144 relations: Ablation, Active laser medium, Aluminium gallium arsenide, Aluminium gallium indium phosphide, Aluminium oxide, Anti-reflective coating, Band gap, Barcode reader, Blu-ray, Carbonization, Carrier generation and recombination, Catastrophic optical damage, Cauterization, CD player, CD-ROM, Charge carrier, Chemical vapor deposition, Cladding (fiber optics), Cleavage (crystal), Coherence (physics), Collimator, Compact disc, Computer mouse, Continuous wave, Density of states, Depletion region, Dielectric mirror, Diffraction, Diffraction grating, Diode-pumped solid-state laser, Direct and indirect band gaps, Distributed Bragg reflector laser, Distributed feedback laser, Dmitri Z. Garbuzov, Double heterostructure, DVD, Electron, Electron hole, Epitaxy, F. J. Duarte, Fabry–Pérot interferometer, Fiber-optic communication, Gallium antimonide, Gallium arsenide, Gallium nitride, General Electric, Green, HD DVD, Hemostasis, Herbert Kroemer, ..., Heterojunction, Image scanner, Indium gallium arsenide, Indium gallium arsenide phosphide, Indium gallium nitride, Indium gallium phosphide, Indium phosphide, Infrared, Interband cascade laser, Izuo Hayashi, Japan Patent Attorneys Association, Jun-ichi Nishizawa, Laser absorption spectrometry, Laser diode, Laser Focus World, Laser ignition, Laser medicine, Laser pointer, Laser printing, Laser pumping, Laser safety, Laser scanning, Laser surgery, Lasing threshold, Lens (optics), Light beam, Light-emitting diode, List of laser articles, Maser, Miller index, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Morton B. Panish, Nanometre, Nd:YAG laser, Nichia, Nick Holonyak, Nikolay Basov, Normal mode, Optical amplifier, Optical cavity, Optical fiber, Optical pumping, Osram, P–n junction, Penny, Phase (waves), Phonon, PIN diode, Polarization (waves), Porphyrin, Positive feedback, Princeton, New Jersey, Quantum cascade laser, Quantum dot, Quantum well, Quantum well laser, Quantum wire, Rangefinder, RCA, Red, Refractive index, Reliability engineering, Reverse engineering, Robert N. Hall, Sarnoff Corporation, Second-harmonic generation, Semiconductor, Silicon, Solid-state electronics, Solid-state laser, Soviet Union, SPIE, Spontaneous emission, Stimulated emission, Superluminescent diode, Surface states, Switzerland, Telecommunication, Texas Instruments, Thermal runaway, Transverse mode, Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, Tunable laser, Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser, Vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser, Video projector, Violet (color), Visible spectrum, Wave function, Waveguide, Wavelength, Wavelength-division multiplexing, Yttrium aluminium garnet, Zhores Alferov. Expand index (94 more) » « Shrink index
Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.
The active laser medium (also called gain medium or lasing medium) is the source of optical gain within a laser.
Aluminium gallium arsenide (also gallium aluminium arsenide) (AlxGa1−xAs) is a semiconductor material with very nearly the same lattice constant as GaAs, but a larger bandgap.
Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (also AlInGaP, InGaAlP, GaInP, etc.) is a semiconductor material that provides a platform for the development of novel multi-junction photovoltaics and optoelectronic devices, as it spans a direct bandgap from deep ultraviolet to infrared.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
An antireflective or anti-reflection (AR) coating is a type of optical coating applied to the surface of lenses and other optical elements to reduce reflection.
In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist.
A bar code reader (or bar code scanner) is an electronic device that can read and output printed barcodes to a computer.
Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc (BD) is a digital optical disc data storage format.
Carbonization (or carbonisation) is the conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue through pyrolysis or destructive distillation.
In the solid-state physics of semiconductors, carrier generation and recombination are processes by which mobile charge carriers (electrons and electron holes) are created and eliminated.
Catastrophic optical damage (COD), or catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD), is a failure mode of high-power semiconductor lasers.
Cauterization (or cauterisation, or cautery) is a medical practice or technique of burning a part of a body to remove or close off a part of it.
A CD player is an electronic device that plays audio compact discs, which are a digital optical disc data storage format.
A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed optical compact disc which contains data.
In physics, a charge carrier is a particle free to move, carrying an electric charge, especially the particles that carry electric charges in electrical conductors.
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is deposition method used to produce high quality, high-performance, solid materials, typically under vacuum.
Cladding in optical fibers is one or more layers of materials of lower refractive index, in intimate contact with a core material of higher refractive index.
Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite crystallographic structural planes.
In physics, two wave sources are perfectly coherent if they have a constant phase difference and the same frequency, and the same waveform.
A collimator is a device that narrows a beam of particles or waves.
Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.
A computer mouse is a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface.
A continuous wave or continuous waveform (CW) is an electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and frequency, almost always a sine wave, that for mathematical analysis is considered to be of infinite duration.
In solid-state and condensed matter physics, the density of states (DOS) of a system describes the number of states per interval of energy at each energy level available to be occupied.
In semiconductor physics, the depletion region, also called depletion layer, depletion zone, junction region, space charge region or space charge layer, is an insulating region within a conductive, doped semiconductor material where the mobile charge carriers have been diffused away, or have been forced away by an electric field.
A dielectric mirror, also known as a Bragg mirror, is a type of mirror composed of multiple thin layers of dielectric material, typically deposited on a substrate of glass or some other optical material.
--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.
In optics, a diffraction grating is an optical component with a periodic structure that splits and diffracts light into several beams travelling in different directions.
Diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSLs) are solid-state lasers made by pumping a solid gain medium, for example, a ruby or a neodymium-doped YAG crystal, with a laser diode.
In semiconductor physics, the band gap of a semiconductor is of two types, a direct band gap or an indirect band gap.
A distributed Bragg reflector laser (DBR) is a type of single frequency laser diode.
A distributed feedback laser (DFB) is a type of laser diode, quantum cascade laser or optical fiber laser where the active region of the device is periodically structured as a diffraction grating.
Dmitri Z. Garbuzov (October 27, 1940, Sverdlovsk, Russia – August 20, 2006, Princeton, New Jersey) was one of the pioneers and inventors of room temperature continuous-wave-operating diode lasers and high-power diode lasers.
A double heterostructure is formed when two semiconductor materials are grown into a "sandwich".
DVD (an abbreviation of "digital video disc" or "digital versatile disc") is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips and Sony in 1995.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In physics, chemistry, and electronic engineering, an electron hole (often simply called a hole) is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice.
Epitaxy refers to the deposition of a crystalline overlayer on a crystalline substrate.
Francisco Javier "Frank" Duarte (born c. 1954) is a laser physicist and author/editor of several well-known books on tunable lasers and quantum optics.
In optics, a Fabry–Pérot interferometer (FPI) or etalon is typically made of a transparent plate with two reflecting surfaces, or two parallel highly reflecting mirrors.
Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber.
Gallium antimonide (GaSb) is a semiconducting compound of gallium and antimony of the III-V family.
Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.
Gallium nitride is a binary III/V direct bandgap semiconductor commonly used in light-emitting diodes since the 1990s.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum.
HD DVD (short for High Definition Digital Versatile Disc) is a discontinued high-density optical disc format for storing data and playback of high-definition video.
Hemostasis or haemostasis is a process which causes bleeding to stop, meaning to keep blood within a damaged blood vessel (the opposite of hemostasis is hemorrhage).
Herbert Kroemer (born August 25, 1928), a professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of California, Santa Barbara, received his Ph.D. in theoretical physics in 1952 from the University of Göttingen, Germany, with a dissertation on hot electron effects in the then-new transistor, setting the stage for a career in research on the physics of semiconductor devices.
A heterojunction is the interface that occurs between two layers or regions of dissimilar crystalline semiconductors.
An image scanner—often abbreviated to just scanner, although the term is ambiguous out of context (barcode scanner, CT scanner etc.)—is a device that optically scans images, printed text, handwriting or an object and converts it to a digital image.
Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) (alternatively gallium indium arsenide, GaInAs) is a ternary alloy (chemical compound) of indium arsenide (InAs) and gallium arsenide (GaAs).
Indium gallium arsenide phosphide (x1−xy1−y) is a quaternary compound semiconductor material, an alloy of gallium arsenide and indium phosphide.
Indium gallium nitride (InGaN, x1−x) is a semiconductor material made of a mix of gallium nitride (GaN) and indium nitride (InN).
Indium gallium phosphide (InGaP), also called gallium indium phosphide (GaInP), is a semiconductor composed of indium, gallium and phosphorus.
Indium phosphide (InP) is a binary semiconductor composed of indium and phosphorus.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Interband cascade lasers (ICLs) are a type of laser diode that can produce coherent radiation over a large part of the mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
(May 1, 1922 – September 26, 2005) was a Japanese physicist.
The (JPAA), headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, is the only one national, professional bar association of Japanese patent attorneys (Benrishi) with approximately 10,000 members.
is a Japanese engineer and inventor.
Laser absorption spectrometry (LAS) refers to techniques that use lasers to assess the concentration or amount of a species in gas phase by absorption spectrometry (AS).
A laser diode, (LD), injection laser diode (ILD), or diode laser is a semiconductor device similar to a light-emitting diode in which the laser beam is created at the diode's junction.
Laser Focus World is a monthly magazine published by PennWell Corporation covering laser, photonics and optoelectronics technologies, applications, and markets.
Laser ignition is an alternative method for igniting mixtures of fuel and oxidiser.
Laser medicine consists in the use of lasers in medical diagnosis, treatments, or therapies, such as laser photodynamic therapy.
A laser pointer or laser pen is a small handheld device with a power source (usually a battery) and a laser diode emitting a very narrow coherent low-powered laser beam of visible light, intended to be used to highlight something of interest by illuminating it with a small bright spot of colored light.
Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process.
Laser pumping is the act of energy transfer from an external source into the gain medium of a laser.
Laser safety is the safe design, use and implementation of lasers to minimize the risk of laser accidents, especially those involving eye injuries.
In modern surveying, the general meaning of laser scanning is the controlled deflection of laser beams, visible or invisible.
Laser surgery is a type of surgery that uses a laser (in contrast to using a scalpel) to cut tissue.
The lasing threshold is the lowest excitation level at which a laser's output is dominated by stimulated emission rather than by spontaneous emission.
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.
A light beam or beam of light is a directional projection of light energy radiating from a light source.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.
This is a list of laser topics.
A maser (an acronym for "microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation") is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification by stimulated emission.
Miller indices form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices.
The MIT Lincoln Laboratory, located in Lexington, Massachusetts, is a United States Department of Defense research and development center chartered to apply advanced technology to problems of national security.
Morton B. Panish (born April 8, 1929) is an American physical chemist who, with Izuo Hayashi, developed a room-temperature continuous wave semiconductor laser in 1970.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet; Nd:Y3Al5O12) is a crystal that is used as a lasing medium for solid-state lasers.
is a Japanese chemical engineering and manufacturing company headquartered in Anan, Japan with global subsidiaries.
Nick Holonyak Jr. (born November 3, 1928) is an American engineer and educator.
Nikolay Gennadiyevich Basov (Никола́й Генна́диевич Ба́сов; 14 December 1922 – 1 July 2001) was a Soviet physicist and educator.
A normal mode of an oscillating system is a pattern of motion in which all parts of the system move sinusoidally with the same frequency and with a fixed phase relation.
An optical amplifier is a device that amplifies an optical signal directly, without the need to first convert it to an electrical signal.
An optical cavity, resonating cavity or optical resonator is an arrangement of mirrors that forms a standing wave cavity resonator for light waves.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
Optical pumping is a process in which light is used to raise (or "pump") electrons from a lower energy level in an atom or molecule to a higher one.
OSRAM Licht AG is a multinational lighting manufacturer headquartered in Munich, Germany.
A p–n junction is a boundary or interface between two types of semiconductor materials, p-type and n-type, inside a single crystal of semiconductor.
A penny is a coin (. pennies) or a unit of currency (pl. pence) in various countries.
Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.
In physics, a phonon is a collective excitation in a periodic, elastic arrangement of atoms or molecules in condensed matter, like solids and some liquids.
A PIN diode is a diode with a wide, undoped intrinsic semiconductor region between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor region.
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.
Porphyrins (/phɔɹfɚɪn/ ''POUR-fer-in'') are a group of heterocyclic macrocycle organic compounds, composed of four modified pyrrole subunits interconnected at their α carbon atoms via methine bridges (.
Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.
Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that was established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township.
Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are semiconductor lasers that emit in the mid- to far-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and were first demonstrated by Jerome Faist, Federico Capasso, Deborah Sivco, Carlo Sirtori, Albert Hutchinson, and Alfred Cho at Bell Laboratories in 1994.
Quantum dots (QD) are very small semiconductor particles, only several nanometres in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from those of larger particles.
A quantum well is a potential well with only discrete energy values.
A quantum well laser is a laser diode in which the active region of the device is so narrow that quantum confinement occurs.
In mesoscopic physics, a quantum wire is an electrically conducting wire in which quantum effects influence the transport properties.
A rangefinder is a device that measures distance from the observer to a target, in a process called ranging.
The RCA Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio Corporation of America in 1919.
Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
Reliability engineering is a sub-discipline of systems engineering that emphasizes dependability in the lifecycle management of a product.
Reverse engineering, also called back engineering, is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon.
Robert Noel Hall (December 25, 1919 – November 7, 2016) was an American engineer and applied physicist.
Sarnoff Corporation, with headquarters in West Windsor Township, New Jersey, though with a Princeton address, was a research and development company specializing in vision, video and semiconductor technology.
Second harmonic generation (also called frequency doubling or SHG) is a nonlinear optical process in which two photons with the same frequency interact with a nonlinear material, are "combined", and generate a new photon with twice the energy of the initial photons (equivalently, twice the frequency and half the wavelength).
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Solid-state electronics means semiconductor electronics; electronic equipment using semiconductor devices such as semiconductor diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits (ICs).
A solid-state laser is a laser that uses a gain medium that is a solid, rather than a liquid such as in dye lasers or a gas as in gas lasers.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
SPIE is an international not-for-profit professional society for optics and photonics technology, founded in 1955.
Spontaneous emission is the process in which a quantum mechanical system (such as an atom, molecule or subatomic particle) transitions from an excited energy state to a lower energy state (e.g., its ground state) and emits a quantum in the form of a photon.
Stimulated emission is the process by which an incoming photon of a specific frequency can interact with an excited atomic electron (or other excited molecular state), causing it to drop to a lower energy level.
A superluminescent diode (SLED or SLD) is an edge-emitting semiconductor light source based on superluminescence.
Surface states are electronic states found at the surface of materials.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.
Thermal runaway occurs in situations where an increase in temperature changes the conditions in a way that causes a further increase in temperature, often leading to a destructive result.
A transverse mode of electromagnetic radiation is a particular electromagnetic field pattern of radiation measured in a plane perpendicular (i.e., transverse) to the propagation direction of the beam.
Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is a technique for measuring the concentration of certain species such as methane, water vapor and many more, in a gaseous mixture using tunable diode lasers and laser absorption spectrometry.
A tunable laser is a laser whose wavelength of operation can be altered in a controlled manner.
The vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser, or VCSEL, is a type of semiconductor laser diode with laser beam emission perpendicular from the top surface, contrary to conventional edge-emitting semiconductor lasers (also in-plane lasers) which emit from surfaces formed by cleaving the individual chip out of a wafer.
A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser (VECSEL) is a small semiconductor laser similar to a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL).
A video projector is an image projector that receives a video signal and projects the corresponding image on a projection screen using a lens system.
Violet is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light between blue and the invisible ultraviolet.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.
A waveguide is a structure that guides waves, such as electromagnetic waves or sound, with minimal loss of energy by restricting expansion to one dimension or two.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
In fiber-optic communications, wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is a technology which multiplexes a number of optical carrier signals onto a single optical fiber by using different wavelengths (i.e., colors) of laser light.
Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) is a synthetic crystalline material of the garnet group.
Zhores Ivanovich Alferov (Жоре́с Ива́нович Алфёров,; Жарэс Іва́навіч Алфёраў; born 15 March 1930) is a Soviet and Russian physicist and academic who contributed significantly to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics.
Diode laser, Diode lasers, Injection laser, Injection laser diode, Injection laser diodes, Laser Diode, Laser diode bar, Laser diodes, Semiconductor diode laser, Semiconductor laser, Semiconductor laser diode, Semiconductor lasers.