Exponential growth, F. J. Duarte, Feedback, Femtochemistry, Femtosecond, Fiber disk laser, Fiber laser, Fiber-optic communication, Fingerprint, Flashtube, Fluorescence, Fluorescence microscope, Fluorine, Focus (optics), Forensic identification, Fourier transform, Free-electron laser, Free-space optical communication, Gallium arsenide, Gamma ray, Gamma-ray laser, Gas dynamic laser, Gas laser, Gaussian beam, Gaussian function, Gillette, Gordon Gould, Green fluorescent protein, Heat treating, Helium, Helium–neon laser, Hermite polynomials, Hertz, Heterojunction, Holmium, Holographic Versatile Disc, Holography, Homogeneous broadening, HRL Laboratories, Human eye, Hybrid silicon laser, Hydrogen fluoride laser, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Indium phosphide, Induced gamma emission, Inertial confinement fusion, Infrared, Injection seeder, Integrated circuit, Interferometry, International Laser Display Association, Internet, Ion laser, Iran, Irradiance, Isidor Isaac Rabi, JILA, John von Neumann, Joseph Weber, Kidney stone disease, Laguerre polynomials, Laser ablation, Laser accelerometer, Laser beam profiler, Laser beam welding, Laser bonding, Laser capture microdissection, Laser coagulation, Laser communication in space, Laser converting, Laser cooling, Laser cutting, Laser diode, Laser engraving, Laser Focus World, Laser hair removal, Laser lighting display, Laser medicine, Laser pointer, Laser printing, Laser pumping, Laser surgery, Laser turntable, Laser Weapon System, LaserDisc, Lasers and aviation safety, LASIK, Lasing threshold, Lasing without inversion, Law enforcement, Law enforcement agency, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Lawsuit, Lens (optics), Lidar, LIDAR traffic enforcement, Light, Light beam, Liquid nitrogen, List of laser articles, List of light sources, Llewellyn Thomas, Maser, Max Planck, Mercury laser, Metrology, Micromachinery, Microwave, MIRACL, Mode-locking, Nanolaser, Nanowire lasers, National Ignition Facility, Nd:YAG laser, Neodymium, Neodymium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride, Neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate, Neon, Neoplasm, Nichia, Nick Holonyak, Niels Bohr, Nikolay Basov, Nitrogen laser, Nitrogen trifluoride, Nobel Prize in Physics, Non-lethal weapon, Non-small-cell lung carcinoma, Nonlinear optics, Northrop Grumman, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear isomer, Optical amplifier, Optical cavity, Optical computing, Optical disc, Optical disc drive, Optical disc packaging, Optical fiber, Optical frequency multiplier, Optical interconnect, Optical parametric oscillator, Optical pumping, Optics Letters, Order of magnitude, Osram, Ottawa, Output coupler, Oxford University Press, Patent application, Penile cancer, Phase (waves), Phonon, Photodarkening, Photolithography, Photon, Photonics Spectra, Physical Review, Physics, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Picometre, Picosecond, Plasma (physics), Polarization (waves), Polykarp Kusch, Population inversion, Positronium, Power (physics), Prentice Hall, Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons, Q-switching, Quantum cascade laser, Quantum computing, Quantum harmonic oscillator, Quantum mechanics, Quantum state, Quantum well, Radar, Radiation, Radiation therapy, Radio frequency, Raman laser, Raman scattering, Raman spectroscopy, Rayleigh length, Razor, RCA, Redondo Beach, California, Reference beam, Reference.com, Resonator, Retina, Robert N. Hall, Rubidium, Ruby, Ruby laser, Rudolf Ladenburg, Rytov number, Sapphire, Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, Scattering, Second-harmonic generation, Selective laser sintering, Silicon, Silicon photonics, Sodium, Solid-state dye lasers, Solid-state laser, Sound amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, Spaser, Speckle pattern, Spectral density, Spectral line, Spectroscopy, Spontaneous emission, Spontaneous parametric down-conversion, State of matter, Stimulated emission, Stretch marks, Surgery, Tactical High Energy Laser, TEA laser, Technical University of Munich, Terahertz radiation, Thallium, The Wall Street Journal, Theodore Harold Maiman, Thermal radiation, Thermometer, Thesis, Thulium, Ti-sapphire laser, Titanium, Tophat beam, Total internal reflection, Transverse mode, Tunable laser, Ultrashort pulse, Ultraviolet, Uncertainty principle, United States Air Force, United States Army, United States Navy, United States Patent and Trademark Office, University of California, Riverside, University of Chicago, University of Colorado Boulder, Vaginal cancer, Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser, Vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser, Vortex laser beam, Vulvar cancer, Watt, Wavelength, Welding, William R. Bennett Jr., William T. Silfvast, Willis Lamb, X-ray laser, Ytterbium, Yttrium aluminium garnet, Yttrium lithium fluoride, Yttrium orthovanadate, Zhores Alferov, 3D scanner. Expand index (306 more) »

Absorption (electromagnetic radiation)

In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.

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Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.

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An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).

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Active laser medium

The active laser medium (also called gain medium or lasing medium) is the source of optical gain within a laser.

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Airborne Laser

An airborne laser (ABL) is a laser system operated from a flying platform, as in the.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Albert Einstein Award

The Albert Einstein Award (sometimes mistakenly called the Albert Einstein Medal because it was accompanied with a gold medal) was an award in theoretical physics that was established to recognize high achievement in the natural sciences.

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Alexander Prokhorov

Alexander Mikhailovich Prokhorov (born Alexander Michael Prochoroff, Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Про́хоров; 11 July 1916 – 8 January 2002) was an Australian born Russian physicist known for his pioneering research on lasers and masers for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1964 with Charles Hard Townes and Nikolay Basov.

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Alfred Kastler

Alfred Kastler (3 May 1902 – 7 January 1984) was a French physicist, and Nobel Prize laureate.

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Ali Javan

Ali Javan (Ali Javān; December 26, 1926 – September 12, 2016) was an Iranian-American physicist and inventor.

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American Broadcasting Company

The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of Disney–ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.

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Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon.

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Annealing (metallurgy)

Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable.

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In particle physics, annihilation is the process that occurs when a subatomic particle collides with its respective antiparticle to produce other particles, such as an electron colliding with a positron to produce two photons.

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Applied Physics B

Applied Physics B: Lasers & Optics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media.

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Arthur Leonard Schawlow

Arthur Leonard Schawlow (May 5, 1921 – April 28, 1999) was an American physicist and co-inventor of the laser with Charles Townes.

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Astrophysical maser

An astrophysical maser is a naturally occurring source of stimulated spectral line emission, typically in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atom laser

An atom laser is a coherent state of propagating atoms.

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Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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Atomic orbital

In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.

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In etymology, back-formation is the process of creating a new lexeme by removing actual or supposed affixes.

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Barcode reader

A bar code reader (or bar code scanner) is an electronic device that can read and output printed barcodes to a computer.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Beam divergence

The beam divergence of an electromagnetic beam is an angular measure of the increase in beam diameter or radius with distance from the optical aperture or antenna aperture from which the electromagnetic beam emerges.

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Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.

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Bessel beam

A Bessel beam is a field of electromagnetic, acoustic or even gravitational radiation whose amplitude is described by a Bessel function of the first kind.

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Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.

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Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc (BD) is a digital optical disc data storage format.

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Boeing YAL-1

The Boeing YAL-1 Airborne Laser Testbed (formerly Airborne Laser) weapons system was a megawatt-class chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) mounted inside a modified Boeing 747-400F.

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A bubblegram (also known as laser crystal, 3D crystal engraving or vitrography) is a solid block of glass or transparent plastic that has been exposed to laser beams to generate three-dimensional designs inside.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.

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Carbon dioxide laser

The carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) was one of the earliest gas lasers to be developed.

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A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed optical compact disc which contains data.

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CD-RW (Compact Disc-ReWritable) is a digital optical disc storage format.

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Cellulite (also known as adiposis edematosa, dermopanniculosis deformans, status protrusus cutis, gynoid lipodystrophy, and orange peel syndrome) is the herniation of subcutaneous fat within fibrous connective tissue that manifests topographically as skin dimpling and nodularity, often on the pelvic region (specifically the buttocks), lower limbs, and abdomen.

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Center for Strategic and International Studies

The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is an American think tank based in Washington, D.C., in the United States.

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Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix.

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Charles H. Townes

Charles Hard Townes (July 28, 1915 – January 27, 2015) was an American physicist and inventor of the maser and laser.

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Chemical laser

A chemical laser is a laser that obtains its energy from a chemical reaction.

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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

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Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

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Classical electromagnetism

Classical electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model.

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Coherence (physics)

In physics, two wave sources are perfectly coherent if they have a constant phase difference and the same frequency, and the same waveform.

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Coherence length

In physics, coherence length is the propagation distance over which a coherent wave (e.g. an electromagnetic wave) maintains a specified degree of coherence.

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Coherent perfect absorber

A coherent perfect absorber (CPA), or anti-laser, is a device which absorbs coherent light and converts it to some form of internal energy such as heat or electrical energy.

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Collimated light

Collimated light is light whose rays are parallel, and therefore will spread minimally as it propagates.

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Colour centre

The colour centre is a region in the brain primarily responsible for visual perception and cortical processing of colour signals received by the eye, which ultimately results in colour vision.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Consumer electronics

Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic (analog or digital) equipments intended for everyday use, typically in private homes.

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Continuous wave

A continuous wave or continuous waveform (CW) is an electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and frequency, almost always a sine wave, that for mathematical analysis is considered to be of infinite duration.

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The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.

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Corneal reflex

The corneal reflex, also known as the blink reflex, is an involuntary blinking of the eyelids elicited by stimulation of the cornea (such as by touching or by a foreign body), though could result from any peripheral stimulus.

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Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.

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A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Curved mirror

A curved mirror is a mirror with a curved reflecting surface.

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Dazzler (weapon)

A dazzler is a non-lethal weapon which uses intense directed radiation to temporarily disable its target with flash blindness.

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Delft University of Technology

Delft University of Technology (Technische Universiteit Delft) also known as TU Delft, is the largest and oldest Dutch public technological university, located in Delft, Netherlands.

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Density of states

In solid-state and condensed matter physics, the density of states (DOS) of a system describes the number of states per interval of energy at each energy level available to be occupied.

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--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.

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Diffraction-limited system

The resolution of an optical imaging system a microscope, telescope, or camera can be limited by factors such as imperfections in the lenses or misalignment.

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A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.

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Diode-pumped solid-state laser

Diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSLs) are solid-state lasers made by pumping a solid gain medium, for example, a ruby or a neodymium-doped YAG crystal, with a laser diode.

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In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles.

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Directional Infrared Counter Measures

Directional Infrared Counter Measures (DIRCM) is a system produced by Leonardo, Elbit Systems, Northrop Grumman, ITT Corporation, and BAE Systems to protect aircraft from infrared homing ("heat seeking") man-portable missiles.

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Disk laser

A disk laser or active mirror (Fig.1) is a type of diode pumped solid-state laser characterized by a heat sink and laser output that are realized on opposite sides of a thin layer of active gain medium.

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DNA sequencer

A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process.

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Donald R. Herriott

Donald R. Herriott (died 8 November 2007) was president of the Optical Society of America in 1984.

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Double-clad fiber

Double-clad fiber (DCF) is a class of optical fiber with a structure consisting of three layers of optical material instead of the usual two.

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DVD (an abbreviation of "digital video disc" or "digital versatile disc") is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips and Sony in 1995.

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DVD player

A DVD player is a device that plays DVD discs produced under both the DVD-Video and DVD-Audio technical standards, two different and incompatible standards.

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DVD recordable

DVD recordable and DVD rewritable refer to part of optical disc recording technologies.

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DVD recorder

A DVD recorder is an optical disc recorder that uses optical disc recording technologies to digitally record analog or digital signals onto blank writable DVD media.

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Dye laser

A dye laser is a laser which uses an organic dye as the lasing medium, usually as a liquid solution.

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Einstein coefficients

Einstein coefficients are mathematical quantities which are a measure of the probability of absorption or emission of light by an atom or molecule.

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Electric discharge in gases

Electric discharge in gases occurs when electric current flows through a gaseous medium due to ionization of the gas.

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Electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electronic oscillator

An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces a periodic, oscillating electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave.

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Emission spectrum

The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.

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In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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Erbium is a chemical element with symbol Er and atomic number 68.

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Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.

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An excimer (originally short for excited dimer) is a short-lived dimeric or heterodimeric molecule formed from two species, at least one of which has completely filled valence shell by electrons (for example, noble gases).

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Excimer laser

An excimer laser, sometimes more correctly called an exciplex laser, is a form of ultraviolet laser which is commonly used in the production of microelectronic devices, semiconductor based integrated circuits or "chips", eye surgery, and micromachining.

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Excited state

In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).

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Exponential growth

Exponential growth is exhibited when the rate of change—the change per instant or unit of time—of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the function's current value, resulting in its value at any time being an exponential function of time, i.e., a function in which the time value is the exponent.

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F. J. Duarte

Francisco Javier "Frank" Duarte (born c. 1954) is a laser physicist and author/editor of several well-known books on tunable lasers and quantum optics.

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Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.

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Femtochemistry is the area of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions on extremely short timescales (approximately 10−15 seconds or one femtosecond, hence the name) in order to study the very act of atoms within molecules (reactants) rearranging themselves to form new molecules (products).

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A femtosecond is the SI unit of time equal to 10−15 or 1/1,000,000,000,000,000 of a second; that is, one quadrillionth, or one millionth of one billionth, of a second.

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Fiber disk laser

A fiber disk laser is a fiber laser with transverse delivery of the pump light.

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Fiber laser

A fiber laser or fibre laser is a laser in which the active gain medium is an optical fiber doped with rare-earth elements such as erbium, ytterbium, neodymium, dysprosium, praseodymium, thulium and holmium.

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Fiber-optic communication

Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber.

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A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger.

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A flashtube, also called a flashlamp, is an electric arc lamp designed to produce extremely intense, incoherent, full-spectrum white light for very short durations.

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Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.

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Fluorescence microscope

A fluorescence microscope is an optical microscope that uses fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption to study properties of organic or inorganic substances.

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Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.

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Focus (optics)

In geometrical optics, a focus, also called an image point, is the point where light rays originating from a point on the object converge.

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Forensic identification

Forensic identification is the application of forensic science, or "forensics", and technology to identify specific objects from the trace evidence they leave, often at a crime scene or the scene of an accident.

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Fourier transform

The Fourier transform (FT) decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes.

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Free-electron laser

A free-electron laser (FEL) is a kind of laser whose lasing medium consists of very-high-speed electrons moving freely through a magnetic structure, hence the term free electron.

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Free-space optical communication

Free-space optical communication (FSO) is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to wirelessly transmit data for telecommunications or computer networking.

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Gallium arsenide

Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.

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Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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Gamma-ray laser

A gamma-ray laser, or graser, would produce coherent gamma rays, just as an ordinary laser produces coherent rays of visible light.

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Gas dynamic laser

A gas dynamic laser (GDL) is a laser based on differences in relaxation velocities of molecular vibrational states.

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Gas laser

A gas laser is a laser in which an electric current is discharged through a gas to produce coherent light.

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Gaussian beam

In optics, a Gaussian beam is a beam of monochromatic electromagnetic radiation whose transverse magnetic and electric field amplitude profiles are given by the Gaussian function; this also implies a Gaussian intensity (irradiance) profile.

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Gaussian function

In mathematics, a Gaussian function, often simply referred to as a Gaussian, is a function of the form: for arbitrary real constants, and.

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Gillette is a brand of men's and women's safety razors and other personal care products including shaving supplies, owned by the multi-national corporation Procter & Gamble (P&G).

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Gordon Gould

Gordon Gould (July 17, 1920 – September 16, 2005) was an American physicist who is widely, but not universally, credited with the invention of the laser (Others attribute the invention to Theodore Maiman).

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Green fluorescent protein

The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues (26.9 kDa) that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range.

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Heat treating

Heat treating (or heat treatment) is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material.

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Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Helium–neon laser

A helium–neon laser or HeNe laser, is a type of gas laser whose gain medium consists of a mixture of 85% helium and 15% neon inside of a small electrical discharge.

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Hermite polynomials

In mathematics, the Hermite polynomials are a classical orthogonal polynomial sequence.

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The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

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A heterojunction is the interface that occurs between two layers or regions of dissimilar crystalline semiconductors.

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Holmium is a chemical element with symbol Ho and atomic number 67.

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Holographic Versatile Disc

The Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) is an optical disc technology developed between April 2004 and mid-2008 that can store up to several terabytes of data on an optical disc 10 cm or 12 cm in diameter.

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Holography is the science and practice of making holograms.

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Homogeneous broadening

Homogeneous broadening is a type of emission spectrum broadening in which all atoms radiating from a specific level under consideration radiate with equal opportunity.

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HRL Laboratories

HRL Laboratories (formerly Hughes Research Laboratories), was the research arm of Hughes Aircraft.

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Human eye

The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.

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Hybrid silicon laser

A hybrid silicon laser is a semiconductor laser fabricated from both silicon and group III-V semiconductor materials.

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Hydrogen fluoride laser

The hydrogen fluoride laser is an infrared chemical laser.

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IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering optical, electrical, and electronics engineering, and some applied aspects of lasers, physical optics, and quantum electronics.

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IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics

The IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the IEEE Photonics Society.

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Indium phosphide

Indium phosphide (InP) is a binary semiconductor composed of indium and phosphorus.

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Induced gamma emission

In physics, induced gamma emission (IGE) refers to the process of fluorescent emission of gamma rays from excited nuclei, usually involving a specific nuclear isomer.

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Inertial confinement fusion

Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a type of fusion energy research that attempts to initiate nuclear fusion reactions by heating and compressing a fuel target, typically in the form of a pellet that most often contains a mixture of deuterium and tritium.

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Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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Injection seeder

Injection seeders are devices that direct the output of small "seed" lasers into the cavity of a much larger laser to stabilize the latter's output.

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Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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Interferometry is a family of techniques in which waves, usually electromagnetic waves, are superimposed causing the phenomenon of interference in order to extract information.

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International Laser Display Association

The International Laser Display Association (ILDA) is the worldwide non-profit trade association and is dedicated to advancing the use of laser displays in art, entertainment and education.

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The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

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Ion laser

An ion laser is a gas laser that uses an ionized gas as its lasing medium.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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In radiometry, irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area.

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Isidor Isaac Rabi

Isidor Isaac Rabi (born Israel Isaac Rabi, 29 July 1898 – 11 January 1988) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1944 for his discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance, which is used in magnetic resonance imaging.

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JILA, formerly known as the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, is a physical science research institute in the United States.

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John von Neumann

John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.

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Joseph Weber

Joseph Weber (May 17, 1919 – September 30, 2000) was an American physicist.

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Kidney stone disease

Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.

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Laguerre polynomials

In mathematics, the Laguerre polynomials, named after Edmond Laguerre (1834 - 1886), are solutions of Laguerre's equation: which is a second-order linear differential equation.

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Laser ablation

Laser ablation is the process of removing material from a solid (or occasionally liquid) surface by irradiating it with a laser beam.

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Laser accelerometer

A laser accelerometer comprises a frame having three orthogonal input axes and multiple proof masses, each proof mass having a predetermined blanking surface.

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Laser beam profiler

A laser beam profiler captures, displays, and records the spatial intensity profile of a laser beam at a particular plane transverse to the beam propagation path.

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Laser beam welding

Laser beam welding (LBW) is a welding technique used to join pieces of metal or thermoplastics through the use of a laser.

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Laser bonding

Laser bonding is a marking technique that uses lasers to bond an additive marking substance to a substrate.

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Laser capture microdissection

Laser capture microdissection (LCM), also called microdissection, laser microdissection (LMD), or laser-assisted microdissection (LMD or LAM), is a method for isolating specific cells of interest from microscopic regions of tissue/cells/organisms (dissection on a microscopic scale with the help of a laser).

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Laser coagulation

Laser coagulation or laser photocoagulation surgery is used to treat a number of eye diseases and has become widely used in recent decades.

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Laser communication in space

Laser communication in space is free-space optical communication in outer space.

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Laser converting

Laser converting or laser digital converting is a production technology that enables device manufacturers to produce features that otherwise would be problematic or even impossible to die-cut, without the need for tooling.

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Laser cooling

Laser cooling refers to a number of techniques in which atomic and molecular samples are cooled down to near absolute zero.

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Laser cutting

Laser cutting is a technology that uses a laser to cut materials, and is typically used for industrial manufacturing applications, but is also starting to be used by schools, small businesses, and hobbyists.

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Laser diode

A laser diode, (LD), injection laser diode (ILD), or diode laser is a semiconductor device similar to a light-emitting diode in which the laser beam is created at the diode's junction.

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Laser engraving

Laser engraving, which is a subset of laser marking, is the practice of using lasers to engrave an object.

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Laser Focus World

Laser Focus World is a monthly magazine published by PennWell Corporation covering laser, photonics and optoelectronics technologies, applications, and markets.

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Laser hair removal

Laser hair removal is the process of hair removal by means of exposure to pulses of laser light that destroy the hair follicle.

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Laser lighting display

A laser lighting display or laser light show involves the use of laser light to entertain an audience.

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Laser medicine

Laser medicine consists in the use of lasers in medical diagnosis, treatments, or therapies, such as laser photodynamic therapy.

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Laser pointer

A laser pointer or laser pen is a small handheld device with a power source (usually a battery) and a laser diode emitting a very narrow coherent low-powered laser beam of visible light, intended to be used to highlight something of interest by illuminating it with a small bright spot of colored light.

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Laser printing

Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process.

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Laser pumping

Laser pumping is the act of energy transfer from an external source into the gain medium of a laser.

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Laser surgery

Laser surgery is a type of surgery that uses a laser (in contrast to using a scalpel) to cut tissue.

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Laser turntable

A laser turntable (or optical turntable) is a phonograph that plays standard LP records (and other gramophone records) using laser beams as the pickup instead of using a stylus as in conventional turntables.

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Laser Weapon System

The AN/SEQ-3 Laser Weapon System or XN-1 LaWS is a directed-energy weapon developed by the United States Navy.

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LaserDisc (abbreviated as LD) is a home video format and the first commercial optical disc storage medium, initially licensed, sold and marketed as MCA DiscoVision in the United States in 1978.

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Lasers and aviation safety

Under certain conditions, laser light or other bright lights (spotlights, searchlights) directed at aircraft can be a hazard.

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LASIK or Lasik (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis), commonly referred to as laser eye surgery or laser vision correction, is a type of refractive surgery for the correction of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism.

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Lasing threshold

The lasing threshold is the lowest excitation level at which a laser's output is dominated by stimulated emission rather than by spontaneous emission.

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Lasing without inversion

Lasing without inversion (LWI), or lasing without population inversion, is a technique used for light amplification by stimulated emission without the requirement of population inversion.

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Law enforcement

Law enforcement is any system by which some members of society act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterring, rehabilitating, or punishing people who violate the rules and norms governing that society.

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Law enforcement agency

A law enforcement agency (LEA), in North American English, is a government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws.

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Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952.

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A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.

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Lens (optics)

A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.

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Lidar (also called LIDAR, LiDAR, and LADAR) is a surveying method that measures distance to a target by illuminating the target with pulsed laser light and measuring the reflected pulses with a sensor.

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LIDAR traffic enforcement

Lidar has a wide range of applications; one use is in traffic enforcement and in particular speed limit enforcement, gradually replacing radar after 2000.

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Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Light beam

A light beam or beam of light is a directional projection of light energy radiating from a light source.

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Liquid nitrogen

Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.

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List of laser articles

This is a list of laser topics.

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List of light sources

This is a list of sources of light, including both natural and artificial processes that emit light.

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Llewellyn Thomas

Llewellyn Hilleth Thomas (21 October 1903 – 20 April 1992) was a British physicist and applied mathematician.

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A maser (an acronym for "microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation") is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification by stimulated emission.

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Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

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Mercury laser

The Mercury laser is a high-average-power laser system developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as a prototype for systems to drive inertial confinement fusion.

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Metrology is the science of measurement.

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Micromachines are mechanical objects that are fabricated in the same general manner as integrated circuits.

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Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.

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MIRACL, or Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser, is a directed energy weapon developed by the US Navy.

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Mode-locking is a technique in optics by which a laser can be made to produce pulses of light of extremely short duration, on the order of picoseconds (10−12 s) or femtoseconds (10−15 s).

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A nanolaser is a laser that has nanoscale dimensions.

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Nanowire lasers

Semiconductor nanowire lasers are nano-scaled lasers that can be embedded on chips and constitute and advance for computing and information processing applications.

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National Ignition Facility

The National Ignition Facility, or NIF, is a large laser-based inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research device, located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California.

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Nd:YAG laser

Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet; Nd:Y3Al5O12) is a crystal that is used as a lasing medium for solid-state lasers.

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Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60.

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Neodymium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride

Neodymium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride (Nd:YLF) is a lasing medium for arc lamp-pumped and diode-pumped solid-state lasers.

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Neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate

Neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate (Nd:YVO4) is a crystalline material formed by adding neodymium ions to yttrium orthovanadate.

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Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.

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Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.

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is a Japanese chemical engineering and manufacturing company headquartered in Anan, Japan with global subsidiaries.

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Nick Holonyak

Nick Holonyak Jr. (born November 3, 1928) is an American engineer and educator.

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Niels Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

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Nikolay Basov

Nikolay Gennadiyevich Basov (Никола́й Генна́диевич Ба́сов; 14 December 1922 – 1 July 2001) was a Soviet physicist and educator.

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Nitrogen laser

A nitrogen laser is a gas laser operating in the ultraviolet rangeC.

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Nitrogen trifluoride

Nitrogen trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula NF3.

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Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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Non-lethal weapon

Non-lethal weapons, also called less-lethal weapons, less-than-lethal weapons, non-deadly weapons, compliance weapons, or pain-inducing weapons are weapons intended to be less likely to kill a living target than conventional weapons such as knives and firearms.

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Non-small-cell lung carcinoma

Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is any type of epithelial lung cancer other than small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).

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Nonlinear optics

Nonlinear optics (NLO) is the branch of optics that describes the behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light.

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Northrop Grumman

Northrop Grumman Corporation is an American global aerospace and defense technology company formed by Northrop's 1994 purchase of Grumman.

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Nuclear fusion

In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).

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Nuclear isomer

A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).

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Optical amplifier

An optical amplifier is a device that amplifies an optical signal directly, without the need to first convert it to an electrical signal.

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Optical cavity

An optical cavity, resonating cavity or optical resonator is an arrangement of mirrors that forms a standing wave cavity resonator for light waves.

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Optical computing

Optical or photonic computing uses photons produced by lasers or diodes for computation.

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Optical disc

In computing and optical disc recording technologies, an optical disc (OD) is a flat, usually circular disc which encodes binary data (bits) in the form of pits (binary value of 0 or off, due to lack of reflection when read) and lands (binary value of 1 or on, due to a reflection when read) on a special material (often aluminium) on one of its flat surfaces.

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Optical disc drive

In computing, an optical disc drive (ODD) is a disc drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves within or near the visible light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs.

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Optical disc packaging

Optical disc packaging is the packaging that accompanies CDs, DVDs, and other formats of optical discs.

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Optical fiber

An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.

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Optical frequency multiplier

An optical frequency multiplier is a nonlinear optical device in which photons interacting with a nonlinear material are effectively "combined" to form new photons with greater energy, and thus higher frequency (and shorter wavelength).

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Optical interconnect

Optical interconnect is a means of communication by optical fiber cables.

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Optical parametric oscillator

An optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is a parametric oscillator that oscillates at optical frequencies.

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Optical pumping

Optical pumping is a process in which light is used to raise (or "pump") electrons from a lower energy level in an atom or molecule to a higher one.

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Optics Letters

Optics Letters is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Optical Society of America.

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Order of magnitude

An order of magnitude is an approximate measure of the number of digits that a number has in the commonly-used base-ten number system.

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OSRAM Licht AG is a multinational lighting manufacturer headquartered in Munich, Germany.

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Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.

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Output coupler

An output coupler (OC) is the component of an optical resonator that allows the extraction of a portion of the light from the laser's intracavity beam.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Patent application

A patent application is a request pending at a patent office for the grant of a patent for the invention described and claimed by that application.

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Penile cancer

Penile cancer is a malignant growth found on the skin or in the tissues of the penis.

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Phase (waves)

Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.

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In physics, a phonon is a collective excitation in a periodic, elastic arrangement of atoms or molecules in condensed matter, like solids and some liquids.

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Photodarkening is an optical effect observed in the interaction of laser radiation with amorphous media (glasses) in optical fibers.

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Photolithography, also termed optical lithography or UV lithography, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate.

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The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Photonics Spectra

Photonics Spectra is a monthly business-to-business (B2B) magazine published for the engineers, scientists, and end users who develop, commercialize and buy photonic products.

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Physical Review

Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt

The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is the national metrology institute of the Federal Republic of Germany, with scientific and technical service tasks.

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The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.

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A picosecond is an SI unit of time equal to 10−12 or 1/1,000,000,000,000 (one trillionth) of a second.

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Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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Polarization (waves)

Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.

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Polykarp Kusch

Polykarp Kusch (January 26, 1911 – March 20, 1993) was a German-American physicist.

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Population inversion

In science, specifically statistical mechanics, a population inversion occurs while a system (such as a group of atoms or molecules) exists in a state in which more members of the system are in higher, excited states than in lower, unexcited energy states.

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Positronium (Ps) is a system consisting of an electron and its anti-particle, a positron, bound together into an exotic atom, specifically an onium.

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Power (physics)

In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.

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Prentice Hall

Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.

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Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons

The Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons, Protocol IV of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, was issued by the United Nations on 13 October 1995.

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Q-switching, sometimes known as giant pulse formation or Q-spoiling, is a technique by which a laser can be made to produce a pulsed output beam.

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Quantum cascade laser

Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are semiconductor lasers that emit in the mid- to far-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and were first demonstrated by Jerome Faist, Federico Capasso, Deborah Sivco, Carlo Sirtori, Albert Hutchinson, and Alfred Cho at Bell Laboratories in 1994.

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Quantum computing

Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.

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Quantum harmonic oscillator

The quantum harmonic oscillator is the quantum-mechanical analog of the classical harmonic oscillator.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Quantum state

In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of an isolated quantum system.

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Quantum well

A quantum well is a potential well with only discrete energy values.

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Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.

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In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

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Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.

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Radio frequency

Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.

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Raman laser

A Raman laser is a specific type of laser in which the fundamental light-amplification mechanism is stimulated Raman scattering.

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Raman scattering

Raman scattering or the Raman effect is the inelastic scattering of a photon by molecules which are excited to higher vibrational or rotational energy levels.

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Raman spectroscopy

Raman spectroscopy (named after Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.

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Rayleigh length

In optics and especially laser science, the Rayleigh length or Rayleigh range is the distance along the propagation direction of a beam from the waist to the place where the area of the cross section is doubled.

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A razor is a bladed tool primarily used in the removal of unwanted body hair through the act of shaving.

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The RCA Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio Corporation of America in 1919.

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Redondo Beach, California

Redondo Beach is one of the three Beach Cities in Los Angeles County, California, United States, located in the South Bay region of the Greater Los Angeles area.

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Reference beam

A reference beam is a laser beam used to read and write holograms.

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Reference.com is an online encyclopedia, thesaurus, and dictionary.

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A resonator is a device or system that exhibits resonance or resonant behavior, that is, it naturally oscillates at some frequencies, called its resonant frequencies, with greater amplitude than at others.

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The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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Robert N. Hall

Robert Noel Hall (December 25, 1919 – November 7, 2016) was an American engineer and applied physicist.

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Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.

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A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide).

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Ruby laser

A ruby laser is a solid-state laser that uses a synthetic ruby crystal as its gain medium.

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Rudolf Ladenburg

Rudolf Walter Ladenburg (June 6, 1882, Kiel – April 6, 1952, Princeton, New Jersey) was a German atomic physicist.

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Rytov number

The Rytov number is a fundamental scaling parameter for laser propagation through atmospheric turbulence.

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Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide.

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Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) is a method of examination of the eye.

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Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.

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Second-harmonic generation

Second harmonic generation (also called frequency doubling or SHG) is a nonlinear optical process in which two photons with the same frequency interact with a nonlinear material, are "combined", and generate a new photon with twice the energy of the initial photons (equivalently, twice the frequency and half the wavelength).

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Selective laser sintering

Selective laser sintering (SLS) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technique that uses a laser as the power source to sinter powdered material (typically nylon/polyamide), aiming the laser automatically at points in space defined by a 3D model, binding the material together to create a solid structure.

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Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Silicon photonics

Silicon photonics is the study and application of photonic systems which use silicon as an optical medium.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Solid-state dye lasers

Solid-state dye lasers (SSDL) were introduced in 1967 by Soffer and McFarland.

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Solid-state laser

A solid-state laser is a laser that uses a gain medium that is a solid, rather than a liquid such as in dye lasers or a gas as in gas lasers.

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Sound amplification by stimulated emission of radiation

Sound amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (SASER) refers to a device that emits acoustic radiation.

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A spaser or plasmonic laser is a type of laser which aims to confine light at a subwavelength scale far below Rayleigh's diffraction limit of light, by storing some of the light energy in electron oscillations called surface plasmon polaritons.

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Speckle pattern

A speckle pattern is an intensity pattern produced by the mutual interference of a set of wavefronts.

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Spectral density

The power spectrum S_(f) of a time series x(t) describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal.

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Spectral line

A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.

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Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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Spontaneous emission

Spontaneous emission is the process in which a quantum mechanical system (such as an atom, molecule or subatomic particle) transitions from an excited energy state to a lower energy state (e.g., its ground state) and emits a quantum in the form of a photon.

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Spontaneous parametric down-conversion

Spontaneous parametric down-conversion (also known as SPDC, parametric fluorescence or parametric scattering) is a nonlinear instant optical process that converts one photon of higher energy (namely, a pump photon), into a pair of photons (namely, a signal photon, and an idler photon) of lower energy, in accordance with the law of conservation of energy and law of conservation of momentum.

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State of matter

In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.

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Stimulated emission

Stimulated emission is the process by which an incoming photon of a specific frequency can interact with an excited atomic electron (or other excited molecular state), causing it to drop to a lower energy level.

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Stretch marks

Stretch marks, also known as striae, are a form of scarring on the skin with an off-color hue.

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Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

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Tactical High Energy Laser

The Tactical High-Energy Laser, or THEL, was a laser developed for military use, also known as the Nautilus laser system.

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TEA laser

A TEA laser is a gas laser energized by a high voltage electrical discharge in a gas mixture generally at or above atmospheric pressure.

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Technical University of Munich

Technical University of Munich (TUM) (Technische Universität München) is a research university with campuses in Munich, Garching and Freising-Weihenstephan.

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Terahertz radiation

Terahertz radiation – also known as submillimeter radiation, terahertz waves, tremendously high frequency (THF), T-rays, T-waves, T-light, T-lux or THz – consists of electromagnetic waves within the ITU-designated band of frequencies from 0.3 to 3 terahertz (THz; 1012 Hz).

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Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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Theodore Harold Maiman

Theodore Harold "Ted" Maiman (July 11, 1927 – May 5, 2007) was an American engineer and physicist who was widely, but not universally, credited with the invention of the laser (Others attribute the invention to Gordon Gould).

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Thermal radiation

Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.

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A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.

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A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.

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Thulium is a chemical element with symbol Tm and atomic number 69.

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Ti-sapphire laser

Ti:sapphire lasers (also known as Ti:Al2O3 lasers, titanium-sapphire lasers, or Ti:sapphs) are tunable lasers which emit red and near-infrared light in the range from 650 to 1100 nanometers.

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Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.

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Tophat beam

In optics, a tophat (or top-hat) beam such as a laser beam or electron beam has a near-uniform fluence (energy density) within a circular disk.

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Total internal reflection

Total internal reflection is the phenomenon which occurs when a propagated wave strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface.

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Transverse mode

A transverse mode of electromagnetic radiation is a particular electromagnetic field pattern of radiation measured in a plane perpendicular (i.e., transverse) to the propagation direction of the beam.

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Tunable laser

A tunable laser is a laser whose wavelength of operation can be altered in a controlled manner.

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Ultrashort pulse

In optics, an ultrashort pulse of light is an electromagnetic pulse whose time duration is of the order of a picosecond (10−12 second) or less.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Uncertainty principle

In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.

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United States Air Force

The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Navy

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

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United States Patent and Trademark Office

The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification.

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University of California, Riverside

The University of California, Riverside (UCR or UC Riverside), is a public research university and one of the 10 general campuses of the University of California system.

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University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.

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University of Colorado Boulder

The University of Colorado Boulder (commonly referred to as CU or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.

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Vaginal cancer

Vaginal cancer is a malignant tumor that forms in the tissues of the vagina.

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Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

The vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser, or VCSEL, is a type of semiconductor laser diode with laser beam emission perpendicular from the top surface, contrary to conventional edge-emitting semiconductor lasers (also in-plane lasers) which emit from surfaces formed by cleaving the individual chip out of a wafer.

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Vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser

A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser (VECSEL) is a small semiconductor laser similar to a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL).

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Vortex laser beam

A vortex laser beam is a laser beam in which the light is helical rather than linear.

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Vulvar cancer

Vulvar cancer is a malignant, invasive growth in the vulva, or the outer portion of the female genitals.

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The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

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In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.

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William R. Bennett Jr.

William Ralph Bennett Jr. (January 30, 1930 – June 29, 2008) was an American physicist known for his pioneering work on gas lasers.

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William T. Silfvast

William Thomas Silfvast is an American physicist well known for his contributions to gas discharge lasers,F. J. Duarte, Tunable Laser Optics (Elsevier-Academic, New York, 2003).

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Willis Lamb

Willis Eugene Lamb Jr. (July 12, 1913 – May 15, 2008) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1955 "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum." The Nobel Committee that year awarded half the prize to Lamb and the other half to Polykarp Kusch, who won "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron." Lamb was able to determine precisely a surprising shift in electron energies in a hydrogen atom (see Lamb shift).

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X-ray laser

An X-ray laser is a device that uses stimulated emission to generate or amplify electromagnetic radiation in the near X-ray or extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum, that is, usually on the order of several of tens of nanometers (nm) wavelength.

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Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70.

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Yttrium aluminium garnet

Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) is a synthetic crystalline material of the garnet group.

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Yttrium lithium fluoride

Yttrium lithium fluoride (LiYF4, sometimes abbreviated YLF) is a birefringent crystal, typically doped with neodymium and used as a gain medium in solid-state lasers.

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Yttrium orthovanadate

Yttrium orthovanadate (YVO4) is a transparent crystal.

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Zhores Alferov

Zhores Ivanovich Alferov (Жоре́с Ива́нович Алфёров,; Жарэс Іва́навіч Алфёраў; born 15 March 1930) is a Soviet and Russian physicist and academic who contributed significantly to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics.

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3D scanner

A 3D scanner is a device that analyses a real-world object or environment to collect data on its shape and possibly its appearance (e.g. colour).

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laser

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