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Last glacial period

Index Last glacial period

The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago. [1]

188 relations: Algeria, Allerød oscillation, Alps, Ancylus Lake, Atakor volcanic field, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Bølling oscillation, Before Present, Beringia, Block Island, Blockfield, Brackish water, Canyon, Cape Cod, Caucasus, Central Park, Chile, Connecticut River, Cordillera de Mérida, Cordilleran Ice Sheet, Core sample, Cryoturbation, Cypress Hills (Canada), Doggerland, Drakensberg, Drumlin, E. C. Pielou, East Antarctica, Eemian, Esker, Ethiopia, Eurasia, Flandrian interglacial, Foothills, Foreland basin, Geochronology, Geografiska Annaler, Geologist, Geomorphology (journal), Geothermal gradient, Glacial history of Minnesota, Glacial lake, Glacial lake outburst flood, Glacial period, Glacial striation, Glacier, Great Escarpment, Southern Africa, Great Lakes, Greenland, ..., High Atlas, Himalayas, Holocene, Holocene glacial retreat, Homo erectus, Homo sapiens, Ice age, Ice calving, Ice cap, Ice field, Ice sheet, Ice wedge, Iceberg, Iceland, Indonesia, Interglacial, Iran, Isostasy, Japanese Alps, Jutland, Kelleys Island, Ohio, Kettle Moraine, Lake Erie, Lake Missoula, Last Glacial Maximum, Last glacial period, Late Glacial, Late Pleistocene, Latin, Laurentide Ice Sheet, Lesotho Highlands, Little Ice Age, Littorina Sea, Llanquihue glaciation, Llanquihue Lake, Loess, Long Island, Louis Agassiz, Marine isotope stage, Martha's Vineyard, Mérida (state), Mesolithic, Methane, Methane clathrate, Metres above sea level, Micropaleontology, Midlands Region, Ireland, Milankovitch cycles, Missoula Floods, Montana, Moraine, Morocco, Mount Kenya, Mount Kilimanjaro, Mount Kosciuszko, Nantucket, Neanderthal, New England, Niagara Falls, Nomans Land (Massachusetts), Nordic Stone Age, North Sea, Northern Ireland, Nothofagus, Oak Ridges Moraine, Ohio River, Older Dryas, Oldest Dryas, Oxford English Dictionary, Pacific Cordillera (Canada), Paleolithic, Palsa, Palynology, Patagonia, Patagonian Ice Sheet, Patterned ground, Periglaciation, Permafrost, Pico Bolívar, Pico Bonpland, Pico Humboldt, Pingo, Pleistocene, Pleistocene megafauna, Plio-Pleistocene, Pollen zone, Post-glacial rebound, Primary production, Quaternary extinction event, Quaternary glaciation, Rôche moutonnée, Regolith, Rhône Glacier, Rhine Glacier, River Dee, Wales, Rock glacier, Rocky Mountains, Rwenzori Mountains, Sable Island, Sea level, Sea level rise, Siberia, Sierra Nevada (U.S.), Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Solifluction, South African Geographical Journal, Stadial, Stone Age, Suture (geology), Taiwan, Tasmania, Taymyr Peninsula, Teays River, Terminal moraine, Tibetan Plateau, Tierra del Fuego, Timeline of glaciation, Turkey, United States Geological Survey, University of Tromsø, Upper Midwest, Upper Mississippi River, Valdivian temperate rain forest, Valparaiso Moraine, Varve, Venezuela, Venezuelan Andes, Vistula, Volli Kalm, Washington (state), Würm, Würm glaciation, Weichselian glaciation, Western New Guinea, Wisconsin glaciation, Yoldia Sea, Younger Dryas, Zona Sur. Expand index (138 more) »


Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.

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Allerød oscillation

The Allerød oscillation (Allerødtiden) was a warm and moist global interstadial that occurred c.13,900 to 12,900 BP, nearly at the end of the last glacial period.

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The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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Ancylus Lake

Ancylus Lake is a name given by geologists to a large freshwater lake the existed in northern Europe approximately from 9500 to 8000 years Before Present (B.P.) being in effect one of various predecessors to the modern Baltic Sea.

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Atakor volcanic field

Atakor volcanic field ("Atakor" in Tuareg means "swollen part, knot at the end of something") is a volcanic field in Algeria.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.

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Barents Sea

The Barents Sea (Barentshavet; Баренцево море, Barentsevo More) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia divided between Norwegian and Russian territorial waters.

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Bølling oscillation

The Bølling oscillation, also Bølling interstadial, was a cool temperate climatic interstadial between the glacial Oldest Dryas and Older Dryas stadials, between 14,700 and 14,100 BP, near to the end of the last glacial period.

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Before Present

Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.

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Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.

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Block Island

Block Island is located off the coast of the U.S. state of Rhode Island, named after Dutch explorer Adriaen Block.

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A blockfieldWhittow, John (1984).

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Brackish water

Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.

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A canyon (Spanish: cañón; archaic British English spelling: cañon) or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales.

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Cape Cod

Cape Cod is a geographic cape extending into the Atlantic Ocean from the southeastern corner of mainland Massachusetts, in the northeastern United States.

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The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

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Central Park

Central Park is an urban park in Manhattan, New York City.

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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Connecticut River

The Connecticut River is the longest river in the New England region of the United States, flowing roughly southward for through four states.

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Cordillera de Mérida

The Cordillera de Mérida is a series of mountain ranges, or massif, in northwestern Venezuela.

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Cordilleran Ice Sheet

The Cordilleran ice sheet was a major ice sheet that periodically covered large parts of North America during glacial periods over the last ~2.6 million years.

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Core sample

A core sample is a cylindrical section of (usually) a naturally occurring substance.

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In gelisols (permafrost soils), cryoturbation (frost churning) refers to the mixing of materials from various horizons of the soil down to the bedrock due to freezing and thawing.

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Cypress Hills (Canada)

The Cypress Hills are a geographical region of hills in southwestern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta, Canada.

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Doggerland is the name of a land mass now beneath the southern North Sea that connected Great Britain to continental Europe.

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The Drakensberg (Afrikaans: Drakensberge, Zulu: uKhahlamba, Sotho: Maluti) is the name given to the eastern portion of the Great Escarpment, which encloses the central Southern African plateau.

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A drumlin, from the Irish word droimnín ("littlest ridge"), first recorded in 1833, and in the classical sense is an elongated hill in the shape of an inverted spoon or half-buried egg formed by glacial ice acting on underlying unconsolidated till or ground moraine.

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E. C. Pielou

Evelyn Chrystalla "E.C." Pielou (February 20, 1924 – July 16, 2016) was a Canadian statistical ecologist.

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East Antarctica

East Antarctica, also called Greater Antarctica, constitutes the majority (two-thirds) of the Antarctic continent, lying on the Indian Ocean side of the continent, separated from West Antarctica by the Transantarctic Mountains.

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The Eemian (also called the last interglacial, Sangamonian, Ipswichian, Mikulin, Kaydaky, Valdivia or Riss-Würm) was the interglacial period which began about 130,000 years ago and ended about 115,000 years ago.

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An esker, eskar, eschar, or os, sometimes called an asar, osar, or serpent kame, is a long, winding ridge of stratified sand and gravel, examples of which occur in glaciated and formerly glaciated regions of Europe and North America.

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Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

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Flandrian interglacial

The Flandrian interglacial or stage is the name given by geologists and archaeologists in the British Isles to the first, and so far only, stage of the Holocene epoch (the present geological period), covering the period from around 12,000 years ago, at the end of the last glacial period to the present day.

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Foothills are geographically defined as gradual increase in elevation at the base of a mountain range, higher hill range or an upland area.

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Foreland basin

A foreland basin is a structural basin that develops adjacent and parallel to a mountain belt.

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Geochronology is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves.

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Geografiska Annaler

Geografiska Annaler is a scientific journal published by the Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography.

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A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes that shape it.

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Geomorphology (journal)

Geomorphology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal about geomorphology.

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Geothermal gradient

Geothermal gradient is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to increasing depth in the Earth's interior.

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Glacial history of Minnesota

The glacial history of Minnesota is most defined since the onset of the last glacial period, which ended some 10,000 years ago.

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Glacial lake

A glacial lake is a lake with origins in a melted glacier.

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Glacial lake outburst flood

A glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a type of outburst flood that occurs when the dam containing a glacial lake fails.

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Glacial period

A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.

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Glacial striation

Glacial striations are scratches or gouges cut into bedrock by glacial abrasion.

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A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

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Great Escarpment, Southern Africa

The Great Escarpment is a major geological formation in Africa that consists of steep slopes from the high central Southern African plateauAtlas of Southern Africa.

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Great Lakes

The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.

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Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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High Atlas

High Atlas, also called the Grand Atlas Mountains (Al-Aṭlas al-Kabīr; Haut Atlas; ⴰⴷⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⴷⵔⵏ) is a mountain range in central Morocco, North Africa.

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The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.

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The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

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Holocene glacial retreat

The Holocene glacial retreat is a geographical phenomenon that involved the global deglaciation of glaciers that previously had advanced during the Last Glacial Maximum.

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Homo erectus

Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.

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Ice age

An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.

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Ice calving

Ice calving, also known as glacier calving or iceberg calving, is the breaking of ice chunks from the edge of a glacier.

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Ice cap

An ice cap is a mass of ice that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area (usually covering a highland area).

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Ice field

An ice field (also spelled icefield) is an expansive area of interconnected glaciers found in a mountain region, or it is an extensive formation of packs of ice at sea.

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Ice sheet

An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.

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Ice wedge

An ice wedge is a crack in the ground formed by a narrow or thin piece of ice that measures up to 3–4 meters in length at ground level and extends downwards into the ground up to several meters.

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An iceberg or ice mountain is a large piece of freshwater ice that has broken off a glacier or an ice shelf and is floating freely in open water.

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Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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An interglacial period (or alternatively interglacial, interglaciation) is a geological interval of warmer global average temperature lasting thousands of years that separates consecutive glacial periods within an ice age.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Isostasy (Greek ''ísos'' "equal", ''stásis'' "standstill") is the state of gravitational equilibrium between Earth's crust and mantle such that the crust "floats" at an elevation that depends on its thickness and density.

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Japanese Alps

The is a series of mountain ranges in Japan which bisect the main island of Honshū (本州).

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Jutland (Jylland; Jütland), also known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula (Cimbricus Chersonesus; Den Kimbriske Halvø; Kimbrische Halbinsel), is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and part of northern Germany.

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Kelleys Island, Ohio

Kelleys Island is both a village in Erie County, Ohio, United States, and the island which it fully occupies in Lake Erie.

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Kettle Moraine

Kettle Moraine is a large moraine in the state of Wisconsin, United States.

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Lake Erie

Lake Erie is the fourth-largest lake (by surface area) of the five Great Lakes in North America, and the eleventh-largest globally if measured in terms of surface area.

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Lake Missoula

Lake Missoula was a prehistoric proglacial lake in western Montana that existed periodically at the end of the last ice age between 15,000 and 13,000 years ago.

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Last Glacial Maximum

In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.

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Last glacial period

The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.

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Late Glacial

The Late Glacial climate warming (c. 13,000–10,000 years ago), or Tardiglacial ("Late Glacial"), is defined primarily by the beginning of the modern warm period, in which temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere rose substantially, causing a process of accelerated deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum (c. 25,000–13,000 years ago).

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Late Pleistocene

The Late Pleistocene is a geochronological age of the Pleistocene Epoch and is associated with Upper Pleistocene or Tarantian stage Pleistocene series rocks.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Laurentide Ice Sheet

The Laurentide Ice Sheet was a massive sheet of ice that covered millions of square kilometers, including most of Canada and a large portion of the northern United States, multiple times during the Quaternary glacial epochs— from 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present.

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Lesotho Highlands

The Lesotho Highlands are formed by the Drakensberg and Maloti mountain ranges in the east and central parts of the country of Lesotho.

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Little Ice Age

The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period.

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Littorina Sea

Littorina Sea (also Litorina Sea) is a geological brackish water stage of the Baltic Sea, which existed around 7500–4000 BP and followed the Mastogloia Sea, transitional stage of the Ancylus Lake.

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Llanquihue glaciation

The last glacial period and its associated glaciation is known in southern Chile as the Llanquihue glaciation (Glaciación de Llanquihue).

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Llanquihue Lake

Lake Llanquihue is the second largest lake in Chile with an area of about.

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Loess (from German Löss) is a clastic, predominantly silt-sized sediment that is formed by the accumulation of wind-blown dust.

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Long Island

Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor just 0.35 miles (0.56 km) from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean.

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Louis Agassiz

Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (May 28, 1807December 14, 1873) was a Swiss-American biologist and geologist recognized as an innovative and prodigious scholar of Earth's natural history.

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Marine isotope stage

Marine isotope stages (MIS), marine oxygen-isotope stages, or oxygen isotope stages (OIS), are alternating warm and cool periods in the Earth's paleoclimate, deduced from oxygen isotope data reflecting changes in temperature derived from data from deep sea core samples.

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Martha's Vineyard

Martha's Vineyard (Wampanoag: Noepe; often called just the Vineyard) is an island located south of Cape Cod in Massachusetts that is known for being an affluent summer colony.

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Mérida (state)

The Bolivarian State of Mérida (Estado Bolivariano de Mérida), commonly known simply as Mérida State (Estado Mérida) is one of the 23 states of Venezuela.

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In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.

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Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Methane clathrate

Methane clathrate (CH4·5.75H2O) or (4CH4·23H2O), also called methane hydrate, hydromethane, methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice.

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Metres above sea level

Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.

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Micropaleontology (also sometimes spelled as micropalaeontology) is the branch of palaeontology that studies microfossils, or fossils that require the use of a microscope to see the organism, its morphology and its characteristic details.

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Midlands Region, Ireland

The Midlands Region (coded IE012) is a NUTS Level III statistical region of Ireland.

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Milankovitch cycles

Milankovitch cycles describe the collective effects of changes in the Earth's movements on its climate over thousands of years.

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Missoula Floods

The Missoula Floods (also known as the Spokane Floods or the Bretz Floods) refer to the cataclysmic floods that swept periodically across eastern Washington and down the Columbia River Gorge at the end of the last ice age.

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Montana is a state in the Northwestern United States.

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A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes.

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Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Mount Kenya

Mount Kenya is the highest mountain in Kenya and the second-highest in Africa, after Kilimanjaro.

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Mount Kilimanjaro

Mount Kilimanjaro or just Kilimanjaro, with its three volcanic cones, "Kibo", "Mawenzi", and "Shira", is a dormant volcano in Tanzania.

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Mount Kosciuszko

Mount Kosciuszko is Australia’s highest mountain, at 2,228 metres (7,310 ft) above sea level.

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Nantucket is an island about by ferry south from Cape Cod, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.

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Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.

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New England

New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.

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Niagara Falls

Niagara Falls is the collective name for three waterfalls that straddle the international border between the Canadian province of Ontario and the American state of New York.

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Nomans Land (Massachusetts)

Nomans Land (also mapped "No Man's Land," "No Mans Land," or "No Man's island") is an uninhabited island in size, located in the town of Chilmark, Dukes County, Massachusetts.

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Nordic Stone Age

The Nordic Stone Age refers to the Stone Age of Scandinavia.

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North Sea

The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

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Nothofagus, also known as the southern beeches, is a genus of 43 species of trees and shrubs native to the Southern Hemisphere in southern South America (Chile, Argentina) and Australasia (east and southeast Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea and New Caledonia).

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Oak Ridges Moraine

The Oak Ridges Moraine is an ecologically important geological landform in the Mixedwood Plains of south-central Ontario, Canada.

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Ohio River

The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States.

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Older Dryas

The Older Dryas was a stadial (cold) period between the Bølling and Allerød interstadials (warmer phases), about 14,000 years Before Present), towards the end of the Pleistocene. Its date is not well defined, with estimates varying by 400 years, but its duration is agreed to have been around 200 years. The gradual warming since the Last Glacial Maximum (27,000 to 24,000 years BP) has been interrupted by two cold spells: the Older Dryas and the Younger Dryas (c.

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Oldest Dryas

The Oldest Dryas was a climatic period, which occurred during the coldest stadial after the Weichselian glaciation in north Europe.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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Pacific Cordillera (Canada)

The Pacific Cordillera (Canada) is a top-level physiographic region of Canada.

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The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.

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A palsa is a low, often oval, frost heave occurring in polar and subpolar climates, which contain permanently frozen ice lenses.

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Palynology is the "study of dust" (from palunō, "strew, sprinkle" and -logy) or "particles that are strewn".

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Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.

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Patagonian Ice Sheet

Map showing the extent of the Patagonian Ice Sheet in the Strait of Magellan area during the last glacial period. Selected modern settlements are shown with yellow dots. The sea-level was much lower than shown in this picture. The Patagonian Ice Sheet was a large elongated and narrow ice sheet centered in the southern Andes that existed during the Llanquihue glaciation.

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Patterned ground

Patterned ground is the distinct, and often symmetrical natural pattern of geometric shapes formed by ground material in periglacial regions.

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Periglaciation (adjective: "periglacial," also referring to places at the edges of glacial areas) describes geomorphic processes that result from seasonal thawing of snow in areas of permafrost, the runoff from which refreezes in ice wedges and other structures.

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In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.

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Pico Bolívar

Pico Bolívar is the highest mountain in Venezuela, at 4,978 metres (16,332 ft).

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Pico Bonpland

Pico Bonpland is Venezuela's third highest peak, at 4,883 metres above sea level.

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Pico Humboldt

Pico Humboldt is Venezuela's second highest peak, at 4,940 metres above sea level.

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A pingo, also called a hydrolaccolith, is a mound of earth-covered ice found in the Arctic and subarctic that can reach up to in height and up to in diameter.

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The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.

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Pleistocene megafauna

Pleistocene megafauna is the set of large animals that lived on Earth during the Pleistocene epoch and became extinct during the Quaternary extinction event.

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The term Plio-Pleistocene refers to an informally described geological pseudo-period, which begins about 5 million years ago (mya) and, drawing forward, combines the time ranges of the formally defined Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs—marking from about 5 mya to about 12 kya.

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Pollen zone

Pollen zones are a system of subdividing the last glacial period and Holocene paleoclimate using the data from pollen cores.

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Post-glacial rebound

Post-glacial rebound (also called isostatic rebound or crustal rebound) is the rise of land masses after the lifting of the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period, which had caused isostatic depression.

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Primary production

Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary-production potential, and not an actual estimate of it. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE. In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.

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Quaternary extinction event

The Quaternary period saw the extinctions of numerous predominantly megafaunal species, which resulted in a collapse in faunal density and diversity, and the extinction of key ecological strata across the globe.

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Quaternary glaciation

The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.

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Rôche moutonnée

In glaciology, a rôche moutonnée (or sheepback) is a rock formation created by the passing of a glacier.

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Regolith is a layer of loose, heterogeneous superficial deposits covering solid rock.

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Rhône Glacier

The Rhône Glacier (Rhonegletscher, Walliser German: Rottengletscher, le glacier du Rhône, ghiacciaio del Rodano) is a glacier in the Swiss Alps and the source of the river Rhône and one of the primary contributors to Lake Geneva in the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais.

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Rhine Glacier

The Rhine Glacier was a glacier during the last glacial period and was responsible for the formation of the Lake Constance.

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River Dee, Wales

The River Dee (Afon Dyfrdwy, Deva Fluvius) is a river in the United Kingdom.

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Rock glacier

Rock glaciers are distinctive geomorphological landforms, consisting either of angular rock debris frozen in interstitial ice, former "true" glaciers overlain by a layer of talus, or something in between.

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Rocky Mountains

The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.

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Rwenzori Mountains

The Rwenzori Mountains, previously called the "Ruwenzori Range" (spelling changed around 1980 to conform more closely with the local name Rwenjura), is a mountain range of eastern equatorial Africa, located on the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

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Sable Island

Sable Island (île de Sable) is a small island situated southeast of Halifax, Nova Scotia, and about southeast of the closest point of mainland Nova Scotia in the Atlantic Ocean.

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Sea level

Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.

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Sea level rise

A sea level rise is an increase in global mean sea level as a result of an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Sierra Nevada (U.S.)

The Sierra Nevada (snowy saw range) is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Great Basin.

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Sierra Nevada de Mérida

The Sierra Nevada de Mérida is the highest mountain range in the largest massif in Venezuela, the Cordillera de Mérida, which in turn is part of the northern extent of the Cordillera de los Andes (Andes Mountains).

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Solifluction is a collective name for gradual mass wasting slope processes related to freeze-thaw activity.

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South African Geographical Journal

The South African Geographical Journal is the official journal of the Society of South African Geographers.

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Stadials and interstadials are phases dividing the Quaternary period, or the last 2.6 million years.

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Stone Age

The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.

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Suture (geology)

In structural geology, a suture is a joining together along a major fault zone, of separate terranes, tectonic units that have different plate tectonic, metamorphic and paleogeographic histories.

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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.

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Taymyr Peninsula

The Taymyr Peninsula (italic) is a peninsula in the Far North of Russia, in the Siberian Federal District, that forms the northernmost part of the mainland of Eurasia.

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Teays River

The Teays River was a major preglacial river that drained much of the present Ohio River watershed, but took a more northerly downstream course.

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Terminal moraine

A terminal moraine, also called end moraine, is a type of moraine that forms at the snout (edge) of a glacier, marking its maximum advance.

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Tibetan Plateau

The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Tierra del Fuego

Tierra del Fuego (Spanish for "Land of Fire") is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan.

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Timeline of glaciation

There have been five or six major ice ages in the history of Earth over the past 3 billion years.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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University of Tromsø

The University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway (Universitetet i Tromsø – Norges arktiske universitet; is the world's northernmost university. Located in the city of Tromsø, Norway, it was established in 1968, and opened in 1972. It is one of eight universities in Norway. The University of Tromsø is the largest research and educational institution in northern Norway. The University's location makes it a natural venue for the development of studies of the region's natural environment, culture, and society. The main focus of the University's activities is on the Auroral light research, Space science, Fishery science, Biotechnology, Linguistics, Multicultural societies, Saami culture, Telemedicine, epidemiology and a wide spectrum of Arctic research projects. The close vicinity of the Norwegian Polar Institute, the Norwegian Institute of Marine Research and the Polar Environmental Centre gives Tromsø added weight and importance as an international centre for Arctic research. Research activities, however, are not limited to Arctic studies. The University researchers work within a broad range of subjects and are recognised both nationally and internationally. On 1 January 2009, the University of Tromsø merged with Tromsø University College. On 1 August 2013, the university merged with Finnmark University College to form Universitetet i Tromsø – Norges arktiske universitet (The University of Tromsø – The Arctic University of Norway), thereby adding campuses in Alta, Hammerfest and Kirkenes. On 1 January 2016, Narvik University College and Harstad University College merged with UiT - The Arctic University of Norway. As of January 2016 the university now has six campus locations in northern Norway, the main campus being Tromsø.

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Upper Midwest

The Upper Midwest is a region in the northern portion of the U.S. Census Bureau's Midwestern United States.

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Upper Mississippi River

The Upper Mississippi River is the portion of the Mississippi River upstream of Cairo, Illinois, United States.

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Valdivian temperate rain forest

The Valdivian temperate forests (NT0404) is an ecoregion on the west coast of southern South America, in Chile and extending into Argentina.

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Valparaiso Moraine

The Valparaiso Moraine is a terminal moraine that forms an immense U around the Lake Michigan basin in North America.

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A varve is an annual layer of sediment or sedimentary rock.

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Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).

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Venezuelan Andes

The Venezuelan Andes (Spanish: Andes Venezolanos) also simply known as the Andes (Spanish: Los Andes) in Venezuela, are a mountain system that form the northernmost extension of the Andes.

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The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).

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Volli Kalm

Volli Kalm (10 February 1953, Aluste – 23 December 2017, Kääriku) was an Estonian geologist who, from 1 July 2012 to his death on 23 December 2017, was the rector of the University of Tartu.

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Washington (state)

Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.

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The Würm is a river in Bavaria, Germany, right tributary of the Amper.

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Würm glaciation

The Würm glaciation (Würm-Kaltzeit or Würm-Glazial or Würm stage, colloquially often also Würmeiszeit oder Würmzeit; c.f. ice age), in the literature usually just referred to as the Würm, often spelt "Wurm", was the last glacial period in the Alpine region.

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Weichselian glaciation

"Weichselian glaciation" is the local name of the last glacial period and its associated glaciation in Northern Europe.

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Western New Guinea

Western New Guinea, also known as Papua (formerly Irian Jaya) and West Papua, is the part of the island of New Guinea (also known as Papua) annexed by Indonesia in 1962.

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Wisconsin glaciation

The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, also called the Wisconsinan glaciation, was the most recent glacial period of the North American ice sheet complex.

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Yoldia Sea

Yoldia Sea is a name given by geologists to a variable brackish-water stage in the Baltic Sea basin that prevailed after the Baltic ice lake was drained to sea level during the Weichsel glaciation.

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Younger Dryas

The Younger Dryas (c. 12,900 to c. 11,700 years BP) was a return to glacial conditions which temporarily reversed the gradual climatic warming after the Last Glacial Maximum started receding around 20,000 BP.

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Zona Sur

The Zona Sur (Southern Zone) is one of the five natural regions on which CORFO divided continental Chile in 1950.

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Baltic glaciation, Devensian, Devensian Glaciation, Devensian glacial, Devensian glaciation, Fraser glaciation, Ice Age in Finland, Last glacial, Last glacial stage, Latest ice age, Litorina age, Lower Würm, Merida glaciation, Most recent glacial period, Most recent glaciation, Mérida Glaciation, Mérida glaciation, Pinedale Glaciation, Pinedale glaciation, Recent glaciation, Recent ice age, Vistulian glaciation, Weichselian Glaciation, Wisconsin Glacial Period, Würm period.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Last_glacial_period

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