229 relations: Abrahamic religions, Acrocorinth, Acropolis, Alexandria, Alois Riegl, Ambrose, Ammianus Marcellinus, Anatolia, Ancient Corinth, Antioch, Antoninus Liberalis, Apollonius of Tyana, Arabic, Arabs, Arator, Arch of Constantine, Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, Argos, Armenian language, Asturias, Augustine of Hippo, Augustus (title), Aurelian, Ausonius, Averil Cameron, Balkans, Barbarian kingdoms, Basil of Caesarea, Basilica, Basques, Belisarius, Bertrand Lançon, Boethius, Bryan Ward-Perkins, Byzantine art, Byzantine Empire, Caesarea Maritima, Cairo, Carolingian Renaissance, Celibacy, Chaldean Oracles, Christ Pantocrator, Christian literature, Christian monasticism, Christianity, Christianization, Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Classical antiquity, Claudian, Clerical celibacy, ..., Cologne, Consistorium, Constantine the Great, Constantine the Great and Christianity, Constantinople, Consular diptych, Coptic language, Corippus, Crisis of the Third Century, Crossing of the Rhine, Culture of Europe, Cursus honorum, Dark Ages (historiography), Depiction of Jesus, Diocletian, Diptych, Dogmatic Sarcophagus, Dominic Montserrat, Domus, Dynatoi, Early Christian art and architecture, Early Middle Ages, Early Muslim conquests, Edessa, Edict of Milan, Edward Gibbon, Egypt, Egypt (Roman province), Eleazar ben Killir, Ernst Kitzinger, Esquiline Treasure, Europe, Eusebius, Exegesis, Extreme weather events of 535–536, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Fifty Bibles of Constantine, First Council of Nicaea, Foederati, Foolishness for Christ, Forum (Roman), France, Franks, Fresco, Gaul, Ge'ez, Germanic peoples, Gildas, Gillian Clark (historian), Gnosticism, Gothic War (535–554), Goths, Greco-Roman world, Greek East and Latin West, Gregory of Nazianzus, H. R. Loyn, Hagia Sophia, Henri Pirenne, Hermetica, Historiography, History of Sparta, History of the Roman Empire, History painting, Hoard, Hoxne Hoard, Icon, Idealism, Individualism, Internet History Sourcebooks Project, Iran, Isidore of Seville, Islam, Jerome, Jerusalem in Christianity, John Chrysostom, Jose b. Jose, Julian (emperor), Khosrow I, Kitab al-Rawd al-Mitar, Laity, Latifundium, Licinius, Liuvigild, Martianus Capella, Mausoleum of Theoderic, Maximinus Thrax, Medieval art, Mediterranean Basin, Mediterranean Sea, Middle Ages, Migration Period, Mildenhall Treasure, Missorium of Theodosius I, Monasticism, Montoro, Municipium, Near East, Neoplatonism, Nerva–Antonine dynasty, Nonnus, North Africa, Notitia Dignitatum, Numen, Old Georgian language, Olite, Orientius, Ostrogoths, Papyrology, Papyrus, Parchment, Passover, Paul the Silentiary, Paulinus of Nola, Periodization, Peter Brown (historian), Plague of Justinian, Polis, Politics, Porphyry (geology), Portrait of the Four Tetrarchs, Praetorian prefecture of Africa, Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum, Private sphere, Procopius, Province of Guadalajara, Public sphere, Quedlinburg Itala fragment, Quintus Smyrnaeus, R. W. Southern, Rabbinic Judaism, Ramsay MacMullen, Ravenna, Realism (arts), Reccopolis, Relief, Religion in ancient Rome, Renaissance, Rocca (architecture), Roman aqueduct, Roman art, Roman Britain, Roman Empire, Roman roads, Roman villa, Roman–Persian Wars, Romanos the Melodist, Rutilius Claudius Namatianus, Sarcophagus, Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, Sasanian Empire, Sculpture, Sidonius Apollinaris, Societal collapse, Society, Souq, St. Peter's Basilica, State church of the Roman Empire, Stylite, Suintila, Symmachi–Nicomachi diptych, Syncretism, Syriac language, Tessera, The Consolation of Philosophy, The World of Late Antiquity (1971), Theoderic the Great, Theodosius I, Toponymy, Trier, University of Pennsylvania, Venice, Vergilius Romanus, Vergilius Vaticanus, Villa, Visigothic Kingdom, Visigoths, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Western Roman Empire, Yanai (Payetan). Expand index (179 more) » « Shrink index
The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.
Acrocorinth (Ακροκόρινθος), "Upper Corinth", the acropolis of ancient Corinth, is a monolithic rock overseeing the ancient city of Corinth, Greece.
An acropolis (Ancient Greek: ἀκρόπολις, tr. Akrópolis; from ákros (άκρος) or ákron (άκρον) "highest, topmost, outermost" and pólis "city"; plural in English: acropoles, acropoleis or acropolises) is a settlement, especially a citadel, built upon an area of elevated ground—frequently a hill with precipitous sides, chosen for purposes of defense.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Alois Riegl (14 January 1858, Linz – 17 June 1905, Vienna) was an Austrian art historian, and is considered a member of the Vienna School of Art History.
Aurelius Ambrosius (– 397), better known in English as Ambrose, was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century.
Ammianus Marcellinus (born, died 400) was a Roman soldier and historian who wrote the penultimate major historical account surviving from Antiquity (preceding Procopius).
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Corinth (Κόρινθος Kórinthos) was a city-state (polis) on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnese to the mainland of Greece, roughly halfway between Athens and Sparta.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Antoninus Liberalis (Ἀντωνῖνος Λιβεράλις) was an Ancient Greek grammarian who probably flourished between AD 100 and 300.
Apollonius of Tyana (Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Τυανεύς; c. 15 – c. 100 AD), sometimes also called Apollonios of Tyana, was a Greek Neopythagorean philosopher from the town of Tyana in the Roman province of Cappadocia in Anatolia.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arator was a sixth-century Christian poet from Liguria in northwestern Italy.
The Arch of Constantine (Arco di Costantino) is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill.
The Cathedral of the Most Holy Savior and of Saints John the Baptist and the Evangelist in the Lateran, (Santissimo Salvatore e Santi Giovanni Battista ed Evangelista in Laterano) - also known as the Papal Archbasilica of St.
Argos (Modern Greek: Άργος; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος) is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Augustus (plural augusti;;, Latin for "majestic", "the increaser" or "venerable"), was an ancient Roman title given as both name and title to Gaius Octavius (often referred to simply as Augustus), Rome's first Emperor.
Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 9 September 214 or 215September or October 275) was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275.
Decimus or Decimius Magnus Ausonius (– c. 395) was a Roman poet and teacher of rhetoric from Burdigala in Aquitaine, modern Bordeaux, France.
Dame Averil Millicent Cameron (born 8 February 1940), often cited as A. M. Cameron, is professor emerita of Late Antique and Byzantine History at the University of Oxford, and was formerly the Warden of Keble College, Oxford, between 1994 and 2010.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The barbarian kingdoms were Germanic, Hunnic and other kingdoms established all over Europe and North Africa during Late Antiquity, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (Ἅγιος Βασίλειος ὁ Μέγας, Ágios Basíleios o Mégas, Ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲓⲟⲥ; 329 or 330 – January 1 or 2, 379), was the bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey).
A basilica is a type of building, usually a church, that is typically rectangular with a central nave and aisles, usually with a slightly raised platform and an apse at one or both ends.
Flavius Belisarius (Φλάβιος Βελισάριος, c. 505 – 565) was a general of the Byzantine Empire.
Bertrand Lançon (born 1952, Le Mans) is a French historian and novelist, a specialist of late Antiquity.
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (also Boetius; 477–524 AD), was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century.
Bryan Ward-Perkins is an archaeologist and historian of the later Roman Empire and early Middle Ages, with a particular focus on the transitional period between those two eras, an historical sub-field also known as Late Antiquity.
Byzantine art is the name for the artistic products of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, as well as the nations and states that inherited culturally from the empire.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Caesarea Maritima (Greek: Παράλιος Καισάρεια Parálios Kaisáreia), also known as Caesarea Palestinae, is an Israeli National Park in the Sharon plain, including the ancient remains of the coastal city of Caesarea.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
The Carolingian Renaissance was the first of three medieval renaissances, a period of cultural activity in the Carolingian Empire.
Celibacy (from Latin, cælibatus") is the state of voluntarily being unmarried, sexually abstinent, or both, usually for religious reasons.
The Chaldean Oracles are a set of spiritual and philosophical texts widely used by Neoplatonist philosophers around the 4th century C.E. While the original texts have been lost, they have survived in the form of fragments consisting mainly of quotes and commentary by late Platonist writers.
In Christian iconography, Christ Pantocrator is a specific depiction of Christ.
Christian literature is writing that deals with Christian themes and incorporates the Christian world view.
Christian monasticism is the devotional practice of individuals who live ascetic and typically cloistered lives that are dedicated to Christian worship.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْقِيَامَة Kanīsatu al-Qiyāmah; Ναὸς τῆς Ἀναστάσεως Naos tes Anastaseos; Սուրբ Հարության տաճար Surb Harut'yan tač̣ar; Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri; כנסיית הקבר, Knesiyat ha-Kever; also called the Church of the Resurrection or Church of the Anastasis by Orthodox Christians) is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Claudius Claudianus, usually known in English as Claudian (c. 370 – c. 404 AD), was a Latin poet associated with the court of the emperor Honorius at Mediolanum (Milan), and particularly with the general Stilicho.
Clerical celibacy is the requirement in certain religions that some or all members of the clergy be unmarried.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
The sacrum consistorium or sacrum auditorium (from consistere, "discuss a topic"; theion synedrion, "sacred assembly") was the highest political council of the Roman Empire from the time of Constantine the Great on.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
During the reign of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great (AD 306–337), Christianity began to transition to the dominant religion of the Roman Empire.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
In Late Antiquity, a consular diptych was a type of diptych intended as a de-luxe commemorative object.
Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.
Flavius Cresconius Corippus was a late Roman epic poet of the 6th century, who flourished under East Roman Emperors Justinian I and Justin II.
The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (AD 235–284), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression.
The crossing of the Rhine by a mixed group of barbarians that included Vandals, Alans and Suebi is traditionally considered to have occurred on 31 December 406.
The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, music, literature, and philosophy that originated from the continent of Europe.
The cursus honorum (Latin: "course of offices") was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire.
The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization traditionally referring to the Middle Ages, that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.
No useful description of the physical appearance of Jesus is given in the New Testament and the depiction of Jesus in pictorial form was controversial in the early Church.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
A diptych (from the Greek δίπτυχον, di "two" + ptychē "fold") is any object with two flat plates attached at a hinge.
The Dogmatic Sarcophagus, also known as the "Trinity Sarcophagus" is an early Christian sarcophagus dating to 320–350, now in the Vatican Museums (Vatican 104).
Dominic Alexander Sebastian Montserrat (2 January 1964 – 23 September 2004) was a British egyptologist and papyrologist.
In ancient Rome, the domus (plural domūs, genitive domūs or domī) was the type of house occupied by the upper classes and some wealthy freedmen during the Republican and Imperial eras.
The dynatoi (δυνατοί, "the powerful") was a legal term in the Byzantine Empire used from the 10th century on, denoting the senior levels of civil, military and ecclesiastic (including monastic) officialdom, who usually, but not always, also commanded considerable fortunes and landed estates.
Early Christian art and architecture or Paleochristian art is the art produced by Christians or under Christian patronage from the earliest period of Christianity to, depending on the definition used, sometime between 260 and 525.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
Edessa (Ἔδεσσα; الرها ar-Ruhā; Şanlıurfa; Riha) was a city in Upper Mesopotamia, founded on an earlier site by Seleucus I Nicator ca.
The Edict of Milan (Edictum Mediolanense) was the February 313 AD agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire.
Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.
Eleazar ben Killir, also known as Eleazar Kalir, Eleazar Qalir or El'azar HaKalir (c. 570 – c. 640) was a Byzantine Jew and a Hebrew poet whose classical liturgical verses, known as piyut, have continued to be sung through the centuries during significant religious services, including those on Tisha B'Av and on the sabbath after a wedding.
Ernst Kitzinger (December 27, 1912 – January 22, 2003) was a German-American historian of late antique, early medieval, and Byzantine art.
The Esquiline Treasure is an ancient Roman silver treasure that was found in 1793 on the Esquiline Hill in Rome.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.
The extreme weather events of 535–536 were the most severe and protracted short-term episodes of cooling in the Northern Hemisphere in the last 2000 years.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
The Fifty Bibles of Constantine were Bibles in the Greek language commissioned in 331 by Constantine I and prepared by Eusebius of Caesarea.
The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.
Foederatus (in English; pl. foederati) was any one of several outlying nations to which ancient Rome provided benefits in exchange for military assistance.
Foolishness for Christ (διά Χριστόν σαλό, оуродъ, юродъ) refers to behavior such as giving up all one's worldly possessions upon joining a monastic order, or to deliberate flouting of society's conventions to serve a religious purpose–particularly of Christianity.
A forum (Latin forum "public place outdoors", plural fora; English plural either fora or forums) was a public square in a Roman municipium, or any civitas, reserved primarily for the vending of goods; i.e., a marketplace, along with the buildings used for shops and the stoas used for open stalls.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Ge'ez (ግዕዝ,; also transliterated Giʻiz) is an ancient South Semitic language and a member of the Ethiopian Semitic group.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Gildas (Breton: Gweltaz; c. 500 – c. 570) — also known as Gildas the Wise or Gildas Sapiens — was a 6th-century British monk best known for his scathing religious polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, which recounts the history of the Britons before and during the coming of the Saxons.
Gillian Clark, FBA (E. Gillian Clark) is Emeritus Professor of Classics and Ancient History at the University of Bristol.
Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.
The Gothic War between the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Emperor Justinian I and the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy took place from 535 until 554 in the Italian peninsula, Dalmatia, Sardinia, Sicily and Corsica.
The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
Greek East and Latin West are terms used to distinguish between the two parts of the Greco-Roman world, specifically the eastern regions where Greek was the lingua franca (Anatolia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East) and the western parts where Latin filled this role (Central and Western Europe).
Gregory of Nazianzus (Γρηγόριος ὁ Ναζιανζηνός Grēgorios ho Nazianzēnos; c. 329Liturgy of the Hours Volume I, Proper of Saints, 2 January. – 25 January 390), also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople, and theologian.
Henry Royston Loyn (16 June 1922 – 9 October 2000), FBA, was a British historian specialising in the history of Anglo-Saxon England.
Hagia Sophia (from the Greek Αγία Σοφία,, "Holy Wisdom"; Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Ayasofya) is a former Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal basilica (church), later an Ottoman imperial mosque and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul, Turkey.
Henri Pirenne (23 December 1862 – 24 October 1935) was a Belgian historian.
The Hermetica are Egyptian-Greek wisdom texts from the 2nd century AD and later, which are mostly presented as dialogues in which a teacher, generally identified as Hermes Trismegistus ("thrice-greatest Hermes"), enlightens a disciple.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
The History of Sparta describes the destiny of the ancient Dorian Greek state known as Sparta from its beginning in the legendary period to its incorporation into the Achaean League under the late Roman Republic, as Allied State, in 146 BC, a period of roughly 1000 years.
The history of the Roman Empire covers the history of Ancient Rome from the fall of the Roman Republic in 27 BC until the abdication of the last Western emperor in 476 AD.
History painting is a genre in painting defined by its subject matter rather than artistic style.
A hoard or "wealth deposit" is an archaeological term for a collection of valuable objects or artifacts, sometimes purposely buried in the ground, in which case it is sometimes also known as a cache.
The Hoxne Hoard is the largest hoard of late Roman silver and gold discovered in Britain, and the largest collection of gold and silver coins of the fourth and fifth centuries found anywhere within the Roman Empire.
An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the Fordham University History Department and Center for Medieval Studies.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Saint Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636), a scholar and, for over three decades, Archbishop of Seville, is widely regarded as the last of the Fathers of the Church, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world." At a time of disintegration of classical culture, and aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the Arian Visigothic kings to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville, and continuing after his brother's death.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
For Christians, Jerusalem's role in first-century Christianity, during the ministry of Jesus and the Apostolic Age, as recorded in the New Testament, gives it great importance, in addition to its role in the Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible.
John Chrysostom (Ἰωάννης ὁ Χρυσόστομος; c. 349 – 14 September 407), Archbishop of Constantinople, was an important Early Church Father.
Jose b. Jose (יוסי בן יוסי) was an early payyetan who lived in Palestine in the 6th century CE.
Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus; Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.
Khosrow I (also known as Chosroes I and Kisrā in classical sources; 501–579, most commonly known in Persian as Anushiruwān (انوشيروان, "the immortal soul"; also known as Anushiruwan the Just (انوشيروان دادگر, Anushiruwān-e Dādgar), was the King of Kings (Shahanshah) of the Sasanian Empire from 531 to 579. He was the successor of his father Kavadh I (488–531). Khosrow I was the twenty-second Sasanian Emperor of Persia, and one of its most celebrated emperors. He laid the foundations of many cities and opulent palaces, and oversaw the repair of trade roads as well as the building of numerous bridges and dams. His reign is furthermore marked by the numerous wars fought against the Sassanid's neighboring archrivals, the Roman-Byzantine Empire, as part of the already centuries-long lasting Roman-Persian Wars. The most important wars under his reign were the Lazic War which was fought over Colchis (western Georgia-Abkhazia) and the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591. During Khosrow's ambitious reign, art and science flourished in Persia and the Sasanian Empire reached its peak of glory and prosperity. His rule was preceded by his father's and succeeded by Hormizd IV. Khosrow Anushiruwan is one of the most popular emperors in Iranian culture and literature and, outside of Iran, his name became, like that of Caesar in the history of Rome, a designation of the Sasanian kings. He also introduced a rational system of taxation, based upon a survey of landed possessions, which his father had begun, and tried in every way to increase the welfare and the revenues of his empire. His army was in discipline decidedly superior to the Byzantines, and apparently was well paid. He was also interested in literature and philosophical discussions. Under his reign chess was introduced from India, and the famous book of Kalilah and Dimnah was translated. He thus became renowned as a wise king.
Kitab al-Rawd al-Mitar, (The Book of the Fragrant Garden), is a fifteenth-century Arabic geography by Muhammad bin Abd al-Munim al-Himyari that is a primary source for the history of Muslim Spain in the Middle Ages, though it is based in part on the earlier account by Muhammad al-Idrisi.
A layperson (also layman or laywoman) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject.
A latifundium is a very extensive parcel of privately owned land.
Licinius I (Gaius Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus;In Classical Latin, Licinius' name would be inscribed as GAIVS VALERIVS LICINIANVS LICINIVS AVGVSTVS. c. 263 – 325) was a Roman emperor from 308 to 324.
Liuvigild, Leuvigild, Leovigild, or Leovigildo (Spanish and Portuguese), (519 – 21 April 586) was a Visigothic King of Hispania and Septimania from 568 to April 21, 586.
Martianus Minneus Felix Capella was a Latin prose writer of Late Antiquity (fl. c. 410–420), one of the earliest developers of the system of the seven liberal arts that structured early medieval education.
The Mausoleum of Theoderic (Italian: Mausoleo di Teodorico) is an ancient monument just outside Ravenna, Italy.
Maximinus Thrax (Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus Augustus; c. 173 – May 238), also known as Maximinus I, was Roman Emperor from 235 to 238.
The medieval art of the Western world covers a vast scope of time and place, over 1000 years of art in Europe, and at times the Middle East and North Africa.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
The Mildenhall Treasure is a large hoard of 34 masterpieces of Roman silver tableware from the 4th century AD, and by far the most valuable Roman objects artistically and by weight of bullion in Britain.
The Missorium of Theodosius I is a large ceremonial silver dish preserved in the Real Academia de la Historia, in Madrid, Spain.
Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
Montoro is a city and municipality in the Córdoba Province of southern Spain, in the north-central part of the autonomous community of Andalusia.
Municipium (pl. municipia) was the Latin term for a town or city.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
The Nerva–Antonine dynasty was a dynasty of seven Roman Emperors who ruled over the Roman Empire from 96 AD to 192 AD.
Nonnus of Panopolis (Νόννος ὁ Πανοπολίτης, Nónnos ho Panopolítēs) was a Greek epic poet of Hellenized Egypt of the Imperial Roman era.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The Notitia Dignitatum (Latin for "The List of Offices") is a document of the late Roman Empire that details the administrative organization of the Eastern and Western Empires.
Old Georgian (ძველი ქართული ენა dzveli kartuli ena, Old Georgian: ႤႬႠჂ ႵႠႰႧႳႪႨ, enay kartuli) the literary language of Georgian monarchies in the 5th century.
Olite (Erriberri in Basque language) is a town and municipality located in the Comarca de Tafalla comarca, Merindad de Olite merindad, in Navarre, Spain.
Saint Orientius was a Christian Latin poet of the fifth century.
The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).
Papyrology is the study of ancient literature, correspondence, legal archives, etc..., as preserved in manuscripts written on papyrus, the most common form of writing material in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, and Rome.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep, calves, and goats.
Passover or Pesach (from Hebrew Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday.
Paul the Silentiary, also known as Paulus Silentiarius (Παῦλος ὁ Σιλεντιάριος, d. Constantinople, 575-580 AD), was a Greek poet.
Paulinus of Nola (Paolino di Nola; Paulinus Nolanus,; also Anglicized as Pauline of Nola; – June 22, 431), born Pontius Meropius Anicius Paulinus, was a Roman poet, writer, and senator who attained the ranks of suffect consul and governor of Campania (–1) but—following the assassination of the emperor Gratian and under the influence of his Spanish wife Therasia—abandoned his career, was baptized as a Christian, and (after Therasia's death) became bishop of Nola in Campania.
Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of timeAdam Rabinowitz.
Peter Robert Lamont Brown, FBA, (born 26 July 1935) is Rollins Professor of History Emeritus at Princeton University.
The Plague of Justinian (541–542) was a pandemic that afflicted the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, especially its capital Constantinople, the Sassanid Empire, and port cities around the entire Mediterranean Sea.
Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
Porphyry is a textural term for an igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals such as feldspar or quartz dispersed in a fine-grained silicate rich, generally aphanitic matrix or groundmass.
The Portrait of the Four Tetrarchs is a porphyry sculpture group of four Roman emperors dating from around 300 AD.
The praetorian prefecture of Africa (praefectura praetorio Africae) was a major administrative division of the Eastern Roman Empire located in the Maghreb.
The praetorian prefecture of Illyricum (praefectura praetorio per Illyricum; ἐπαρχότης/ὑπαρχία τοῦ Ἰλλυρικοῦ, also termed simply the Prefecture of Illyricum) was one of four praetorian prefectures into which the Late Roman Empire was divided.
The private sphere is the complement or opposite to the public sphere.
Procopius of Caesarea (Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς Prokopios ho Kaisareus, Procopius Caesariensis; 500 – 554 AD) was a prominent late antique Greek scholar from Palaestina Prima.
Guadalajara (from Arabic وادي الحجارة wādi al-ħajāra, "streambed/valley of stones") is a province of central/north-central Spain, in the northern part of the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
The public sphere (German Öffentlichkeit) is an area in social life where individuals can come together to freely discuss and identify societal problems, and through that discussion influence political action.
The Quedlinburg Itala fragment (Berlin, Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Cod. theol. lat. fol. 485) is a fragment of six folios from a large 5th-century illuminated manuscript of an Old Latin ''Itala'' translation of parts of 1 Samuel of the Old Testament.
Quintus Smyrnaeus or Quintus of Smyrna, also known as Kointos Smyrnaios (Κόϊντος Σμυρναῖος), was a Greek epic poet whose Posthomerica, following "after Homer" continues the narration of the Trojan War.
Sir Richard William Southern, FBA (8 February 1912 in Newcastle-upon-Tyne – 6 February 2001 in Oxford), who published under the name R. W. Southern, was a noted English medieval historian, based at the University of Oxford.
Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism (יהדות רבנית Yahadut Rabanit) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Babylonian Talmud.
Ramsay MacMullen (born March 3, 1928 in New York City) is an Emeritus Professor of history at Yale University, where he taught from 1967 to his retirement in 1993 as Dunham Professor of History and Classics.
Ravenna (also locally; Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.
Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.
Reccopolis (Recópolis; Reccopolis), found near the tiny modern village of Zorita de los Canes in the province of Guadalajara, Castile-La Mancha, Spain, is one of at least four cities founded in Hispania by the Visigoths.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
Religion in Ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
A rocca (literally: "rock") is a type of Italian fortified stronghold, or fortress, typically located on a hilltop, beneath or on which a village or town historically clustered so that the inhabitants might take refuge at times of trouble.
The Romans constructed aqueducts throughout their Empire, to bring water from outside sources into cities and towns.
Roman art refers to the visual arts made in Ancient Rome and in the territories of the Roman Empire.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman roads (Latin: viae Romanae; singular: via Romana meaning "Roman way") were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were built from about 300 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
A Roman villa was a country house built for the upper class in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, similar in form to the hacienda estates in the colonies of the Spanish Empire.
The Roman–Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between states of the Greco-Roman world and two successive Iranian empires: the Parthian and the Sasanian.
Saint Romanos the Melodist or the Hymnographer (often Latinized as Romanus or Anglicized as Roman), was one of the greatest of Syrio-Greek hymnographers, called "the Pindar of rhythmic poetry".
Rutilius Claudius Namatianus (fl. 5th century) was a Roman Imperial poet, notable as the author of a Latin poem, De reditu suo, in elegiac metre, describing a coastal voyage from Rome to Gaul in 416.
A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried.
The Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus is a marble Early Christian sarcophagus used for the burial of Junius Bassus, who died in 359.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.
Gaius Sollius Modestus Apollinaris Sidonius, better known as Saint Sidonius Apollinaris (5 November of an unknown year, 430 – August 489 AD), was a poet, diplomat, and bishop.
Societal collapse is the fall of a complex human society.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
A souq or souk (سوق, שוק shuq, Spanish: zoco, also spelled shuk, shooq, soq, esouk, succ, suk, sooq, suq, soek) is a marketplace or commercial quarter in Western Asian, North African and some Horn African cities (ሱቅ sooq).
The Papal Basilica of St.
Nicene Christianity became the state church of the Roman Empire with the Edict of Thessalonica in 380 AD, when Emperor Theodosius I made it the Empire's sole authorized religion.
A stylite (from Greek στυλίτης, stylitēs, "pillar dweller", derived from στῦλος, stylos, "pillar", ܐܣܛܘܢܐ ʼasṯonáyé) or pillar-saint is a type of Christian ascetic who lives on pillars, preaching, fasting and praying.
Suintila, or Swinthila, Svinthila; (ca. 588 – 633/635) was Visigothic King of Hispania, Septimania and Galicia from 621 to 631.
The Symmachi–Nicomachi diptych is a book-size, Late Antique ivory diptych dating to the late fourth or early fifth century, whose panels depict scenes of ritual pagan religious practices.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
A tessera (plural: tesserae, diminutive tessella) is an individual tile, usually formed in the shape of a cube, used in creating a mosaic.
The Consolation of Philosophy (De consolatione philosophiae) is a philosophical work by Boethius, written around the year 524.
The World of Late Antiquity is a 1971 book by historian Peter Brown.
Theoderic the Great (454 – 30 August 526), often referred to as Theodoric (*𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰𐍂𐌴𐌹𐌺𐍃,, Flāvius Theodericus, Teodorico, Θευδέριχος,, Þēodrīc, Þjōðrēkr, Theoderich), was king of the Ostrogoths (475–526), ruler of Italy (493–526), regent of the Visigoths (511–526), and a patricius of the Roman Empire.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
Trier (Tréier), formerly known in English as Treves (Trèves) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
The Vergilius Romanus (Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica, Cod. Vat. lat. 3867), also known as the Roman Vergil, is a 5th-century illustrated manuscript of the works of Virgil.
The Vergilius Vaticanus or Vatican Virgil (Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica, Cod. Vat. lat. 3225) is a Late Antique illuminated manuscript containing, in its form today, fragments of Virgil's Aeneid and Georgics.
A villa was originally an ancient Roman upper-class country house.
The Visigothic Kingdom or Kingdom of the Visigoths (Regnum Gothorum) was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
Vitoria-Gasteiz is the seat of government and the capital city of the Basque Autonomous Community and of the province of Araba/Álava in northern Spain.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
Yannai (יניי or ינאי) was the first payyetan to employ rhyme and introduce his name in acrostics.